2012-36-0105 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Energy Efficiency of Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Autoria: FERNANDO ZEGARRA SANCHEZ, SERGIO LEAL BRAGA
Resumo: This study presents the evaluation of the energy efficiency of a series hybrid electric vehicle through the theoretical development of two electric propulsion systems and an experimental study of fuel consumption of the original vehicle. The experimental analysis was done by a test setting, consisting mainly by a chassis dynamometer, an autopilot system and a fuel flowmeter, all connected to the data acquisition system. In this study it was developed two theoretical models of propulsion systems for Series - HEV. The first one consists of four in-wheel motors and the second one consists of two in-wheel motors on the rear axle. There are various methods for embedding a motor in the wheel. It is necessary to consider the weight, power and transmission efficiency. In the theoretical model it was considered a cycloidal reducer, which allows a reduction of 3:1 to 119:1 in one stage with an efficiency of 93%, together with a brushless DC motor, which has a high power density. The results of the evaluation of the electric propulsion systems show that the model with four in-wheel motors is more efficient than the model with two in-wheel motors. This is a consequence of the fact that the second model is heavier, because it needs a bigger amount of batteries and more robust motors. In the evaluation of the HEV energy consumption in comparison with the original gasoline model, it was observed interesting results regarding the energy savings. The HEV presents better performance in urban cycles that in road cycles, saving 57,6% of the consumed energy in urban cycles and 11,4% in road cycles.
2012-36-0107 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Evaluation of Fuel Consumption and Emissions from a hydrogen operated Vehicle
Autoria: JOSE RICARDO SODRE, MARCO AURÉLIO MENDES JUSTINO, ANDRÉ MARCELINO DE MORAIS, ALEX DE OLIVEIRA, OSMANO SOUZA VALENTE
Resumo: A production vehicle operating with hydrogen-ethanol-gasoline blends was evaluated regarding specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. A hydrogen production cell through hydrolysis was adapted to the vehicle. Hydrogen was injected in the intake system, before the injection location of the main fuel. The results show that hydrogen can be na important ally for the reduction of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. However, special care should be taken to adjust the hydrogen amount injected at the different engine operating conditions to avoid na opposite effect on the specific fuel consumption and knock occurrence.
2012-36-0108 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Judder based on Sub Scale test machine concerning facing
Autoria: IVAN ROGER SCANSANI GREGORI, ALEXANDRE DOS SANTOS DOMINGUES
Resumo: Judder is a problem that occurs when any excitation caused by different reasons coincide with the natural frequency of the driveline. One of this reason could be the facing material. During friction material development it is necessary to make lots of tests due to the a number of raw material, as well as to check the process parameter in order to analyze if they are appropriated to active the specifications. Judder (Driveline excitation) is a very important test which takes several days for evaluation. Based on this, a methodology in sub scale test machine was developed with the aim to qualify if any organic friction material has the tendency or not to quickly excite the driveline. All results have been validated for several friction materials in both conditions: sub scale test machine and in the car. The considered car was a model with low driveline damping. The initial results were very promising and motivating to carry on the study.
2012-36-0109 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Cable dimensioning: a multi-disciplinar method for wire gauge calculation
Autoria: DANIEL VITOR FARIA CARDIA
Resumo: The bigger quantity and diversity of vehicular eletrical loads represents a challenge to the vehicular development engineering to obtain a well-dimensioned electrical system and with adequate cost. By this way, the necessity of a accurate cable dimensioning method has grown. The market has some methods available for cable gauge dimensioning, as follows: - Empirical Method (Test/Lab), which consists in cable gauge application based on consumption current, temperature and, consequently, cable lifetime; - Table method, which consists in a reference-table cable gauge application x consumption current, neglecting, for example, the application ambient temperature; - Convergence calculation method, which is based on current consumption and limit cable1temperature for cable gauge determination; - Multi-displinar calculation method, which will be presented on this paper. By general way, the methods usually cover only a small part of electrical cable behavior, neglecting other characteristics that shall be considered on this type of calculation. The multi-disciplinar method, which will be presented on this paper, however, shall fulfill some existent gaps, considering several electrical cable characteristics, in way to obtain a better cable gauge dimensioning for each type of application. This method considers electrical characteristics (voltage, current, dissipated power), mechanical s (specific heat, initial temperature, limit temperature, thermal transference capacity, etc). Whit those several characteristics it’s possible to obtain very accurate results, if compared with lab tests, and with advantage in terms of don’t require practical tests, avoiding samples assembling, laboratory, labor and equipment availability and involved costs. When compared with other calculation methods, the multi-disciplinar reaches great results and good flexibility in terms of different cables application, for example, this method can be applied for fuse dimensioning, in way of obtain the maximum electrical systems protection, and, in consequence, protecting vehicle passengers. Another good advantage is that it can be implemented with several range of softwares, some very popular, like Excel. However, this method can be presented like a very robust, effective, accurate and wide-range applicable, in any type of vehicle.
2012-36-0110 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Comparative CFD Study of Undertray Designs over an Open Wheel Prototype Race Car
Autoria: FILIPE FABIAN BUSCARIOLO, DANILO ALCANTARA DE OLIVEIRA, FLAVIO BREGLIA SALES
Resumo: Aerodynamics plays a critical hole in open wheels race cars. The work here presented shows a comparative study of different undertrays design and their influence over the drag coefficient measured on an open wheel prototype race car, using CFD simulations in a virtual wind tunnel. For all cases, velocity was 60 km/h and it was considered both moving ground and rotating wheels to look for a more realistic representation of the interaction between car and racetrack. One model without any aero-part was taken as baseline and three different undertrays proposals were evaluated looking for an aerodynamic improvement. As final results, the drag coefficient of the proposals were ranked and compared with baseline results. Also pressure, velocity and wake images help to illustrate the improvements on the drag coefficient by using an undertray in this vehicle.
2012-36-0111 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Safety Cultural Transformation at Ford South American Manufacturing Plants
Autoria: SILVIO ANDRES ILLI
Resumo: During the period from 2007 till 2011 a consistent progress was registered at Ford South America plants` Safety Operating System. As result of that, key metrics improved significantly during that period (Ex: 72% reduction of Lost Time Cases and 68% reduction in DART). This paper intends to explore concepts and tools collected during a benchmarking visit to two facilities: Taubate Powertrain Operation and Camaçari Vehicle Operations, which can help the plants to drive their own Safety Culture improvement.
2012-36-0114 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Energy Harvesting as a strategy for reducing vehicles emissions.
Autoria: LUIS CARLOS MARCOCCIA, IVAN ALVES DE ALMEIDA
Resumo: In vehicular mobility context, it is extremely important for the environmental sustainability that the available energy will be used as efficiently as possible, both in the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) as powertrain, as well in the application of hybrid and Electric Vehicle Motors (HEV/EV). In this comparison, ICE has a lower efficiency when compared to electric motors, wasting much of the potential energy of the fuel in form of heat and noise. On the other hand, the electric vehicles face limitation in autonomy and recharge time, demanding for a more efficient use of energy stored in batteries. This study aims to present emerging technologies for reuse of energy within the automotive context, originally known as "Energy Harvesting and Renewable Energies". Besides that, it was analyzed their applications and paradigms that corroborate the international targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG – Greenhouse Gas Emissions) such as CO2 and consumption of fossil fuels. As a result of this revision it was generated a descriptive list of potential sources of renewable energy developments related to the energy conversion between various mechanisms, such as energy recovery from shocks and brakes, thermoelectric generators (TEG) on engine and exhaust system, fuel cell systems among others, providing than a scenery of technological innovation opportunities. Key words: Energy Harvesting; HEV/EV/ICE vehicles; Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
2012-36-0116 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: contingency plan of automation for continuity of plant operation
Autoria: RENATO ELY CASTRO
Resumo: The guarantee of continuity of operation of an industry presupposes the existence of, at least, a contingency plan for automation, which is, usually managed by Maintenance Area. This paper proposes the development of a cloud computing based system for contingency management automation applicable in industries of all sizes with some automated bases. The implementation of such a system implies the following steps: register the unity automation, create a database from the register, physically identify automation items, establish and perform the periodic updating of the contingency plan. The result is a list containing all electronic modules which are linked to the unity automation that are the basis for structuring a contingency plan. Item information as physical address, the process to which it is linked, description, reference, the contingency criteria, parameterization, programming, cost, and the management reports are some examples of data that can be extracted of this hardware inventory. One of the benefits of adopting a computerized system for contingency management automation is that the Maintenance Area can map the entire factory. This allows a rapid decision-making in the case of imminent stop in the process due to electronic modules, ensuring the continuity of operation.
2012-36-0117 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Modeling the mechanical anisotropy of automotive low-carbon steel sheets
Autoria: ORLANDO LEON GARCIA, RAFAEL FAGUNDES FERREIRA
Resumo: The mechanical anisotropy of ferritic steel sheets, usually characterized by the Lankford parameter, is strongly correlated to the crystallographic texture and its evolution during deformation. In this study, a homogenization model based on crystal plasticity was employed to simulate the evolution of the Lankford parameter during tensile deformation of three different steel alloys commonly used in the automotive industry. The crystallographic texture, together with other material parameters, is used as an input for the model, whereas the calibration procedure is only carried out on the experimental tensile test data of the samples aligned along the rolling direction of the sheet. The validation of the model is then performed on the experimental data of tensile samples oriented along 45° and 90° with respect to the rolling direction of the sheet. Despite the relative simplicity of the model, the simulations were able to capture not only the absolute value of the Lankford parameter, but also the evolution of this parameter during the tensile deformation.
2012-36-0118 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Effect of fiber length on the extrusion process of sisal fiber/pp composites
Autoria: RODRIGO DENIZARTE DE OLIVEIRA POLKOWSKI, JOSIANE DANTAS VIANA BARBOSA
Resumo: In order to mitigate one of the most influential shortcomings of the sisal fiber manufacturing process and aiming to contribute to the feasibility of composites based on sisal, this article intends to study the cutting system of the sisal fiber after the beating step, evaluating the current capability of the available machines and evaluating the impact that the variation level of the fiber length can cause in the composite extrusion process (pelletization).
2012-36-0122 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: 2-STROKE PISTON ENGINE
Autoria: HORACIO ANDRES TRUCCO
Resumo: 2-STROKE PISTON ENGINE INCORPORATING INTERNAL LIQUID FUEL CONDITIONING PROCESS AND COUPLED PREMIXED COMBUSTION The purpose of this paper is to describe a novel liquid fuel conditioning process incorporated within a 2-stroke internal combustion engine. The process takes place inside a small vaporization chamber integrated within the engine piston. The vaporization chamber inlet/outlet is located on the piston skirt. After an injected liquid fuel has evaporated and superheated inside the vaporization chamber, it is transferred into the cylinder to form a homogenous mixture with a fresh air charge. Combustion is triggered by compression-ignition of a pilot fuel spray. After combustion completion, hot combustion products enter the vaporization chamber via a transfer port formed in the cylinder wall. Thereafter, those products are entrapped inside the vaporization chamber with the inlet/outlet aperture sealed by the cylinder wall for a portion of the cycle. Unlike spark ignition, compression ignition or homogeneous charge compression ignition engines, here the liquid fuel is injected into the vaporization chamber during the expansion phase of a preceding cycle. Fuel droplets absorb heat from the hot entrapped combustion products and vaporization chamber walls, where they evaporate and reach a superheated gaseous state. Calculations predict that the residence time available inside a typical vaporization chamber of an engine running at 6,000 RPM is sufficient to evaporate and superheat diesel fuel droplets larger than 180 micron SMD. It is anticipated that this novel concept could substantially reduce the untreated emission levels of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons when compared to spark ignition, compression ignition or the homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. This projection implies that less costly and simpler after-treatment devices will suffice to comply with emission standard regulations. An improvement in engine fuel economy is expected because: (1) relatively high design compression ratio, (2) un-throttled operation and (3) faster heat release rate than that corresponding to either spark ignition or compression ignition engines. The combustion process prevents detonation and diesel knocking therefore the fuel does not need to be rated for octane or cetane number. These features allow this engine to efficiently employ gasoline or diesel fuels without additives or blends. Additionally, the system is expected to effectively utilize low-cost petroleum derived fuel, biodiesel, bio-alcohol, vegetable oil, and in special applications, coal-water-slurry fuels.
2012-36-0123 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: 4-STROKE PISTON ENGINE
Autoria: HORACIO ANDRES TRUCCO
Resumo: 4-STROKE PISTON ENGINE INCORPORATING INTERNAL LIQUID FUEL CONDITIONING PROCES AND COUPLED PREMIXED COMBUSTION The purpose of this paper is to describe a novel liquid fuel conditioning process that is incorporated within a 4-stroke internal combustion engine. The process takes place inside a small vaporization chamber linked to the engine cylinder. A vaporization chamber transfer port is located adjacent to the cylinder bottom dead center. After an injected liquid fuel has evaporated and superheated inside the vaporization chamber it is transferred into the cylinder near the end of the intake stroke to form a homogenous mixture with a fresh air charge. Combustion is triggered by compression-ignition of a pilot fuel spray. Near the end of the expansion stroke hot combustion products enter the vaporization chamber via the vaporization chamber transfer port. Thereafter, those products are entrapped inside the vaporization chamber during about 320° of crankshaft rotation since the vaporization chamber transfer port is sealed by the piston skirt for part of the cycle. Unlike spark ignition, compression ignition or homogeneous charge compression ignition engines, here the liquid fuel is injected into the vaporization chamber during the expansion stroke. Fuel droplets absorb heat from the hot entrapped combustion products and vaporization chamber walls, where they evaporate and reach a superheated gaseous state. Calculations predict that the residence time available inside a typical vaporization chamber of an engine running at 6,000 RPM is sufficient to evaporate and superheat gasoline fuel droplets 170 micron SMD. It is anticipated that this novel concept could substantially reduce the untreated emission levels of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons when compared to spark ignition, compression ignition or the homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. This projection implies that less costly and simpler after-treatment devices will suffice to comply with emission standard regulations. An improvement in engine fuel economy is expected because: (1) relatively high design compression ratio, (2) un-throttled operation and (3) faster heat release rate than that corresponding to either spark ignition or compression ignition engines. The combustion process prevents detonation and diesel knocking therefore the fuel does not need to be rated for octane or cetane number. These features allow this engine to efficiently employ gasoline or diesel fuels without additives or blends. Additionally, the system is expected to effectively utilize low-cost petroleum derived fuel, biodiesel, bio-alcohol, vegetable oil, and in special applications, coal-water-slurry fuels.
2012-36-0124 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: WANKEL TYPE ROTARY ENGINE
Autoria: HORACIO ANDRES TRUCCO
Resumo: WANKEL TYPE ROTARY ENGINE INCORPORATING INTERNAL LIQUID FUEL CONDITIONING PROCESS AND COUPLED STRATIFIED CHARGE COMBUSTION The purpose of this paper is to describe a novel liquid fuel conditioning process that is incorporated within a Wankel type rotary engine. The process takes place inside three small vaporization chambers attached to the engine rotor. After an injected liquid fuel has evaporated and superheated inside the vaporization chamber, it is transferred via a transfer port into a moving chamber near the middle of a compression phase to form a stratified mixture with a prevailing fresh air charge. Combustion is triggered by a spark. Near the end of an expansion phase hot combustion products enter the vaporization chamber via an entrapment port. Thereafter, those products are entrapped inside the vaporization chamber during about 180° of rotor rotation. Unlike spark ignition, compression ignition or homogeneous charge compression ignition engines, here the liquid fuel is injected into the vaporization chamber during the expansion phase of a preceding cycle. Fuel droplets absorb heat from the hot entrapped combustion products and vaporization chamber walls, where they evaporate and reach a superheated gaseous state. Calculations predict that the residence time available inside a typical vaporization chamber of an engine running at 7,000 RPM is sufficient to evaporate and superheat diesel fuel droplets 100 micron SMD. It is anticipated that this novel concept could substantially reduce the untreated emission levels of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons when compared to contemporary Wankel type rotary engines. This projection implies that less costly and simpler after-treatment devices will suffice to comply with emission standard regulations. An improvement in engine fuel economy is expected because: (1) efficient and stable stratified combustion process, (2) un-throttled operation and (3) faster heat release rate than that corresponding to present-day Wankel type rotary engines. The combustion process prevents detonation and diesel knocking therefore the fuel does not need to be rated for octane or cetane number. These features allow this engine to efficiently employ gasoline or diesel fuels without additives or blends. Additionally, the system is expected to effectively utilize low-cost petroleum derived fuel, biodiesel, bio-alcohol and vegetable oil.
2012-36-0125 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: POLYCARBONATE RESISTANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING
Autoria: LEANDRO GUIA DAMASCENO, ANDREA LOPES LATADO, ALEXANDRE BARROS
Resumo: The replacement of glass and metals for polymers is growing significantly in industries. Environmental stress cracking (ESC) is one of the phenomena responsible for many failures of plastic products in service, which consequently has great implications for the industries and the economy, generating dissatisfaction among final customers. ESC is a failure that occurs when a combined action of stresses, internal or external, and a fluid gets in contact with a polymer, especially if the polymer is amorphous. This combination is responsible for causing a brittle and sudden fracture of the polymeric product. Polycarbonate is an amorphous thermoplastic polymer of high transparency, lighter than glass and that has good mechanical strength. The production process of this polymer is very flexible, which makes it each day more used by the industries. In the industry this type of polymer is used for manufacturing many different parts, including head and tail lamp lenses for cars and lenses for glasses. These parts are exposed to constant mechanical efforts (residual and external stresses) and may be in contact with many different chemical agents that may cause a failure during its life time. The mechanism of Environmental Stress Cracking in polycarbonate is common for this type of polymer, leading the parts to failure even when under much lower stresses than its yield stress. Another very important factor that contributes to the fracture of polycarbonate through ESC are the stress concentration areas generated by designs, shapes, wall thicknesses and sharp edges that may exist in the plastic part. This paper has the objective of evaluating the resistance of polycarbonate under the influence of a stress and in contact with isopropyl alcohol and methanol, using fracture mechanics concepts. Keywords: ESC; polymers; polycarbonate; fracture mechanics; stress concentration; constant load.
2012-36-0126 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Dynamic analysis of a valvetrain system
Autoria: RODRIGO TOMOYOSE
Resumo: The mathematical modeling of the dynamics of a mechanical system is a powerful tool for the engineer predicts the behavior of the system. In the design of intake and exhaust valvetrains of diesel engine, the dynamic analysis of the system is essential for the proper sizing of the components. Through dynamic analysis of a 1D model using the Simulink® software, this paper will describe the behavior of a valvetrain system that uses an exhaust rocker with hydraulic lifter.
2012-36-0128 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Leaf springs durability analysis and weight reduction through double peening
Autoria: BRUNO GEOFFROY SCURACCHIO, ROBINSON FERRARI BARBOSA, JOSE ROBERTO CURITIBA
Resumo: The improvement of fatigue life in parts subjected to cyclic stresses by application of mechanical surface treatment processes is already well known, both in the industry and in the academy. Speaking of automotive springs, the shot peening process becomes an essential step in manufacturing these parts. In the case of leaf springs, however, a systematic investigation of the effect of shot peening on fatigue life is still required. The aim of this work is to improve the knowledge of shot peening on leaf springs for vehicles through fatigue tests on a series of samples that were subject to different peening processes. A second shot-peening after a first peening under stress (stress peening) led to a higher durability comparing to the conventional process, opening an opportunity of vehicle weight reduction.
2012-36-0129 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: ANALISYS OF FREQUENCYS IN STEERING SYSTEMS TUBES BY PRESSURE PEAKS IN TEST BENCH
Autoria: BRENO DURÃES RIBEIRO
Resumo: One of the most important complaints about noise in small vehicles is related to the hydraulic steering pump, due to its strong use during parking maneuvers, when this noise overcomes the one coming from the engine, due to its low speed. This noise can be eliminated by the introduction of two resonators inside the high-pressure tube designed to coincide with the tube’s resonance frequency. Here it is presented a test bench for measuring and evaluating the resonance frequencies of high-pressure tubes of hydraulic steering systems with and without resonators, and the attenuation level of the steering pump noise by measuring the pressure peaks at the entry and outlet of the tube. Adopting this test bench eliminate some confounding variables that can interfere with the measurement such as engine vibration, others components’ frequency orders (the engine itself, compressor, alternator, etc.), speed control, and others. Through this test bench it is possible to evaluate the hydraulic steering system in isolation, to speed up the pump by a constant acceleration, to collect the data on pressure peaks by FFT and to obtain the results of pressure level by frequency directly and in real time. In this paper we present the test bench and the results obtained with a tube with and without resonators, in comparison with the predicted results and the measurements made on vehicle.
2012-36-0130 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: RESONATORS WITH ORIFICES FOR HIGH-PRESSURE TUBES OF HYDRAULIC STEERING SYSTEMS
Autoria: BRENO DURÃES RIBEIRO, ARCANJO LEZI
Resumo: One of the most important complaints about noise in small vehicles is related to the hydraulic steering pump, due to its strong use during parking maneuvers, when this noise overcomes the one coming from the engine, due to its low speed. This noise can be eliminated by the introduction of two Helmholtz’s resonators inside the high-pressure tube designed to coincide with the tube’s resonance frequency. However, in some cases, as in tubes with short rubber pieces, the resonators may be not sufficient to reduce the noise to non-audible levels, due to its low ability to absorb the pressure peaks coming from the pump. In these cases it is possible to introduce orifices on the side of each resonator to maximize its effect. Here we will present the theory related to the use of these orifices and the results obtained in tests on vehicles.
2012-36-0131 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Qualidade e Produtividade
Título do Paper: On Road Durability Tests: The importance of repetition and its impact on the tes
Autoria: RONALDO CATTANEO
Resumo: The repetition is one of the most relevant factors in executing on road Durability Tests. In this study some variations on standard procedures have been used in the execution of tests on track which prove that, little speed variations and route deviations can cause impact in the structural severity of the vehicle tested. This is one of the motives that the main global OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) invests many resources in test fields with the objective of maintaining the controlled evaluation environment for a long period of time. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the importance of the execution of the tests with accurate technical skill, paving regularity and the utilization of best practices, which influence the results of the accelerated durability tests.
2012-36-0132 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Qualidade e Produtividade
Título do Paper: Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA): Risk Graph method application as a risk analysis criterion.
Autoria: FABIO GUEDES CORREIA, CASSIA PEREIRA COLLINI
Resumo: The application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) has been in place in the automotive industry since the late 1960’s with emphasis both on design and process development of a certain product, sub-system or system, to prevent and mitigate potential failure modes. Two industrial standards to develop FMEA are established on the market: VDA and AIAG – also known by its QS-9000 Manuals. In compliance with the 4th Edition AIAG FMEA Manual rating scales for severity, occurrence and detection ranking and based on VDA method, General Motors created its own Risk Graph method in which, instead of using the traditional RPN threshold, adopts colors-based criterion focusing primarily on the product of severity and occurrence ranking, and then on severity and detection ranking. This study provides a comparison of failure risk analysis between the RPN threshold and this new GM approach, resulting in the risk graph method. The results considering all 1000 combinations among the 3 ratings, ranging from 1 through 10 each one, showed that, besides the Risk Graph is 15% in average more rigorous than the RPN approach in the sense of requiring action to reduce risk, this method does also focus much more on occurrence than on detection, differently from RPN approach which focuses equally on both.
2012-36-0133 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Electromagnetic Evaluation of a FM antenna on vehicle models
Autoria: MARCELO BENDER PEROTONI, KENEDY MARCONI GERALDO DOS SANTOS, FELIPE RIBEIRO CAMPOS VILASBOAS, JOAO FELICIO VENDRAMINI FERREIRA
Resumo: Abstract The national automobile industry faces a period of transformation. The entry of new companies increases the competitiveness requiring new technologies in order to reduce cost and improve quality in the product. In this scenario, computational simulation presents itself as a powerful tool for antenna analysis, since real laboratory measurements require facilities that are not easily available. Not only the high cost associated to large test chambers where a complete car can fit in, but also the time it takes to get a vehicle evaluated are good arguments favoring virtual evaluations. Virtual simulation is a helpful tool in a vehicle development process, since it can provide data for earlier decisions, reduces re-work and cost associated and contributes to the development of high quality products, once applied since the beginning of the project. This paper purports to exemplify how the use of electromagnetic simulations can contribute to the reduction of costs, in this case associated with the difficulty of obtaining facilities for performing measurements on a vehicle, in addition to the late time within the project to obtain a vehicle that can be tested. The analyzed scenario involves the FM antenna placement on a real world vehicle model. First of all it will be evaluated the influence of the model in simulation results, comparing a simplified model with a full vehicle model. Subsequently, it will be evaluated the influence of the antenna position on the vehicle in its gain and directionality. These simulations are especially indicated before the measurements take place, in order to better understand the complex behavior and also predict eventual problems.
2012-36-0136 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Evaluation of the effects of adding front and rear wings on the lap times of a formula sae car
Autoria: JULIO CESAR MARTINELLI RODRIGUES, RODRIGO DE SOUZA VIEIRA
Resumo: The performance effects of adding a front and rear wing at a Formula SAE car are studied by creating a mathematical transient model based on two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data and analytical equations. Results are presented for a numerical analysis of the lap times of the Team UFSC Formula SAE Car in a generic race track. CFD models are used to determine a function for the lift and drag coefficient of the airfoils. The parameterized vehicle model enabled the evaluation of different combinations of airfoil and wing geometry on the car, and from the analysis of the lap times optimal values of the car´s downforce and drag coeficient could be determined.
2012-36-0138 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Dynamic Analysis of Spark Ignition Engines
Autoria: HEDER FERNANDES, JOSE EDUARDO MAUTONE BARROS, GUILHERME BASTOS MACHADO, JOSE ROBERTO ROCHA
Resumo: To attend the new tendencies of the automotive market, new technologies must be used throughout the engine conception. One way of improving the project is to use computational numerical simulation, predicting engine behavior in a wide range of situations. This paper presents a methodology to estimate the engine characteristic parameters necessary to numerical simulation. Morse test was used to determine friction power, mean effective pressure friction and friction torque, considering the engine behavior during cylinder ignition cut-off. In this test all the results were compatible with manufacturer data, which validates the methodology. To define the moment of inertia, it is also proposed a fuel cut methodology, associated with the Morse test, because the torque values measured by dynamometer after the fuel cut did not correspond to the real value. Thus, plausible values of engine moment of inertia, very close to values obtained by software, were obtained. It was also determined a system model from the variation of the throttle open angle, generating a transfer function which represents the engine behavior under test conditions. Lastly, it was analyzed the course of cylinder inner pressure during engine acceleration and it was observed that the thermodynamic cycle increased evenly and without deformations.
2012-36-0139 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Hybrid transit bus technology assessment - a feasibility approach
Autoria: FABIO C.BARBOSA
Resumo: Stricter environmental regulation and the increasing concern about fuel economy and emissions, have driven transit agencies and operators toward environmental and economic concerns when selecting transit bus technology. In this scenario, hybrid bus, that combines two or more distinct propulsion systems (generally combustion engine and electric motor), has been seen as a choice that balances both the need for better environmental and efficiency performance and capital expenditures for introducing new technology based transit bus fleets. The source of better performance of hybrid buses is the ability to i) optimize the operating point of combustion engine to achieve best fuel economy; ii) store energy generated during braking at storage devices (batteries, supercapacitors or flywheels), to be used to power the vehicle when needed, and, hence, iii) downsizing engine due to reduced average power requirements. Most significant gains in efficiency and environmental performance of hybrid vehicles are achieved during starting and stopping regimes, what makes them suitable to be used in congested areas, typical of transit routes. Regarding system design, three main architectures can be used for commercial vehicles: i) serial hybrid, in which combustion engine has no mechanical connection to the driving gear, with the vehicle being driven solely by an electric motor; ii) parallel hybrid, in which the combustion engine and electric motor are both mechanically connected to the wheels, a configuration suitable to less congested regimes, where combustion engine can be tuned to work in its most efficient range; and iii) dual hybrid, in which an engine and two electric motors, with complex planetary gear arrangements, make possible a continuously variable transmission through two parallel routes: electrical and mechanical. This complex design provides freedom in managing engine speed and torque versus vehicle speed and power demand. On a cost perspective, the “Achilles Hell” of hybrid technology, much has to be done, since costs of energy storage devices and electronic components still remain an issue in near and medium term. In transit application, however, since intensive use maximizes hybrid benefits over traditional bus configuration, the expectation is that regulatory measures, like correctly pricing diesel fuel and incentives to hybrid fleets at early market introduction can make the technology competitive and economically viable. Brazil, one of the largest transit bus market, is debuting this technology, with some on going field trials and an announcement of a hybrid bus fleet in the city of Curitiba, State of Paraná, with an order of 60 local made hybrid buses for delivery expected from 2012. This study presents the state of art hybrid bus technologies available worldwide, and, whenever possible, their operational results, with a special focus on Brazilian market, its structure and policies available to make this technology come true.
2012-36-0141 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Steering Wheel Vibration Diagnostic of a vehicle in idle engine using Vibration Analysis and Operational Modal Analysis Techniques
Autoria: ROBSON DEMETRIUS ABREU
Resumo: The vibration feeling inside of a car in idle engine is one of important parameter for choosing a vehicle by costumers more strict. This kind of vibration can be related not just with the energy source of car, in this case the engine, but it can be related to the project of others components like the steering wheel, engine cushion mounting and electrical fan. With the aim to identify the main reasons for steering wheel vibration increase on idle, in a prototype of a popular vehicle, was made a study through Numerical Simulation, Vibration Mechanical Analysis and Operational Modal analysis. This paper identifies through experimental and numerical methods the sources and the phenomena responsible for steering wheel vibration in idle engine.
2012-36-0144 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Replacement of the support material of engine mount - metal to polyamide
Autoria: LEANDRO CARDOSO DA SILVA, WILTON FAUSTINO DOS SANTOS, GUILHERME TURRA
Resumo: Traditionally mounts are always considered within the automobile classifications such as structural parts were not focused at the base of studies to develop new materials to replace metallic parts, as its main functions within the great quest has always been durability, vibratory comfort and noise, elements which have always been in charge of developments of the elastomers. To reach the main objectives of sustainability, mass reducing and cost reduction replace the support made of aluminum alloy or steel by polyamide to support engine mount. It offers a choice of recyclable material, with the same provision of structural and thermal pads with metal brackets. PSA Peugeot Citroen supports this development not only for being the first company to innovate in this action in Brazil, but also to make this follow increase your chances of a sustainable.
2012-36-0145 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Design of a human-powered aircraft
Autoria: GUSTAVO EIDJI CAMARINHA FUJIWARA, LUCIANO MARTINEZ STEFANINI,SILVARES, O. M.
Resumo: The present work contemplates the design of a single-seat human-powered aircraft, with focus on the fields of aerodynamics, flight mechanics and multidisciplinary optimization, where there is no purpose of building it. The project goal is achieved through an initial review of references and background on previous HPA (human-powered aircraft) projects, followed by coding computational tools capable of evaluating the tridimensional aerodynamic characteristics of an arbitrary subsonic aircraft, and predicting its stability & control characteristics, its empty weight, and calculating its performance parameters to take part in a aircraft parametric synthesis model, which will allow assessing the space of possible aircraft in a comparative way and, later, optimizing the designed aircraft in a multidisciplinary fashion through a genetic algorithm. At last, the chosen aircraft is piloted in a real-time flight simulator in order to evaluate its flying qualities.
2012-36-0146 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Study of Diesel Nozzle Temperature. Effects of Engine Brake Systems and Comparison Between European and South-American Applications
Autoria: EDUARDO FERREIRA SALLES
Resumo: The globalization has brought a proliferation of Diesel engines in different vehicles and countries. This submits the Diesel injector to increasingly stringent conditions. Increased engine power density, increased injection and combustion pressures and the variability of fuel quality and settings of the engine brake systems expose the injector to a high degree of severity that can directly impact your life time. This paper describes a study of these relevant factors and its effects on the temperature of injectors applied on different engines. Strategies for its optimization are discussed based on vehicles tests results. Comparisons between results of Europe and South America showed some similarities in the event of decompression engine brake. As for the exhaust engine brake (throttle model) Brazilian tests indicated higher temperature levels. This study was important to optimize the application of the injectors as well as its durability in the South American market.
2012-36-0149 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Biodiesel Use in Transit Bus Fleets - A Summary of Brazilian Experiences
Autoria: FABIO C.BARBOSA
Resumo: Environmental concerns related to intensive fossil fuel use, have pursued the development of programs to promote the production and use of renewable fuels. This is specially true for diesel fuel used in transit bus fleets, in which the intensive and concentrated use in densely populated areas generates adverse environmental effects in cities all over the world. Although improvements in fossil fuel quality have been achieved in the last decades, most have to be done to make breath cleaner in world metropolis. One of the most promising options, known as Biodiesel, is an ester produced from vegetable oil or animal fat, in a chemical reaction with methanol or ethanol, through a process known as transesterification. It contains, on average, 8% and 12,5% less energy than diesel fuel in a volume and in a weight basis, respectively, which affects engine power, in accordance with the blend used. Biodiesel and, hence, biodiesel blends, as oxygenated fuels, may reduce engine’s emissions, like smoke, PM, CO and HC. However, oxygen content also increase NOx emissions, which has to be considered for ozone non-attainment areas. As a biofuel, it degradates with the presence of water, oxygen and elevated temperatures, forming products that can be detrimental do engine components, and also can freeze or become a gel into the injection the system at low temperatures, which demands a strict control of its properties, and blend percentages, in accordance with technical standards established by regulatory authorities. Brazil, one of the world leaders in Biodiesel use, with a compulsory program of 5% blend for all the country’s diesel fleet, had an annual consumption of 2,5 billion of litters in 2011, 80% of which derived from soybean. Besides the regular 5% blend program, there are some experimental programs with transit bus fleets, ranging from 20% to 100% blends, with a high mileage and technical experience. This knowledge, allied to available capacity of Brazilian biodiesel industry, has enforced technical discussions about standard improvements and the increasing of biodiesel blend use for transit bus fleets in metropolitan areas. Also, the so called “Sugarcane Diesel”, obtained from sugarcane thought a “biorefineng” process, and used in a 10% blend in diesel engines without any modifications in experimental programs with transit fleets in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, have showed PM emission improvements, without any increase in fuel consumption and NOx emissions. This work is supposed to present an overview of biodiesel engine technology and standardization process and some of the results obtained in Brazilian Transit Bus Fleets Experiments, highlighting the possible next steps, in a technical and regulatory perspective.
2012-36-0153 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: RESISTANCE WELDING FOR AUTOMOTIVE WIRING HARNESS CONNECTION – SMALL GAUGE CABLES
Autoria: MARCELO MACHADO FERNANDES, LUIS CARLOS MARCOCCIA, IVAN ALVES DE ALMEIDA, ENRICO FARIA CURIONE
Resumo: Miniaturization is an important trend in many technology segments, because it can enable innovative applications generating new markets. This trend has begun in electronics industry after World War II and has spawned changes into automotive sector also. For wiring harness miniaturization is clearly presented in most of the components, mainly because of its benefits like the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. Furthermore the main voice of customer points to cables gauge reduction that represents a considerable challenge for connection manufacturing process due to the controls limitations presented by conventional crimp process for 0,35mm² cables and smaller. According to that, the scope of this article is to demonstrate an alternative technology of joining copper stranded cables to tin brass terminals used on automotive wiring harness. In this particular case, Electric Resistance Welding (ERW) shows significant advantages over mechanical crimp process, mainly in regard of electrical performance due to the “zero resistance” effect. As consequence there is a significant improvement on signal stability over time, which can be critical for many applications like sensors. Besides enabling the use of small gauge cables and providing a better process control this technology innovation has a huge potential for automation manufacturing process for achieving more quality assurance.
2012-36-0154 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Set-based concurrent engineering in the automotive industry projects
Autoria: HENRIQUE MARTINS ROCHA, MAURÍCIO CÉSAR DELAMARO, LIGIA MARIA FONSECA AFFONSO, UALISON RÉBULA DE OLIVEIRA, VALTER SILVA FERREIRA FILHO
Resumo: The article analyses the conceptual foundations of the set-based concurrent engineering (SBCE) and its application in automotive design. After a bibliographical research, a field research has been performed at a Development Center of a automaker plant installed in the southern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil: mathematical foundations were raised justifying the practice of the company to develop three concepts (three ideas) for each mechanism or design detail, identifying the substantial reduction in the likelihood of redesign needs. Then, a mathematical model has been developed, using common Solver / Excel spreadsheet, to establish the optimum amount of concepts that must be developed, as well as the limits of use of the SBCE, in order to maximize profits in the process of developing new products, so that the model can be replicated in many organizations that seek to maximize returns on investments in developing new products.
2012-36-0156 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA (DFSS) FOCUSING VEHICLE CONNECTION SYSTEM MASS REDUCTION
Autoria: ENRICO FARIA CURIONE, IVAN ALVES DE ALMEIDA, MARCELO MACHADO FERNANDES
Resumo: One of the most evident current market challenges is the material use reduction for components of the most different segments, while maintaining or even exceeding the current quality performance. Over the last 50 years, many industries have been directing and focusing their researches and developments concerned about the rational use of sources of metals and plastics associated to its innovation technologies. There is great potential for mass reduction and energy efficiency in the automotive sector, especially in Vehicle Material Design Strategies applied to body structures and powertrain system. Nevertheless, automotive electronics architecture is vitally significant, interconnecting all vehicle systems supplying power and signal through harness wiring and connection system for energy management. Reducing the use of fossil origin and metallic materials in electrical connection systems converges with the strong global guidelines and real trend for sustainability. Thus, this article aims to present an application of Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) focusing vehicle connection system mass reduction in order to meet nowadays demands on new features and characteristics, as respecting the technical voice of customer requirements as generating a more robust design.
2012-36-0157 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS IN VHF-FM BAND APPLIED TO VEHICLES
Autoria: KENEDY MARCONI GERALDO DOS SANTOS, ROSE MARY DE SOUZA BATALHA, CAIO LUMINATTI ANDRADE, ARNAUD CHRISTOPHE PIERRE MARIE COLIN, MARCELO BENDER PEROTONI
Resumo: SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS IN VHF-FM BAND APPLIED TO VEHICLES Abstract: The technological advances and the significant increase on the number of wireless devices, along with the demanded enhancing mobility of the users have stimulated the development of new technologies, applications and services. The antennas play the important role of transmission and reception. With this communication capacity, the antennas allow the operation of resources like GPS, vehicles navigation and tracking, cell phones, RDS (Radio Data Systems), TV etc. In this way, there is a trend on vehicles progressively more equipped with wireless devices, like Bluetooth, GPS and many others. The evolution of the wireless arena occurs faster, consequently its precision and required efficiency, must be updated alongside with the changes demanded by the norms. The new trend for automotive antennas is the integration of many different antennas, for example, AM/FM reception antennas, GPS (Global Positioning System), mobile phones, television, etc. In the vehicular case, signals are usually received or transmitted by monopole linear antennas, since it occupies a small volume, and offers a better a esthetic and lower costs compared to the others alternatives. During the vehicle development, it is necessary to assure that the reception system works accordingly to expected, but usually the antenna engineering team is not the same of the vehicles and embarked radios, therefore turning difficult the compatibility of the whole system, namely antenna, coaxial cables, radio and the complete vehicle environment. The configurations and setup of the board tests can be made of many varied ways, which also involves a great variety of antennas, vehicles and half-anechoic chambers. By the way, an interesting and cheap manner to make this experiment is in Open Area Test Site. An AM-band tuned antenna was used as reference for the frequency of 1000 MHz. The λ/4 of this frequency is 300 m. This electrical length is typical for monopole antennas, where a metallic ground plane is placed below the wire antenna. For monopoles applied to vehicles, 300 m size is unfeasible, due to the large length in comparison to the overall vehicular dimension. Therefore, the VHF-FM antenna size is the commonly used instead. The solution for the adaptation of the antenna for AM band is made by the use of RF amplifiers. The main advantages obtained by the use of amplifiers are the enhancement of system gain, compensation of coaxial cable losses and impedance coupling between the radio and the antenna. This work has as a main objective the evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of system antenna, amplifier, cable and radio in Open Area Test Site (OATS). This paper will presents an open site methodology for vehicular VHF-FM band receptor test set. The approach here developed characterizes antennas, coaxial cables and RF amplifiers performance in terms of normalized experiments. In order to determine virtually analysis, a virtual model of a Yagi antenna will be create based upon the physical setup. The software CST-MWS® Microwave Studio will be used for do this virtually analysis.
2012-36-0158 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: MEASUREMENT, CONTROL AND AUTOMATION APPLIED TO STRUCTURAL DURABILITY TESTING FOR VEHICLES
Autoria: THAIS CHRISTINA DA SILVA SANTOS, DANILO DE MATTOS BATISTA, FILIPE MARINS MADURO
Resumo: This material presents a project for data acquisition applied to monitoring climatic road simulators. The developed system acquires accelerometer and thermocouple signals from the vehicle suspension and body, point-by-point. This implementation allows real-time monitoring during tests, with the objective of making it autonomous. The platform used for the data-logger and automation system is composed by analog and digital input/output, TCP/IP and OPC protocols. The results obtained by this approach consisted mainly on the possibility of mapping the vehicle response throughout the tests, the integration of climatic and vibration control and overall contribution to a higher use of road simulators.
2012-36-0160 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Sustainable Technology for Paint Detackification on Spraybooths
Autoria: MAURO MUNARETTI, PAUL BALENT
Resumo: Today’s automotive manufacturers face more challenges than ever before. As facilities embrace flexible manufacturing with multiple platforms produced on a single line, there is even less room for production error. A poorly run paint detackification system can quickly result in poor finish quality, unnecessary rejects, and increased paint and chemical costs. For years, a paint shop has had to choose between reasonable effective paint detackification products with potential regulatory concerns, and programs which are marketed as “green” but perform poorly. Besides, all automotive manufacturers have increased their focus on cost reduction in every area of the plant. The most common technology to "kill" the paint (paint kill) oversprayed is based on formaldehyde/melamine, toxic agents whose manufactures are looking for its reduction. This paper presents a new sustainable program that is designed to reduce total cost of operation – including lower overall chemical costs as well as minimization of unnecessary downtime and, most important, has no toxic agents. This technology utilizes chemistry containing 40% biodegradeable renewable components representing a true step change improvement in program sustainability and environmental footprint reduction.
2012-36-0162 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Plastic Welding Process Signature
Autoria: MARCELO RENATO CAVAGLIERI, FILIPE AVELINO FIGUEIREDO
Resumo: During some industrial processes, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of the production line, classifying and segregating bad parts with trusty efficiency. That is quite important when the component involves equipment or people safety. Due to the increase of plastic parts application in vehicles, mainly in security and critical items, these processes must be more and more reliable. This is the case of welded fuel rail plastic parts, which should be very well attached to guaranty tightness in all vehicle conditions and its life. This paper describes a method developed to control the ultrasonic fuel rail welding, monitoring some physical phenomena during the process, like vibration amplitude, welding energy, interaction parts timing, among others. Based on statistical analysis, durability and aging tests on a great population of manufactured parts, it was possible to classify those parameters and build a real time filter capable to segregate bad fuel rails in less than one second, after finishing process, purging it before spending more time and resources in a non conform segment. The filter comprehends communication with the equipment, which makes the ultrasonic welding, to get the values generated by the friction of the parts. The signal processing coming from the vibration behavior supplies a set of information about the parts contacts, melting and final quality. With this approach, it is possible also to follow the sonotrodes (daughter & mother) performances, which are responsible for a good transmission of the vibration energy to welding parts. A good set of sonotrodes has known vibration characteristics responses and under right treatment, these information can provide a continuous monitoring of tools life, resulting on reduced scrap indices. The paper presents all the results, the filter efficiency, post implementation actions, opportunities to improve possibly through adaptative algorithms (using Neural Networks).
2012-36-0163 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Numerical and experimental methodologies to predict characteristics of BioFuel blend on PFI Injector
Autoria: GUILHERME HENRIQUE MAYER ALEGRE, NAZARIO BELLATO, GINO MONTANARI, ALFONSO DI MEO, THOMAS MACIEL MOURA, FERNANDO LUIZ WINDLIN
Resumo: This paper presents spray predictions using CFD technologies for spray formation and evolution on fuel blend. Spray formation was simulated in Ansys CFX under a Lagrangian model. Primary Breakup model used in this study is a different approach to BLOB method. The Cascade Atomization and drop Breakup (CAB) and Modified Cascade Atomization Breakup (MCAB) models for secondary breakup were used. The simulations using different Rosin Rammler distributions were carried out. N-Hepthane was used as reference fuel to experimental test. Good agreement between experimental data and numeric analysis for spray propagation characteristics was found. The methodologies have been set up with heptane aiming to extend results towards other fuel, i.e. ethanol.
2012-36-0165 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Vehicle Dynamics Handling Determination with Enhanced Analytical Models
Autoria: DANIEL VILELA, ROBERTO SPINOLA BARBOSA
Resumo: Analytical models are very interesting to the vehicle dynamics project engineer in order to provide simple solutions that bring at the same time a deep understanding of the physical phenomena being studied. Due to their structure, the input of analytical models are only the variables of interest affecting the concerned handling metrics – this fact reduce the parameters quantity to build the same model, making them proper choices for advanced studies. Additionally, analytical models are more efficient in computational terms, aspect convenient for studies that involve large amounts of calculation iterations like numerical optimization processes. This paper presents analytical model results for the roll gradient, understeer gradient and steering sensitivity metrics and proposes enhancements in order to obtain results with accuracy compatible to the experimental measured variables. Finally, the performance of these enhanced analytical models is compared against experimental measurements and more detailed multibody models.
2012-36-0166 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Study of a relationship between upper body mass and its stiffness, in order to support the platform selection for future programs
Autoria: GILVAN PRADA ROSSI, ALEX FABIAN FRAGOSO LIMA, ROBERTO P. RAMOS
Resumo: Body in White (BIW) torsional stiffness is an important parameter for passenger vehicles, influencing its behavior regarding Noise, Vibration & Harshness (NVH), durability and handling. A BIW with high stiffness may impact mass and cost since it would be necessary to add reinforcements and/or increase thickness of the panels with more contribution for this parameter. An OEM may have to choose an existing platform to continue a particular vehicle family and this decision will be based on mass and costs. This work aims to study a relationship between mass and stiffness of some platforms, trying to give an auxiliary parameter to help in the OEM’s decision, differentiating the stiffness of the lower (platform) and upper body.
2012-36-0168 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: EMISSION STUDY OF AN EURO 5 DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON BIODIESEL BLENDS
Autoria: FLAVIO GUSTAVO LEHMANN, SONG WON PARK, RAFAEL S. SANCHEZ TORRES
Resumo: The diesel powered vehicles are increasingly present in the current scenario of freight and leisure transportation. Thus with the new market needs and restricted legal emissions limits, the demand for new technologies are the major challenge on the diesel development. The Legislation on developed and under-development countries are continuously revised, in order to reduce the emissions and particulate material of the engines. Other relevant fact is that many countries now a days have similar or even same emissions limits, it’s allows to have a good communization between different countries and a higher investment in new technologies. Non fossil fuel, called as biofuels, are becoming a more economically a viable option. By having in their chain molecular less carbon and more oxygen, and different physical properties compared to the regular diesel, it’s been more often studied today. A study was conducted in Brazil Technical Center Lab, aiming to understand the differences in the behavior of level of gaseous emissions and torque level at diesel and soybean biodiesel engines. Thus, tests were made with different command injection parameters (injection start, pressure and separation of the pre-injection), in order to investigate the different behaviors and opportunities for both fuels at different turbulent kinetics energy during combustion. These analyzes will be presented in this paper. Fuels used for research were the reference S50 and reference Petrobras soybean biodiesel (20% of soybean and 80% of reference S50). The engine used in this work was the Cummins ISL 8.9 liters, equipped with VGT turbo, rated at 400 hp, certified emissions levels CONAMA P7 (equivalent to Euro 5). The results showed that the B20 biodiesel hás less particulate matter andhigher NOx and worse fuel consumption in some specific conditions. These results will be discussed as a function of injection parameters, trace of “heat release” and other parameters of engine performance.
2012-36-0169 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Thermodynamic evaluation of two-stage turbocharging system
Autoria: RAFAEL F. MARSIGLIA, FABIO BENNATON BASSETTI
Resumo: The development of on-highway diesel engines is requiring more resources and technology to comply with ever-stricter emissions regulations. Increased air flow requirements of recently developed engines are hardly met with single-stage turbochargers. Two-stage systems have been widely used for off-highway high-horsepower engines and show potential to be used on smaller output engines. Turbochargers are used as an exhaust gas energy recovery system, but still a great portion of this energy is lost downstream the discharge pipe. The objective of this work is to provide a quantitative comparison of air handling system global efficiency taking into consideration the wasted exhaust gas energy. Experimental data from single-stage and serial two-stage turbocharged engines will be used in comparison with theoretical analysis.
2012-36-0172 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: A design Comparison between coil springs and torsion bars
Autoria: THIAGO HOELTGEBAUM, RAFAEL ALFREDO LUFT, JEANINE MACHADO ELISII, RODRIGO DE SOUZA VIEIRA
Resumo: Altough the coil springs are used in a lot of cars nowadays, the torsion bars have some great space in the competition field, as seen in the Formula 1 championship. The objective of this paper is set a comparison between coil springs and torsion bars. The study shows design features, mechanical system involved, the difference of mass, work principle, mathematical methods used and simulation on the two options. The results show which type of spring is most indicated to use in a Formula SAE car using a Pugh matrix methodology.
2012-36-0175 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: EuroNCAP Pedestrian Protection Vehicle Development Using Simulation
Autoria: DR WALDEMAR Z. GOLINSKI, LEE THOMPSON
Resumo: 2012 EuroNCAP protocol consists of four assessments “Boxes”: Adult Occupant, Child Occupant, Pedestrian and Safety Assist. The assessment protocol prescribes the weighting factors for each of the “Boxes” to achieve a particular star rating. For example to achieve 5 star rating in 2012, the vehicle has to achieve 50% of available points for Pedestrian Protection. Therefore, the Pedestrian Protection Assessment not only forms an integral part of EuroNCAP testing, but it is very important in achieving a good star rating and requires as much effort in the development of the vehicle as other aspects of car safety. The EuroNCAP Pedestrian Protection assessment consists of a Lower and Upper Leg as well as a Child and Adult Head impact testing. During a vehicle development process all of Pedestrian Protection tests can be successfully mitigated using a Finite Element simulation technique. However, the Pedestrian Protection simulation models require a higher level of detail and different modelling approach than crash simulation models used for frontal or side impact simulations. This paper will introduce the EuroNCAP Pedestrian Protection requirements showing the impact scenarios. The use of Finite Element simulation technique in Pedestrian Protection development will be discussed showing the benefits of employing the simulation even at a concept phase. Some of the Pedestrian Protection modelling techniques and requirements will be discussed. Examples of Pedestrian Protection specific simulation developments including advanced windscreen model will be shown.
2012-36-0181 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Light index for flow estimation
Autoria: MARCELO RENATO CAVAGLIERI, DIOGO PEREIRA BESSA, ALISSON DE CARVALHO PORTELLA
Resumo: Some automotive parts are manufactured with complex tools and hard specifications, such as narrow tolerances. This is more critical when that component has a relevant function on engine performance or pollutants emission. In these situations, it is necessary to create completely new facilities to evaluate or measure specific parameters of each part as earlier as possible, before aggregating assembly costs and avoiding assembly a bad part with a good one. However, in some cases, a direct measurement of a given parameter is not possible or is not technically feasible or requires too much time to make it. So, it is mandatory to build up an indirect and fast measurement tool to evaluate 100% of the components, classifying or separating them, if required, to supply a production line demand. The objective of this paper was to understand a specific part used to inject fuel through calibrated hole (0.4mm), which must regulate the flow during the cold engine start-up. In that moment, the Cold Start System injects a well defined quantity of gasoline at a specific time to make an efficient start with a minimum pollutants emission. That component (Mini Injector) is made of plastic and has an internal cavity where any inconformity can impact in his performances, causing a pressure drop. At the end of the cavity there is a hole susceptible to deformations or damages from component injection process. Focusing on those requirements, it was developed a measurement process able to interact with these parts in a similar way of the fuel but in a clean and fast procedure. This process is light beam, in an intensity enough to pass through the cavity up to the hole, enabling us to measure the light intensity that goes out. The method created here uses a high intensity laser introduced into the Mini Injector and the resultant light on the outlet is registered by a digital camera. That image is converted in a chart by an algorithm and consequently translated in a number which can be used to separate them in types, according to the spray performances of the mini Injector. Another utility of this approach is to monitor the tooling wear, responsible for component shaping, allowing an effective maintenance. The method can be useful at the beginning of the project, if used during the tooling phase and prototyping, providing a lot of information, enabling a quick evaluation and efficient alternative proposal for the geometry, shape and surface finishing. It can help to understand the cross influences of all the different variables of the fuel injection. A statistical analysis and correlation shows that this index is able to give a good evaluation of the internal finishing and shape of the hole, achieving the objectives.
2012-36-0183 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Using Smart MOSFET Technology in real automotive applications
Autoria: RODRIGO FRANCO
Resumo: The technology and innovation megatrend is real and a necessary approach to the auto lead companies. Over the past 10 years, the market requirements and customer wants changed to more innovative products. Devices and features electronics remains the biggest enabler of and driver for innovations. And the focus is shifting from single to system innovation, integrating components and technologies. One of the greatest technology is the solid state relay using field effect transistors, which became feasible switching loads to increase fuel economy and cost reduction. Nowadays there are many types of automotive MOSFET offered in the market with integrated logic circuit able to provide enhanced functions to protect the transistor against over temperature, reverse battery, short circuit in the output, customized current slope control and others. However, those functions have some limitations and deficiencies that require external components to make it works in real vehicle applications. This technical paper aims to analyze each enhanced function of the MOSFET, its limitations and propose external components to complete those functions. And additionally, application of this technology inside real cars will be listed and the advantages and disadvantages will be analyzed and described in detail. Keywords: electronics, MOSFETs, solid state relay.
2012-36-0187 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Development of a preliminary 6-year-old child FE model for crashworthiness assessment
Autoria: ANDERSON DE LIMA
Resumo: In recent years, a large number of studies and researches have been developed focusing on occupant protection during vehicular collisions. In this context, it is growing the interest on the monitoring of children’s kinematics and injuries mechanisms due to automotive crashes. Further, Euro NCAP intends to introduce dynamic tests for older children introducing Q6 in the new protocols by 2015. Focusing on children safety and in those new requirements it was developed a computational dummy using finite elements method. The 6 years old dummy developed provides numerical simulation results which support the assessments of the child’s dynamic in a vehicular accident. Since the Q6 CAE dummy is under development at the moment, a preliminary study of a numerical child dummy was performed, based on the hybrid HIII 50th %ile dummy which was scaled and balanced to reach Q6´s dimensions, masses and inertias. Firstly, the child dummy model is used to evaluate the kinematics in a collision and in the future we intend to assess if this model is able to represent the biodynamics response. The work explains the methodology applied to develop a numerical child dummy according to literature and it is based on geometric scaling factors applied to the adult male FE model (hybrid HIII 50th %ile dummy).
2012-36-0189 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Stick-Slip Analysis on Press-Fit Joints through Finite Element Method and Laboratory Tests
Autoria: PLINIO SAVIETTO, JULIANO SAVOY, MAURO MORAES DE SOUZA
Resumo: Frictional contact is a recurrent theme in engineering thanks to its ubiquity on several fields of study and the fact it can not be calculated ab initio. Furthermore, it gives rise to other complex phenomena that can only be predicted with the help of numerical methods, like the Finite Element Method (FEM). However, most FEM software still use Coulomb’s local model of friction to estimate friction, which may not be reliable on predicting phenomena as complicated as the object of this paper. This work aims to simulate the stick-slip phenomenon in a press-fit and to compare this simulation with laboratory tests. The work was developed based on real cases such as the development of assembled camshafts using tubes. The structural simulations were performed using linear static analysis through the use of finite element method software. Tests were done on a digital torque tester machine used for bolts and nuts. At the end of the work the results obtained in the tests are presented. Those are compared with the virtual simulation showing a clear correlation between them.
2012-36-0190 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Virtual Development of a Light Weight Assembled Gear for Automotive Transmissions
Autoria: THALES SARDINHA GARCIA SOUZA, JULIANO SAVOY, MAURO MORAES DE SOUZA
Resumo: CO2 emission reduction through weight saving remains a huge challenge for all automotive components. When it comes to gears, the state of the art shows low potential of weight reduction due to the trade-off between mass optimization and manufacturing process. Gears are usually forged followed or not by teeth cutting operation. Current presses must operate with a minimum distance between punch and die, due to the elasticity of the equipment, in order to avoid tool failure when it operates with no working piece. Also, the press force is determined by this gap, in cases that some flash is formed during forging, and a minimum flash is required for a forgeable part using the available press. This issue constrains the minimum wall thickness of a final product, for instance, the body of an automotive gear. Therefore, some gears design must have bigger wall thickness than the necessary due to this conceptual restriction, even if thinner wall thickness would be approved by classical criterias, such as stiffness, permissible stress and NVH. This work analyzes an innovative solution with flexible design for gear bodies, where the assembly process eliminates the current manufacturing process trade-off.
2012-36-0194 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Functional vehicle dynamics simulation
Autoria: CLAUDIO G. FERNANDES, ERIC HIDEKI OKAMOTO NOGUCHI, VINICIUS JOSE MOREIRA PEIXOTO, RÔMULO PEREIRA DE CASTRO, ÉDER ALVES DA SILVA, UILIAN DO NASCIMENTO ALMEIDA
Resumo: Functional vehicle dynamics simulation differs from the regular multi-body simulation especially by means of modeling parameters. The models are usually parametric, involving suspension properties that are commonly used by OEM's. Input data for a multi-body simulation (MBS) is, normally, raw information about suspension hard points coordinates, flexible elements stiffness (such as bushing and springs), etc. As for a functional simulation, the input data can be one outcome of a multi-body one, such as K&C data or even measured data of a bench test. However, the results of both ways of simulation must be the same. Functional simulation software does not solve the multi-body equations for each integration step as any regular MBS software and, as such, can run the model in a faster way. In this way, software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop starts to become a clear advantage of these art of simulation. However, even at early stages of a project, functional simulation plays also an important role in the sense of building up models in a fast way, not requiring much engineering time to get results from CAE models. Using functional simulation approach, a mathematical vehicle model was developed based mainly on the kinematic and compliance data of the both front and rear suspensions. Different maneuvers were validated against measured data in order to certify the modeling for different conditions: steady and transient analysis. Using this model, a DOE was done identifying the main steering parameters (scrub, caster trail, hub lateral and longitudinal offset) that influence the most a few dynamic characteristics such as steering returnability, dynamic torque and on center feeling of the vehicle. Using a functional simulation, the DOE can reveal information not possible for a multi-body analysis, since such steering parameters cannot be change individually, without changing K&C properties. This information represents strategical advantage on pre-project stages, since it will lead the suspension conception choice for a given set of attributes demand for vehicle dynamics.
2012-36-0195 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: Optimization of new plastic bracket NVH characteristics using CAE
Autoria: REINALDO DOS SANTOS, VALTER ESTEVAO BEAL, DAVID BRIAN POPEJOY, MASOUD SAADAT, SANTOSH NERIYA
Resumo: NVH requirements are critical in new driveline developments. Failure modes due to resonances must be carefully analyzed and potential root causes must have adequate countermeasures. One of the most common root causes is the modal alignment. This work shows the steps to design and optimize a new plastic bracket for an automotive half shaft bearing. This bracket replaces a very stiff bracket, made of cast iron. The initial design of plastic bracket was not stiff enough to bring natural frequency of the system above engine second order excitation at maximum speed. The complete power pack was modeled and NVH CAE analysis was performed. The CAE outputs included Driving Point Response, Frequency Response Function and Modal analysis. The contour conditions were discussed deep in detail to make sure the models represented actual system. After some iteration the weak areas were identified and the design was changed, increasing stiffness and shifting some low frequency modes to higher frequencies. The remaining mode below engine second order could not be changed adequately, so a different strategy needed to be taken. An elastomeric isolator was added between bearing and bracket, in order to dampen the vibrations. The material chosen was EPDM, due to its damping coefficient and high temperature resistance. The model was submitted to a new analysis, when the stiffness of the isolator could be determined in order to match the resonant frequency. This isolator reduced the transmissibility of the vibration through bracket and the amplitude of the vibration was decreased to an acceptable level with this strategy.
2012-36-0197 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: MICROSTRUCTURAL STUDY OF Ti-6%Al-4%V PRODUCED WITH TiH2 POWDER
Autoria: ELIZEU DO NASCIMENTO FILHO, JOSE LUIS DE OLIVEIRA, VINICIUS RODRIGUES HENRIQUES, EDEVALDO FARIA DINIZ
Resumo: In the aerospace industry, 80-90% of the titanium used in airframes has been Alloy Ti6Al4V, as it is used throughout the section of the aircraft - fuselage, nacelles, landing gear, wing and empennage. In gas turbine engines to Ti-6Al-4V is used for static and rotating components. Castings are used for the manufacture of more complex static components, forgings are typically used for moving parts. Conventional methods for obtaining titanium alloys require special conditions of controlled atmosphere that culminates in a high production cost. In this paper it was investigated the peculiarities of the typical microstructure of Ti-6% Al-4% V produced by Powder Metallurgy using TiH2 powder. Samples were produced by the initial mixture of Al, V and TiH2 powders, followed by cold uniaxial and high isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering temperatures between 800-1400 ° C, in vacuum. Sintered samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Vickers micro hardness, scanning electron microstructure and density by the Archimedes method. Because of the complete dissolution of the alloying elements in the titanium matrix and the presence of hydrogen during the sintering stage, a good combination of microstructure, densification and mechanical properties can be achieved.
2012-36-0199 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: INNOVATIVE SOLUTION FOR THE VALVE LIFTS VARIATION OF COMBUSTION ENGINES
Autoria: JULIANO SAVOY, MAURO MORAES DE SOUZA, TADEU GERALDO DOMINGUES
Resumo: The constant search for more economical combustion engines with lower levels of CO2 emissions has contributed to the development of new technologies that could reach severe global environment targets. Most of the new technologies is related to the lift and timing variation of the opening and closing of the intake valves, through variable camshafts. The controlled lift and timing variation allows the air-fuel mixture to be optimized for specific working conditions of the engine without the driver's perception. This paper presents a new design and a new operation concept for the lift variation of the intake valve. The technical and economical feasibility analysis of this new design is done through virtual studies and prototypes in the Alpha phase of the project. The valve lift control optimizes the fuel consumption, and consequently, it reduces the levels of CO2 emissions.
2012-36-0202 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Use of heated ethanol by an induction system coupled to the injector and its effects to the engine and environment
Autoria: IVAN SANCHES PROVASE, Alexandre Rezende, ALAN LOPES
Resumo: The use of ethanol in the Brazilian fleet refers to the early 80’s. But, until the latest 90’s, cars could only use one type of fuel. That changed with the development of the flex-fuel vehicles. One intrinsic problem of using ethanol as fuel concerns to the cold start and cold phase drivability. The usual solution for that is to use a small auxiliary tank, filled with gasoline. This gasoline will only be used during cold start and cold drivability (below 20⁰C), in some circumstances. Of course, the use of such technology might bring some issues. First of them, the client, that need to be aware of the fuel level in the auxiliary tank (once there is no level meter for that), otherwise, the car may not start in a cold morning. Second, to the car, once this fuel is not constantly used, it may get aged and damage the system. The third issue concerning this technology is the safety issue. In most of the vehicles, this auxiliary tank is assembled in the engine compartment, a very hot place which, in the case of a front collision, can start a fire. This auxiliary tank goes against all NCAP (New Car Assessment Program) goals. Until now, no reliable and economically feasible solution was found to this problem. Continental Corporation solution for this problem is the SVS heated injector. This injector has along his body an extra coil, made of aluminum or cupper. This injector works with an HCU (Heater Control Unit), that sends a PWM signal through the coil, generating an electromagnetic field in the axial direction of the injector. The variation of the electromagnetic field induces eddy currents in the injector’s body, which heats itself and hence, the fuel. The technical demands to make this injector works go to the very fine details. For example, one very important physical phenomenon is the “skin effect”. The higher the frequency is induced, the higher is the amount of power transferred and also, the further from the center of the injector the main current will be generated. This needs to be balanced with the fact that, if the kernel of the heating is generated too far away from the fuel, the heat flux is impaired, and if the frequency is too low, the total amount of power transferred is reduced. The solution for that is a frequency between 40 and 60 KHz. The thickness of the valve body is also very critical to the injector performance, as shown above. A very important feature of this injector is his intrinsic safety feedback. There is no need to an external control unit to control temperature and so on. The ECU sends a regular PWM signal to the injector, and once the injector reaches the specified temperature (around 120 ⁰C) the material of the valve body automatically demagnetize, losing the capability of generating the eddy currents, cooling down it. Once it gets cooler, it recoveries his magnetic properties and starts to heat again. This hysteresis comprises a range of less than 5 ⁰C. The benefits of heating the fuel are not restricted to the start only, but all the cold phase, including drivability, and also, may be used even during the hot phase, to decrease the pollutant emissions, once, it optimizes the wall film at any conditions (thinner wall film demanded), specially under cold conditions using ethanol, where, to achieve a stable combustion, a large amount of fuel is used and much of this is rejected, un or partially burned.
2012-36-0204 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Chassis e Cabine
Título do Paper: Fuel efficiency improvements in heavy truck driveline systems through advanced bearing design and technology
Autoria: KEITH EDWARD BANDI
Resumo: Improved fuel economy translates into significant savings over the life of a fleet vehicle. Aside from fuel cost savings, tighter emissions regulations require OEM truck manufacturers to improve the fuel economy of the products they bring to market. OEMs are dependent on Tier 1 suppliers for many systems which have a direct impact on vehicle fuel efficiency. Tier 1 suppliers are then dependent on sub-suppliers for components which affect the fuel efficiency of the system. Improvements in tapered roller bearing design and technology can significantly improve the fuel efficiency of driveline systems. This paper summarizes the improvement in bearing efficiency by applying advanced design and technology solutions. Analysis was used to predict the affect of design changes, leading to an optimized solution. Testing was performed to verify the improvement in bearing efficiency.
2012-36-0206 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: PROJECT CICLAR: A LIGHT, ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLE FOR SELECTIVE WASTE COLLECTION
Autoria: Eduardo Jose Ferreira Dodge, Marcos V. M. Orrico, Pedro Vinicius Guimaraes Souza, Rafael Amaral Shayani, Dianne Magalhaes Viana
Resumo: PROJECT CICLAR: A LIGHT, ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLE FOR SELECTIVE WASTE COLLECTION In response to the increasing scarcity of oil reserves and the negative impact carbon emissions have on the environment, clean technologies and energy must take priority in research. The Ciclar Project unites clean technology with sustainability to create an environmentally friendly vehicle for selective waste collection. Unlike conventional waste collection vehicles in Brazil, the Light, Electric-Powered Vehicle (LEVe) is powered entirely by electrical and solar energy, thereby ensuring zero emissions. Even though LEVe is electric, a major concern of the project was to produce a vehicle that would be as energy efficient as possible. By employing an electric motor, LEVe reduces the per kilometer cost of operation by approximately 50% in comparison to petroleum-based fueled engines. With the proper infrastructure, refueling vehicles with electricity rather than gas is both less expensive and more convenient, which should eventually not only encourage but also ease the transition from gas-powered vehicles to electric. If the Ciclar Project were to be adopted, approximately 19,701 metric tons of CO2 per day, or 7,190,865 metric tons per year, would cease to be expelled into the atmosphere (calculation based on 180,000 waste collection vehicles for a country the size of the U.S., each of which is driven approximately 50 kilometers per day and emit approximately 2200 grams of CO2 per kilometer). This paper explains how sustainable engineering and clean technologies can optimize functionality, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollution. Key words: electric-powered vehicle, lightweight vehicle, sustainability, solar energy, efficiency, selective waste collection, recycling.
2012-36-0207 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Aerodynamic Flat PlateS and Curved Plates, Combined
Autoria: JOSÉ ESTEVES BOTELHO RABELLO
Resumo: Flat plate aerodynamic profiles, which use constant thickness profiles were intensively used at the beginning of heavier than air aviation. These profiles are still used in some fans, and in balsa wood, rubber band model airplanes, for example. However, a more convenient spin off of the flat plate profile, the curved plate, of constant thickness, have found wide application in fans for industrial use, automotive cooling systems, air conditioning and in propellers and rotors of Unmanned Air Vehicles, UAVs. It is known that a variable thickness profile has efficiency advantages in relation to constant thickness profiles. However, when sheet steel or carbon fiber are used, it is necessary to have constant thickness in fan and rotor blades, because of manufacturing process constraints. This is also the case of many polymer rotors, fans and propellers. For example, quadrotor, hexarotor and octorotor electric mini-helicopter UAVs from Draganfly and MicroDrones have carbon fiber rotors, and for simplicity these are of constant thicknesses. This paper will show that there are opportunities in having better efficiencies from propellers of constant thicknesses. Basically, we can have a mix, within an aerodynamic profile, that consists of curved and straight sections, in a more optimized way. That is, we can obtain better Cl /Cd ratios, for a constant thickness aerodynamic profile. This paper will show some information obtained from experiments at Incubaero / CTA - ITA, and obtained from the literature, that support the case.
2012-36-0209 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: The importance of analysis of electrical parameters for design of analog circuits in automotive modules.
Autoria: RAFAEL NAVARENHO DE SOUZA
Resumo: The industry always needs to stay ahead of new technologies to remain competitive in the market. The holding of new technologies is directly related to understanding the operation of electronic circuits and components,then verify through a critical analysis, the desired results and better performance with lower cost, lower power, more speed and miniaturization. This enables its inclusion in several applications, including automotive, because there is a need for more robust products, with greater integration and also new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. We will discuss here how the results of electrical parameters of the transistor can affect characteristics explained and how new concepts in geometry and structures, enjoy the results. Important to note that there are many analog circuits within a module, however we discuss here, the analysis of parameters to undertstand its affect in circuits.
2012-36-0210 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Development of a new innovative software-based sensing technique to instantaneously measure the mixture fraction of bio-diesel present in a crude oil based classic diesel fuel.
Autoria: GINO MONTANARI, MICHAEL PONTOPPIDAN
Resumo: In recent years the presence of bio-fuel blends for SI-engines (mixing of pure gasoline and ethanol at various fractions – flex fuel) have become popular as a very efficient and practical means to decrease the amount of permanently stored CO2 in the atmosphere. For Compression Ignited (CI) engines this trend was hitherto not followed. However, it is possible to mix current diesel fuel with a fraction of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) vegetal-based oil. The higher the percentage of FAME-oil the more important will be the decrease of permanently added CO2 to the atmosphere. A mixture containing “x” % of FAME oil and (100-x)% of fossil oil can be referred to as a “Bx” mixture. Until now the currently encountered Bx-value used on most public transport vehicles is 3% to 5%, which contributes only very little to the CO2 decrease. Further experimental experience has shown that for current commercial diesel engines equipped with a CR-rail based high-pressure injection system a FAME-oil fraction of less than 20 % is acceptable without major changes in the mixture preparation strategy. Unfortunately at fractions between 20 and 100 % the reaction of the combustion process becomes in most cases uncontrollable with combustion patterns, which gradually features extreme detonation conditions. An immediate consequence is an important increase in both specific fuel consumption and in exhaust gas pollutants. A basic study of the diesel combustion process was undertaken to allow the design of a strategy for recognition of the bio-diesel fraction, Bx, by a purely software-based sensing technique, which creates an image of the temporal combustion behavior and uses only sensors already in service for current CR-mixture preparation systems. Therefore the basic approach developed requires no auxiliary sensor to be added (for example a lambda sensor not present on most of today’s commercialized diesel vehicles). The paper presents the basic study of the diesel combustion process and relates the instantaneous fraction of bio-diesel, Bx, in the fuel to the measured engine torque through a set of primary combustion key-parameters. The paper continues with the description of the SW-based measuring technique, which relates the crankshaft speed sensor signal to the instantaneous engine torque. By this computation chain the Bx-value connects to the measured torque at given sets of engine speed and load conditions. The paper concludes presenting a series of experimental verification data obtained on a large-scale series produced 1.3 liter Turbo CR-rail passenger car engine.
2012-36-0211 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Using OCTO SOI nMOSFET to Handle High Current for Automotive Modules
Autoria: LEONARDO NAVARENHO DE SOUZA FINO
Resumo: This paper presents an experimental comparative study between the OCTO Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) nMOSFET (OSM) and the conventional SOI nMOSFET (CSM) considering the same bias condition and the same gate area (AG), in order to verify the influence of this new Analog SOI design to handle high current for automotive modules. Analog circuit design tends to be considered an art, this characteristic probably comes from new approach that is required to find or modify a circuit that implements the functions to need be realized. The designer has to find the right tradeoff to achieve the desired automotive specification such as low power, low voltage, high speed and high current. MOSFET´s technology is required to provide the growth of embedded electronics. This growth is driving demand for power handling devices that are smaller yet still provide high drain current capabilities. To optimize the transistor´s operation, attending the aggressive downscaling and automotive requirements, emerges the OCTO SOI nMOSFET as a good alternative to answer the drain current and sizing question. In addition, this layout can provide low power consumption and more robustness against Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electro Static Discharge (ESD), according to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC).
2012-36-0212 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Experimental analysis on a correlation between the body leakage level and air conditioning system performance for a passenger car
Autoria: ELIEL WELLINGTON MARCELINO, LEANDRO MENDES DE OLIVEIRA
Resumo: The body leakage level is a important requirement in a passenger car in terms of several qualitative aspects such as vehicle cabin noise level and air conditioning system performance. Among several parameters, the vehicle body sheet metal joints are quite meaningful parameter in order to meet the body leakage requirements for a passenger car. Nowadays the OEM’s manufacturing departments have improved more and more their processes aiming to decrease the sheet metal joint fails of vehicle body, so that vehicle bodies can get improved cabin noise level and consequently the air conditioning system performance will be improved as well. The air conditioning system performance might be evaluated through software of simulations in a design concept phase and experimentally in a design validation phase. In general the higher the body leakage level, the less the actual air conditioning system performance. This study will present the experimental results that show up an actual correlation between air conditioning system performance for a passenger car performed at a climate chamber versus its body leakage level.
2012-36-0213 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: Brazilian Freight Rail Sector - An Overview of Experiences and Perspectives of Concession Model
Autoria: FABIO C.BARBOSA, ALEXANDRE PORTO MENDES DE SOUZA, JEAN MAFRA DOS REIS, ANTONIO SERGIO RODRIGUES
Resumo: Brazilian Freight Rail Sector emerged in the end of 19th century, when the first railways were constructed, under the first known grant system in the country. Later, in the beginning of 20th century, rail system was expanded to support the increasing economical activity related to the agroexportation business, specially coffee crops. This not planned process resulted in a non integrated network, that has undermined the economical feasibility of rail system and bankruptcy of some rail companies. This , culminated with the nationalization of 42 private railways into a national company named Rede Ferroviária Federal SA – RFFSA, in 1957, with the objective to recover and improve freight transport to support activities associated to some industrial process, basically mining and related activities and, later, agricultural production for exportation (grains). During eighties, however, economical crisis and the consequent lack of public investments challenged the operational capacity of RFFSA, resulting in its inability to meet demand for rail freight services and the need of heavy public subsidies. This culminated with the privatization of freight rail system into vertical companies, under a regional format corridors. Concessions were awarded between 1996 and 1998, on a price cap model, under a contractual regulatory approach, with production-safety targets. Performance improved greatly in the first years of concession, with great investments in rehabilitation of tracks, rolling stock and facilities. On a regulatory perspective, however, the network arrangement did not lend to a competitive design, since lines were disposed as isolated corridors, with no economical links between them and no regulatory enforcement to stimulate interoperability. In 2002, Agência Nacional de Transportes Terrestres – ANTT, a regulatory agency, was created, with a mission to monitor the companies’ compliance with contracts and stimulate the improvement of rail sector. In its initial activities, ANTT has developed a basic regulatory framework, aimed at the fulfillment of contractual obligations. However, to improve competition and increase rail market share in Brazilian transport matrix, much has to be done, but honoring awarded contracts. Under this context, in 2011, ANTT developed a regulatory package, focused on stimulating competition, establishing shippers and companies rights and regulating investments from concessionaires and shippers. Moreover, ANTT is working on contractual tariff revision, which aims the alignment of rail tariffs to the present cost structure of rail sector, order to transfer to users part of rail sector’s productivity earnings. So, this work is supposed to present a historical view of the evolution of Brazilian freight rail sector, with a critical view of virtues and weakness of concessions, and the efforts of the regulatory agency to improve the sector, while honoring contracts awarded.
2012-36-0214 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: STATUS OF TEST METHODS FOR ACTIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS
Autoria: ANDRÉS APARICIO SALAZAR, MICHA LESEMANN, HENRIK ERIKSSON
Resumo: Novel active safety functions are introduced in road vehicles and nowadays cars, trucks and buses start to be equipped with functions to avoid collisions. The performance of these active safety functions must be possible to test and assess. There are several initiatives addressing how to test active safety. These functions are under rapid development and there is presently, and in contrast to passive safety, no generally accepted assessment programme in place. Several initiatives have identified this need for standardised testing and assessment methods over the past years. This paper gives an overview and comparison of initiatives worldwide which lately have been or are currently dealing with the topic of active safety performance testing. Among others, performance in vehicle-to-vehicle or vehicle-to-pedestrian accident scenarios is being addressed by international initiatives: the eVALUE, ASSESS and AsPeCSS projects, the vFSS working group, the CAMP-CIB initiative and the AEB group. These initiatives propose test procedures for Collision Warning and Autonomous Emergency Braking and Pedestrian Detection and Protection systems. Additionally, stability related accident scenarios are under the scope, after the deployment of the American and European regulations for ESC systems. This paper will present the outcome of several workshops held in the frame of active safety. The workshop on Collision Warning and Autonomous Emergency Braking systems, at IKA (Germany) in September 2011, will provide global input in the fields of test procedures, test tools and test targets for pre-crash systems. The workshop on Handling and stability assessment procedures, at IDIADA (Spain) in February 2012, will analyse the feasibility of assessing the stability and handling performance of different vehicles, with standardised test scenarios, as well as the new possibilities for using simulation tools in the validation process of chassis control systems. A third workshop, to be held at SP (Sweden) in September 2012 will deal with pedestrian detection systems. For all workshops, most important results will include summaries of the test procedures presented by the different initiatives, the identification of test scenarios and performance indicators, the main discussion points identified during the workshops and the identification of next steps for further research. This paper is given under the umbrella of the ActiveTest initiative. It is a neutral initiative with the objective of disseminating current research dedicated to the evaluation of performance of active safety systems. The content of this paper reflects the status and/or results of the different initiatives participating the the workshops. The support action ActiveTest within the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission has the objective to bring together all relevant initiatives in this field. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community`s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 269904.
2012-36-0217 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Treatment of end of life cycle vehicles in brazil: challenges and opportunities
Autoria: JOSÉ JOAQUIM FILHO, ALEXANDRE DE OLIVEIRA E AGUIAR
Resumo: The objective of this study is to analyze the various constituent materials of the vehicle and its impact on the environment. We will deal with some aspects of the project, construction, use and final disposal of automotive vehicles. We will understand how the decisions within the project to meet the performance requirements and vehicle safety may have an impact on the recyclability of motor vehicles. We will examine how some other countries are facing this challenge. We are also going to discuss implications of the taxes and how they can encourage or obstruct sustainable practices. We will look at how the legislation must be improved to develop the automotive recycling industry. In the end, we will examine the current conditions present in the country for treatment of vehicles at the end of the cycle of life and identify the challenges, barriers and opportunities for the treatment of end-of-Life Vehicles in Brazil. Style changes and technological advances have led to reduced service life of current products as automobiles. These are among the goods that are constantly re-designed to meet our growing needs for improved products. However, these demands for new products and more modern has meant a great cost to our natural resources, such as excessive use of raw materials, water and energy during production, use and end of life cycle of these assets. It is becoming increasingly evident that we can not sustain this rapid obsolescence without considering the environmental and economic impacts it causes to the planet. The increasing scarcity of land available for the proper disposal of waste in landfills, in addition to the high cost of implementing these areas and the increasing distances to urban centers imply the need to reduce solid waste generation, including here the automotive. The growth of the automotive market has created a serious problem due to the disposal of urban waste volumes generated, the great diversity of materials involved and their toxicity. One of the main challenges of the automotive industry is to reduce the harmful effects of their products to the environment during production, use and final disposal through effective processes and choice of materials that require smaller quantities of raw materials, less energy to be converted and are easier to be reused at the end of life. We will discuss how this work is the allocation of ELVs in Brazil and how this impacts on the environment and natural resources.
2012-36-0218 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Modification of assembly line workstations to reduce the employee movimentation and improve the productivity
Autoria: SERGIO MARCIO DE SOUZA, SILVANO WESLLEY NASCIMENTO, ALINE DE CÁSSIA FERREIRA FONSECA, MARCOS CESAR DE LIMA E SOUSA, MARIO LUCIO ARAUJO MORAIS, VICTOR GABRIEL DALDEGAN DE SOUSA
Resumo: Modification of FIAT Chrysler’s assembly line, on Betim´s/MG site, focused in ergonomics, reducing the employee movimentation during the activities executing by the elimination of activities that don´t add value to the final product. The entire project was structured into WCM’s methodology (World Class Manufacturing) that consists in concepts, principles and techniques for operational process management, inspired on Toyota Production System (TPS) based on the waste elimination. The WCM is sustained by technique pillars and management one and the pillar used in this study was WO (Workplace Organization) that guides for create an ideal workplace in order to maximize the security aspects, improve the product quality and assure the most value added in the product transformation. The premise to develop the solutions was the minimal use of resources, prioritizing the simplicity of the devices through the application of low cost automation concepts (LCA) leaving the material near to the point of use. The results obtained were workstations with balanced assembly times, improving the productivity in 30%, providing more security in the operators’ activities and reducing in 39% the activities that don´t add value to the final product. Keywords: assembly line, operational process, methodology, WCM, automotive, low cost automation (LCA), non value added (NVA).
2012-36-0219 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Statistical methodology to identify the oxygen sensor degradation
Autoria: LEANDRO QUETZ DE ALMEIDA, CHARLES QUIRINO PIMENTA, FABIO RIBEIRO SAMPAIO
Resumo: The OBDBRII normative establishes the responsibility in identifying the malfunction in components of the emissions system control allowing the anticipation of corrective methods and consequently prevention in emissions degradation. This normative has increased the calibration effort and the time of development of new engines and vehicles in Brazil due to the number of engine control strategies and the structures complexity. As an example, the addition of functions to monitor the catalyst, oxygen sensor efficiency and misfire. As a consequence of this increase and complexity, the use of simulation tools in the optimization of the engine control calibration became necessary, instead of the traditional approach, where the calibration parameters are chosen manually. This work proposes the use of statistical detection methodologies to determinate the calibration parameters values according to the strategies of identification of the oxygen sensor degradation, that causes the increase of emissions pollutants, following the limits of the OBDBRII normative.
2012-36-0221 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: New Generation of Off Highway 4-Cylinder Diesel Engine Fulfilling Stage IIIB / Tier4i Emission Standards
Autoria: RONALD PENZINGER, DOPPELBAUER CLEMENS
Resumo: Abstract: Liebherr Machines Bulle SA has chosen a technical solution for their 4 cylinder engines on the basis of cooled EGR and a closed DPF system including a fuel dosing unit. Main portions of the development, especially the engine and after treatment calibration was performed together with Engineering Center Steyr . The calibration was done under consideration of best fuel consumption, optimized combustion acoustics, satisfying vehicle dynamics as well as fulfillment of legislative regulations, engine and vehicle boundaries. The usage of complex software functionality, a sophisticated calibration process as well as a high end 2000bar injection system was mandatory.
2012-36-0223 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Topological optimizations of clutch fork using finite element analysis
Autoria: RUDONIEL CORREA CURY, LEONARDO BARTALINI BARUFFALDI
Resumo: Since its advent in the years 1960’s, finite element analysis (FEA) has been the main tool for industries to assess components and systems failure and physical behavior. Increased computational resources, the maturity of software packages and the need for more complex applications have contributed to add new resources to the finite element scenario. One of the most interesting of those new features is structural optimization, which takes product development to a whole new level by reducing material costs while considering geometrical and manufacturing constraints. In the present paper, structural optimization is used as a tool to develop a new lever arm to clutch release bearings. Among the parameters were considered geometric restraints as well as loading and contact interfaces.
2012-36-0224 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: Analysis of the vibration modes of an automotive propeller shaft using FEM and analytical models.
Autoria: FELIPE MOURA FONTES NOVO, MAURO MORAES DE SOUZA, JULIANO SAVOY, MARCELO ADRIANO DO CARMO SILVA
Resumo: Traditional propeller shafts using universal joints have been replaced by sophisticated and complex solutions that not only reduce weight, but also increase the performance of such systems in modern automotive vehicles. Due to its complexity that nowadays even may combine plastic and metallic components, traditional analytical models reach their limits to support engineers during their design phase. Particularly, in the case of their analysis under vibration, it becomes critical, as the life time of a propeller shaft and its components (bushes and joints) have to work far away from their natural frequency values. Analytical solutions seem not to be helpful anymore, when one need to reach a mostly precise value of a natural frequency of complex shafts. Although the FEM analysis nowadays is so far highly developed, they are still no responding increasingly demand for high accurate results in a short period of development time. This work focus on the development of a reliable method to simulate complex propeller shafts under vibration, including the components bush and joints and assessing its limits when compared to available analytical solutions. The paper presents a positive and efficient tool to the design phase of such powertrain products.
2012-36-0226 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Future trends of the conceptual design in automotive alternator pulleys
Autoria: ALVARO CANTO MICHELOTTI, ANDRE LUIZ PAZA, ALLAN MAURICI, CRISTIANO FOPPA
Resumo: Alternators used to have a solid pulley to connect it to the Front-End Accessory Drive (FEAD) system. Lately, new breakthrough designs have been developed for some applications, as the Overrunning Alternator Pulley (OAP) and the Overrunning Alternator Decoupler (OAD), with the aim to detach the alternator from the FEAD during high speed transients and to reduce the transmission of torsional vibrations from the internal combustion engine to the engine accessories, respectively. The downsizing of the internal combustion engine and its reduced idle speed to improve fuel economy and emissions led to belt slip or creep, increased NVH issues as chirpy noise or bearing reduced life due to the higher vibration levels during engine transient phases or shutdown. Besides of that the increased demand for electric/electronics on-board systems led to the use of larger alternators, with bigger inertia, generating even higher vibration levels. The aim of this research is to review alternator pulley design evolution using a systematic approach to engineering design which evolves from the definition of the global function and development of the functional structure through the identification of solution principles and concept generation and prioritization. Conclusions of the research indicate how current designs could evolve to meet future trends in performance and reliability of the FEAD systems.
2012-36-0230 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Analysis of the influence of pre-loading in the rating life calculation of tapered roller bearings applied to lightweight front-axle differentials
Autoria: GABRIEL FIGLIE MACEDO, FABIO NONATO DE PAULA
Resumo: For intricate automotive systems that enclose several components, such as gearboxes, an important aspect of the design is defining the correct assembly parameters. A proper assembly can ensure optimized operating conditions and therefore the components can achieve a longer life. In the case of the support bearings applied to front-axle lightweight differentials, the assembly preload is a major aspect for an adequate performance of the system. During the design phase it is imperative to define reference values to this preload, so the application would endure its requirements. However, with the assistance of computer simulations, it is possible to determine an optimum condition of operation, i.e. optimum pre-load, which would increase the system reliability. This paper presents a study on the influence of preload on the rating life of tapered roller bearings applied to light-weight front axle differentials, evaluating how preload affects several key parameters such as rating life and displacement of components, taking into account the flexibility of the surrounding differential housing.
2012-36-0231 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Reduction of Experimental Data Points in the Base Calibration by Estimation of Engine Maps Using Regularized Basis Function Neural Networks
Autoria: EDUARDO DE MELO REZENDE E S. XAVIER, RODRIGO WESTPHAL, WANDERSON NAVEGANTES RODRIGUES
Resumo: The estimation of calibration maps for engine control systems is not a trivial problem. Approximation of these maps depends on experimental data obtained on an engine dynamometer, which may require a great number of test points. There are also some working regions in which steady state measurements cannot be taken. Thus, the map surface must be estimated from a finite set of data, that does not cover the whole working conditions. High order polynomial models tend to produce oscillating functions, and low order ones cannot cover the whole of the data’s characteristics. Therefore in this paper is presented a method for approximation of engine calibration maps with a Neural Network model, using a Regularized Radial Base Function.
2012-36-0232 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: STUDY OF MILLING OF TITANIUM HYDRIDE POWDERS AIMING THE REDUCTION OF OXYGEN AS INTERSTITIAL ELEMENT
Autoria: SERGIO LUIS GRACIANO PETRONI, EDUARDO TAVARES GALVANI, VINICIUS RODRIGUES HENRIQUES, LAILA RIBEIRO DE ANDRADE
Resumo: Titanium and its alloys are widely used in many industrial fields from automotive and aerospace engineering to biomedical applications due to their high strengths to weight ratio, low density, good fatigue properties, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Titanium powder metallurgy using hydride powders is an advantageous alternative for the production of parts with at a relative low cost. However, milling of hydride powders is susceptible to contamination by interstitial elements (mainly oxygen). Interstitials are those elements whose atoms are significantly smaller than atoms of titanium, and can be dissolved in the crystal lattice as solid solution without substituting the titanium atom sites. The high content of these elements dissolved into α or β phase of titanium is directly related to the increase in microhardness and reduction of ductility (embrittlement). The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of the milling process for the absorption of oxygen aiming the reduction of this contamination in the processed powders. The process was carried out in a ball mill, under argon atmosphere, using a glove box. The particle sizes were varied with milling times of powders. After milling, samples were isostatically pressed and sintered at 1200 ºC. Oxygen contents were determined by the inert-gas fusion technique with infrared detection. The results indicated that the oxygen levels can be reduced by means of powder processing in shorter periods of time and under controlled conditions of protection with argon atmosphere in glove box.
2012-36-0235 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Sprint engine crankcases commonization: design concept in benefit of the whole automotive chain
Autoria: EDUARDO VILABOA FACHAL, ROBERTO CARLOS DE CASTRO SILVA, PAULO ROLIN, SIMONE GONÇALVES DE OLIVIERA, EDSON WILIAN DA SILVA
Resumo: Companies all around the world have realized that internal cost reduction focus as well as real cooperation between the supply chain are key factors for market success. There is also an understanding that labor and pricing negotiations have a relatively small influence on total product cost as the design intelligence, oriented to cost, quality and manufacturing, sets 70% or more of the product price. The purpose of this paper is to present the Sprint Engine Cylinder Blocks Commonization Project which was implemented after 1 year of hard work. This achievement impacted in: Pricing & Tooling cost reduction; Quality improvements – better casting & less weight; Managerial efficiency – ordered components dropped from 45 to 28 parts; Logistics optimization – less components to manage, stock and feed the assembly lines; Machining optimization – takt time & setup reduction, tools commonization; Foundry optimization – new block smarter design delivers several process benefits: less cores, easier manufacturability and less scrap level. That’s an extraordinary example of how important persistence is to overcome technical issues during the engineering development and how the whole automotive chain can work together in benefit of everybody: MWM International, Customers and Suppliers. Many tried, one get the job done by the comprehension that problems are not stop signs, they are guidelines. This is a matter of conscience and survival for any company, but especially the automotive ones, as part of one of the most competitive markets in the world.
2012-36-0236 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: TI/TIN MULTILAYER COATINGS ON TITANIUM ALLOYS
Autoria: OCTÁVIO CAMARGO SCHICHI, EDUARDO TAVARES GALVANI, VINICIUS RODRIGUES HENRIQUES, JOSÉ LUIS DE OLIVEIRA,
Resumo: Titanium alloys have been widely used in manufacturing of fans, compressor disks, and blades of advanced aircraft engines. However, titanium alloys are very sensitive to fretting fatigue damage, which may affect the safe reliability of the aircraft engine compressor. The multilayer coatings seem to be the most promising coating concept due to many requirements (e.g. multifunctional character, moderate residual stresses, good adherence to metallic substrates, proper hardness to toughness ratio and low friction coefficients) for a titanium alloy exposed to complex wear conditions. This work aims the development of techniques for production of Ti/TiN multilayer coatings by Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) in order to define the influence of the number and thickness of the layers in the surface hardness of Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys produced by powder metallurgy (P/M) from elemental hydrides. The samples were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction and Vickers indentation. The multilayers presented a continuous and columnar structure, large thickness and high adhesion to the substrates. It was possible to establish a relation involving the number and the thickness of the layers with the final surface hardness.
2012-36-0237 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Development of PCB Antenna applied to electronic automotive systems.
Autoria: JOSE MAURICIO DE OLIVEIRA NETO, GUSTAVO HENRIQUE NORONHA GONÇALVES, MURILO OLIVEIRA DE MORAES, LUIZ GUSTAVO VITAL
Resumo: Development of PCB Antenna applied to electronic automotive systems. A technical, economic and productive over view of an innovative solution. This study presents an overview about technical, economic and productive aspects observed during extremely low cost printed PCB antenna development, applied in a compact and low cost automotive embedded body computer, through a comparative between actual solutions and proposed solution, highlighting the electrical and physics characteristics , the difficulties on the manufacturing process including the test and logistics procedures. The study results are presented through testing, electromagnetic simulations and analysis of the economic viability of this innovation
2012-36-0239 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: PASSIVE SAFETY IN THE COACH INDUSTRY: LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND KEY TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Autoria: SALVADOR RUIZ, MATEUS NOBRE DAL PICCOL
Resumo: ABSTRACT Public transport is being promoted by many governments in order to reduce road congestions and emissions. When a bus accident occurs it often becomes the focus of media and public attention, especially because the people involved had confidence in the transport and sometimes it is the only means of transport available to them In Europe, in 1987, with the aim of reducing the number of fatal casualties in rollover accidents, the UN-ECE Regulation 66 “UNIFORM TECHNICAL PRESCRIPTIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF LARGE PASSENGER VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE STRENGTH OF THEIR SUPERSTRUCTURE”(1) was published and in 2000 the UN-ECE Regulation 16 “Uniform provisions concerning the approval of Safety-belts, restraint systems, child restraint systems and ISOFIX child restraint systems for occupants of power-driven vehicles “ included specific requirement for coach . From this stage, the countries where the passive safety regulation is a concern have adopted different strategies. Some of this countries have joint the UN ECE 58 Agreement to adopt in their national type approval the UN ECE technical requirements, meanwhile others have adopted their own standards as Brazil with the CONTRAN number 316. USA is also working hard in its own standards, where U.S. Department of Transportation has generated the “Motorcoach Safety Action Plan” which encourage the rulemaking on safety belts installation and roof integrity. This paper will show and compare different safety requirements for the following markets, USA, South America and Europe. Additional we will be analyzing the main technical strategies used by the motor coach manufacturers to meet these requirements.
2012-36-0240 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Improvement in automotive electrical connection ergonomics through six-sigma methodology and design of experiments (DOE) application
Autoria: CRISTIANO MARQUES DE OLIVEIRA
Resumo: Due to the automakers constant need for better manufacturing processes, there is strong demand for components that meet the present ergonomic requirements, where the mating force is a major factor in the automotive electrical connections development. The mating force can be significantly reduced through design changes, even in connection originally developed for applications with different requirements. This paper aims to show how the use of six-sigma methodology and design of experiments (DOE) can increase the reliability in the adaptation of an existing project for a new application in comparison to empirical and "one factor at a time" (OFAT) methods.
2012-36-0242 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: TI - Tecnologia da Informação
Título do Paper: Code Optimization Technique and Structure in C language for embedded
Autoria: ALEXANDRE AMBROSIO GALVAO
Resumo: The application and importance of the electronics associated computer programs have grown dramatically in the automotive industry. In addition, the algorithms embedded in these micro-controlled systems have become increasingly complex, a factor that influences directly on the storage capacity and processing device. Therefore, it is of vital importance to the optimization of two main parts: (1) prioritize Optimizing performance in processing - Methods of structuring Software so that the processor is better partitioned, thus emphasizing the best performance (2) prioritizing the reduction in code optimization - An analysis involving the processor type, the basic instruction set and programming method can greatly facilitate the work performed by the compiler. These two main areas of optimization, do not walk in the same direction are competitors and are in opposite directions by impacting on the objectives determined for each. So it is necessary an overview of optimization techniques to better benefit from them. The aim of this paper is to explore the analysis of methods for the development of the firmware can achieve the highest levels of optimization, opting either for performance and for reducing the code, the application modules embedded micro controlled. Keywords: Embedded Systems, Optimization, Performance, Reduce; C language;
2012-36-0244 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Smart Lockwire: A shape memory alloy lockwire for improved reliability in bolted fixing in automotive and aeronautical sectors.
Autoria: HENRIQUE MARTINNI RAMOS DE OLIVEIRA, PEDRO AUGUSTO SOBRAL ESPINDOLA, ESTEPHANIE NOBRE DANTAS GRASSI, CARLOS JOSE DE ARAUJO
Resumo: Shape memory alloys (SMA) have a unique behavior due to a reversible phase transformation between two solid crystalline structures: martensite (low temperature and low stiffness phase) and austenite (high temperature and a higher stiffness phase). This transformation can occur either as a result of temperature change or mechanical stress load, both above characteristic critical values of these materials. Due to the reversible nature of this phenomenon, direct transformation occurs when austenite transforms into martensite and reverse transformation when the opposite occurs. The latter is induced by raising the temperature and it is this process that occurs during the generation of significant associated forces through the undergone deformation recovering of the material, being of fundamental importance for the use as actuators. The use of lockwires is common in aviation and automotive industries as an extra precaution to prevent possible screw loosening (due to vibration, temperature increase or other external forces) in bolted joints where it is not possible to use locking nuts. The use of a lockwire is also a requirement for approval in safety technical inspections present in maintenance standards in aviation and motor racing. The operating principle of a conventional lockwire is to lock, through a metal wire, one or more screws that are not using locking nuts. Usually made of stainless steel, these fasteners have the characteristic of acting passively on the screws. In this context, the objective of this paper is to present a lockwire manufactured with a Ni-Ti SMA able to work actively on the bolts through their tendency to contraction with increasing temperature. The force generated by the phase transformation of the Ni-Ti SMA wire promotes an extra torque on the screw union, further reducing the risk of loosening and thus increasing system reliability. Keywords: Shape Memory Alloys, Actuators, Screwed Fittings, Lockwire.
2012-36-0245 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: New Challenges and Technologies for the Emissions Monitoring System (OBD) in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines to Meet the Requirements of the PROCONVE P7
Autoria: LEONARDO DE OLIVEIRA COSTA, RODRIGO SILVA SANTOS
Resumo: Due to the independent operation between the aftertreatment systems and the engine, the aim of the On Board Diagnostic System (OBD) is to ensure the engine emissions stay within the emissions standards during the whole vehicle useful life. In the case of the heavy duty diesel vehicles that use the Selective Catalytic Reduction System (SCR) or the Exhaust Gas Recirculation System (EGR) as the NOx aftertreatment technologies to meet the stringent emissions levels, the use of sensors in the exhaust pipe is required to control and to monitor the engine emissions. These are new and great challenges to the national diesel engine developers who are working with these systems to get the homologation certification. Accurate mathematic models within the automotive control strategies are becoming ever more important and are strongly used to monitor the NOx emissions directly (in case of SCR systems using the NOx sensor) or indirectly (in case of EGR systems using the Lambda sensor). The subject of this paper is to study the operation of the aftertreatment systems, to explore the charactheristics of the NOx and Lambda sensors and to analyse their behaviour in real applications, applying them into the emissions control and monitoring systems to achieve the legal requirements.
2012-36-0247 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Forward 1D Vehicle Dynamics Simulation focused on Fuel Consumption Concerns with the Inclusion of the Complete Driveline and Accessory Load Influence
Autoria: FABIO LUZ ALMEIDA, HERICKSON FARIA DE MORAES, DAMIAN SOKOLOWSKI, GIULLIANO HUMBERTO CAPANA
Resumo: A great part of the projects in the Powertrain area are focused on the development of more efficient thermal applications. In the end, efficiency is pursued, since the aim is to achieve a sustainable design with low fuel consumption. Thus, vehicles which present lower fuel consumption are very appreciated by customers. Additionally the emission regulations standards have been pushing the limits of CO2 to very low levels, which drive us to develop lower fuel consumption vehicles. In summary, the product should now please a more demanding worldwide customer profile as economy grows everywhere. In the vehicle design process the concerns with fuel consumption should early accomplish the engine and the drive train studies together. Frequently the desired fuel consumption could only be confirmed when the first prototype is assembled in order to validate the adopted solutions. On the other hand, the project timing is another very present constraint, so that, even using planning of experiments (e.g. DoE) not every single proposed design can be tested. In this sense, the use of numerical simulation resources has been more and more welcome to shorten project timings. A vehicle simulation was done of a 4 cylinder Diesel ICE coupled with the full driveline of the vehicle including its accessories; the numerical 1D model, built in GT-Drive, a Gamma Technologies, Inc. code. Multi-body dynamics method was used with explicit consideration of accessory loads and the engine, which was represented by their maps evaluated at the dyno, namely BMEP, FMEP and BSFC. The model calibration was done using some route acquisitioned data in order to reproduce the measured fuel consumption under some specific vehicle cruise conditions and 3 accelerations ramp situations. The pedal position was assigned by dealing with a PID controller faking a virtual driver behavior. The gear shift schedule was calculated reversely by inspection pursuing a reasonable correlation of the entire fuel rate simulated and measured. The aerodynamics features and the rolling resistance coefficient were adopted based on information provided by the customer and the wheel dynamics radius were backward calculated using GPS vehicle speed data, engine speed and drive line ratios. This paper brings a study of the inclusion of the accessory loads in a proper and fair enough way. Their loads have been considered through their power consumption curve. Each one of them has been studied and modeled in order to get a representative power curve shape. Then, they were all included in the 1D dynamics model. The final numerical model presented 4% of max difference in total fuel consumption in comparison to measurements for all 6 cruise situation without the need of any calibration adjustment, which is an usual practice worldwide. The acceleration behavior of the model presented max difference of 7% (with a minimum of 2%) in comparison to measurements in terms of acceleration times and vehicle displacements. The aforementioned results were considered excellent from the perspective of the adopted 1D approach. The model has already served as a good basis to evaluate the contribution of each accessory load on the total fuel consumption in order to provide technical basis for a system optimization, which might lead to an eventual modification of the accessory design. Last but not least, it may help with the accessory supplier competition.
2012-36-0248 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Influences on longitudinal tire stiffness in dry pavement braking with ABS (Anti-Lock Brake System)
Autoria: EDUARDO DE BACCO CENCI
Resumo: Today’s chassis systems control can use directly or indirectly tire slip targets. For this reason its calibration and the vehicle dynamics become dependent on the relationship between tire slip ratio and generated force. This study analyses longitudinal tire stiffness variables - like tread-depth and inflation pressure - and its influences to vehicle dynamics during braking with ABS. Tire slip might be maintained, depending on the situation, successfully in levels lower than the ones found at peak braking force, thus still located in the stable and linear part of the slip ratio curve. Thence, not only changes in the maximum achievable braking performance become relevant. For these analyses experimental tests are performed with the help of an ABS sample with parameters open for calibration.
2012-36-0249 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: An On-board Ethanol Concentration Sensor for the Brazilian Market
Autoria: BRIAN MCKAY
Resumo: A flex fuel engine is capable of operating efficiently on any combination of gasoline and ethanol. However, an engine combustion strategy must adapt quickly to a change in ethanol concentration after a refueling event in order to achieve optimum engine combustion. Typical control systems rely on an exhaust gas oxygen sensor (lambda) to measure changes in oxygen concentration following combustion. This feedback control approach can take five to ten minutes to detect the fuel change and correct the combustion strategy. This relatively long lag time could result in suboptimal engine performance such as a loss of engine power, engine knocking, poor cold start performance, unburned hydrocarbons, and high pollutant emissions. To counter this shortcoming, an on-board flex fuel sensor (FFS) was developed to enable a feed-forward control strategy. The FFS may be installed inline between the fuel tank and fuel injector and measure the fuel prior to it reaching the injector. The FFS sensor estimates the concentration of ethanol in the fuel in real-time using a correlation based on permittivity, conductivity, and temperature of the fuel flowing through the sensor. The FFS is specifically designed for the Brazilian market and is calibrated to measure the anhydrous ethanol and hydrous ethanol contained in gasohol and alcohol respectively. The sensor can accurately estimate the total ethanol concentration (anhydrous plus hydrous) within +/- five volume percent for any combination of gasohol and alcohol. The sensor can operate with a fuel temperature range of -40°C to 95°C. In addition, the FFS provides diagnostic capability and is able to identify and report water contamination to the engine control module.
2012-36-0251 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: L2 Engineering - The next leap to become a Lean and Green organization
Autoria: LANDO TETSURO NISHIDA, JIA LYNG TANG
Resumo: Lean principles were introduced in Brazil in 1998 to several companies [Lean Institute Brasil]. Since them, those who want to implement lean principles focus mainly on building a robust lean process [Womack & Jones], becoming excellence models within their corporative group. But frequently they face an obstacle when they try to implement a lean process, even when the organization has a clear purpose and engaged people: the lack of Lean designed equipment, which avoids obtaining the maxim benefits of a real lean process. In parallel, since 2007 LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification was introduced in Brazil growing significantly each year achieving the number 4 country with more sustainable design constructions in the world behind USA, UAE and China. But recently, a research entitled “Identification of Safety Risks for High Performance Sustainable Construction Projects” [Hallowell] shows that LEED certified constructions sites led to a one-third higher risk of workplace injury compared to traditional construction counterparts. The L2 Engineering is a methodology based on LEAN (1st L) principles, in one side to design Lean equipment, to design Lean processes and consequently, designs a Lean plant. In other side, those Lean plants and buildings are also designed with LEED (2nd L) certification norms. This paper describes the key concepts and design methodology of L2 Engineering to deliver a Lean plant and operational sites. It also provides constructions that attend LEED norms ensuring safe standard conditions required at this kind of work environment. The companies designed with L2 Engineering will be the next leap to become a Lean and Green organization. Key words: Lean design, Lean process, LEED certification, Lean and Green, Sustainable construction.
2012-36-0252 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Influence of operating parameters in grease loss of rolling bearing
Autoria: LUDMILA CORREA DE ALKMIN SILVA, GILSON APARECIDO SANTOS, ANDRE FERNANDES DA SILVA, GUSTAVO DOS SANTOS GIORIA
Resumo: The main purpose of the lubrication in the rolling bearing is to avoid and to reduce the metal to metal contact, thus with this it is possible to reduce the friction and to prevent the wear between the balls and the raceways. Consequently, the rolling bearing should work with grease or oil inside to guarantee an oil film between the balls and the raceways, thus this grease should stay inside of the bearing. To avoid the grease loss normally the bearing can have a sealing but even so a little grease loss can occur. Like that the present investigation was initiated because of the need to understand a grease loss and the basic parameter that has influence on this. To help the elaboration of the experimental tests was used a Doe technique, thus it was possible to determinate simultaneously the individual and interactive effects of many factors that affect in the grease loss. The results were satisfactory and it was able to visualize the operating parameters that have a higher influence in the grease leak and also the behavior of the grease leak in a period of time.
2012-36-0253 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Discrete event simulation applied to feeding routes
Autoria: TAIS MARINA VALERIANO
Resumo: The discrete event simulation is an important manufacturing tool and has been used to anticipate problems that could be generated by development of new projects and to guide solutions to process’ conflicts that already exists. This paper’s goal is to present a case study where using the simulation was possible to verify the impact of insert one more feeding route in an engine’s factory. Analyzing the results we could clarify our doubts concern the new route and develop solutions to problems in another routes, that were already implemented.
2012-36-0254 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: The application of camshaft rolling element bearings as a solution for CO2 emission reduction on internal combustion engines
Autoria: FELIPE W. S. TUCKMANTEL, FABIO NONATO DE PAULA, HENRICO GOUVEA DA SILVA
Resumo: As a common trend on the automotive development process, the increase in system efficiency became a major concern for design engineers nowadays. Several are the focuses at which such topic can be dealt with, including full systems upgrades, electrification and component level optimization. However, there are simpler ways to increase efficiency by only replacing construction concepts that have always been taken for granted. This is the case of replacing the sliding friction of the camshaft hydrodynamic bearings by rolling elements. The direct reduction of the power consumption, when applying rolling element bearings to the camshaft, is a straightforward method to increase the liquid torque available at the crankshaft, hence enabling downsizing. In this paper some design solutions and the structural integrity of the system will be assessed and, most of all, the reduction on the friction torque, hence the increase in system efficiency, which leads to CO2 emission reductions.
2012-36-0255 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: DLC as a low friction coating for engine components
Autoria: JULIANO ARAUJO
Resumo: One important development area for obtaining better fuel economy is to reduce mechanical friction losses in engine components. The power cell and follower components are a significant source of mechanical friction loss in an automobile engine. High attention has been given to the development of new materials that not only reduce friction, but also show a suitable wear resistance as well. Amorphous carbon (a-C:H, a-C:H:Me and a-C:H:X) usually called as DLC (Diamond-Like-Carbon) coatings have a high potential to fulfill these requirements, providing significant potential for a solution under these demanding service condition. This paper presents the evaluation of DLC coatings at piston rings, liners, pins and cam-follower systems through the results from the development of suitable DLC configurations for each of these applications. The design differentiation from DLC configurations are related to particular running conditions of each of the analyzed products. The results are strongly based on running engine tests. However evaluations are improved by the use of detailed bench tests and metallurgical characterization.
2012-36-0258 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: VALIDATION OF FINITE ELEMENT AND MULTIBODY MODELS OF CRANKSHAFT BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF COMPONENT’S LIFE
Autoria: GUILHERME ALMEIDA CUNHA, ANDRE DIAS HENRIQUES, DANIEL TEIXEIRA GERVASIO
Resumo: Currently one of the engine engineering’s greatest challenges is the optimization of components with weight decrease without compromising their structural and dynamic behavior under the increasingly higher loads derived from the combustion pressures. This challenge has required a greater knowledge of the mechanical components and numerical computational methods for the parts evaluation. The crankshaft is one of the main components responsible for converting combustion energy into mechanical energy of rotation. The design of the crankshaft is made to withstand high loads of bending and torsion. In order to evaluate the stresses in the crankshaft, structural bending and torsion analysis were performed by finite elements method. From the results of these analysis, virtual fatigue analysis were also performed, intending to validate the numerical model with experimental tests, based on the results of component life. The same bending and torsion analysis were performed in a multibody model, and the stress results were correlated with those obtained from the validated finite element model.
2012-36-0260 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Criteria to establish the best positioning of electrical centers in electrical/electronic vehicle architecture
Autoria: RENATO GENTIL, MAURICIO A V DA SILVA, LUÍS FELIPIN
Resumo: The constant evolution of vehicles over the years, both in application of accessories, features, and also legislation requirements, is demanding more space to provide the vehicle with electrical centers in the electro-electronic architectures. Due to this fact we have several tendencies on the best practice placement of electrical centers, creating a miscellany of difficult concepts and standardization of components in the development of new projects for various OEMs, thereby increasing the financial impact of electrical/electronic development. Based on this application line, this study aims to identify the best concept of the electrical/electronic architecture for the positioning of the electrical center to be used, either in the engine compartment or internal compartment or in both cases simultaneously, analyzing technical details, financial and OEM's specifications, generated by solid data contained in this research line study. For that, we divided the study in two parts: The first part of this study is a brief description of the main components involved in the vehicle electrical centers. This way we can align concepts and classifications for the continuation of the study. The second part of the study describes in detail the distribution of electrical centers in a B category vehicle, scoring several important characteristics that must be taken into account in a distribution of electrical charges. With this, we have the technical and financial details for analysis, considering indexes of merit, defined according to specific criteria and the application of an evaluation methodology, allowing choosing conclusively the best practice placement of components in the vehicle electrical/electronic architecture.
2012-36-0262 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Paradox of miniaturization trend versus Hybrid Electrical vehicle requirements
Autoria: IVAN ALVES DE ALMEIDA, LUIS CARLOS MARCOCCIA, ENRICO FARIA CURIONE, MARCELO MACHADO FERNANDES
Resumo: In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables. In the other hand there is a remarkable miniaturization over automotive Power and Signal Distribution System components following by electronically controlled systems growth to meet customers’ demands in quality requirements, driver safety and comfort, and infotainment networking applications. So the scope of this work is to present scenarios of literature as well as reported point of view from automotive wiring harness experts who are facing and discussing potential benefits of Hybrid or electrical vehicles and alternatives for 14/42V Power Supply Systems impact on E/E architecture in contrast with automotive miniaturization trends for the Brazilian Market demands.
2012-36-0264 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: LAMINATE OF COMPOSITES OF NATURAL FIBER (são-tomé banana) AND POLYESTER MATRIX
Autoria: WASSIM RAJA EL BANNA
Resumo: The banana is among the most economically important crops for tropical and subtropical countries. The fibers of this tree are currently having great use in craft production, but it has been studied by many researchers to turn it into a high quality material for engineering. Due to its abundance and easy of cultivation, in obtaining the benefits to be used as reinforcement in polymer. The extraction of the fibers of the banana pseudostem was done manually and without any chemical treatment. The fibers used in this study were drawn from the middle region of the pseudostem (trunk) of banana São-Tomé. They were characterized for their tensile strength, diameter, density and moisture content. The materials used for manufacture of polymeric composites were banana fibers, manually extracted from the pseudostem of banana São-Tomé (Musa sapientum, Musaceae), and a matrix of resin terephthalic unsatured polyester and pre-accelerated chosen from the proportions of a 0,33% (v / v) 1,66% (v / v) 3,33% (v / v) and 5% (v / v) which was initially studied. In the manufacture of composite resin was used in combination with banana fibers with lengths of 5 mm and the mass fraction of 4,41%, 5,41% and 6,41%. The specimens were fabricated by molding using molds manual silicone release agent without and without pressure. The results are compared with other polymeric composites using natural fibers as reinforcements. We obtained the results of tensile strength and density, of banana fiber (middle region), respectively, 1387 MPa and 1,56 g/cm3. The pure matrix with less curing agent, 0,33% (v / v) showed the best performance among the tested compositions, based on this, this proportion will be used for the production of other composites and as a standard for comparison among all series manufactured. The tensile strength of composites banana 5 mm with mass fraction of 4,41% was 26,60 MPa, for composites with mass fraction of 5,41% was 30,78 MPa, and for the mass fraction of composites 6,41% was 25,80 MPa.
2012-36-0265 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Validation of polymeric material models and design models to the virtual analysis of an automotive joint
Autoria: MARCELO ADRIANO DO CARMO SILVA, JULIANO SAVOY, MAURO MORAES DE SOUZA
Resumo: In the business world, there is a global trend to adding environmental factors in the decision making process of new businesses. This rule has also being applied to the automotive market, for the weight reduction of vehicles is a requirement to a sustainable mobility. Considering this new business perspective, the OEM´s and auto-parts continuously look for new materials to replace metallic alloys to be used in their new components. Polymeric materials have been a good solution for the Automotive Industry; nevertheless, this kind of material presents new challenges in the knowledge field, due to the difficulties in modeling the mechanical behavior when compared to metal alloys, to the bigger dependence on manufacturing deviations process, and to the repeatability of mechanical properties data between manufacturers and environmental conditions. These challenges increase when polymeric materials are submitted to the virtual development of automotive components by finite elements simulation. The lack of satisfactory and specific technical literature about polymeric materials supported by the finite element method, justifying the continued development of procedures to the achievement and the refinement of data processing in attempt to create reliable data according to special material. The aim of this work is to present a procedure to model polymeric material data, as an input to a finite element software. The mathematical model used in the FEM simulation and the quality of the simulation results when compared with a real application of an automotive joint is discussed.
2012-36-0266 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: STUDY OF REQUIREMENTS OF A CLUTCH RELEASE SYSTEM IN A PASSENGER CAR AND THE RELATION TO TEST SPECIFICATIONS FOR PRODUCT VALIDATION ON TEST RIGS.
Autoria: GILSON APARECIDO SANTOS, LEVI NASCIMENTO DA SILVA, RAFAEL ANTONIO AMORIM ZANINI, ANDERSON L.M. GUTIERRES, THIAGO CAETANO FREITAS, ALFONS ROBERT WAGNER
Resumo: Considering the increase of competitiveness and the increasing demand by efficient and cheaper vehicles, the automotive manufacturers have standardized their products to supply all consumer markets. The knowledge of peculiarity of each market and the real conditions in application are a stating point to reduce the development and homologation time and costs of new products. To distinguish the local market and support the development of robust products, this paper presents a study of requirements of a clutch release system in a passenger car in normal use at several routes and the relation between the application conditions and test specifications used for product validation on test rigs.
2012-36-0268 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Experimental investigation of the accuracy level of a straightforward systematic fuel consumption model for small-size vehicles
Autoria: RENAN FRANCISCO PIRES DA SILVA, FABIO NONATO DE PAULA, BRENO GARCIA CARNEIRO, GABRIEL FIGLIE MACEDO, THIAGO CAETANO DE FREITAS
Resumo: Following the trend on fuel efficiency savings and eco-design, automotive engineers have come to a point where even the smallest gains are taken as great opportunities on the war against emissions. One of the intricate tasks on this quest is to correctly estimate the fuel consumption savings even before any prototypes are made, hence during the concept and modeling phase. Therefore the simulation of standards driving cycles through the vehicle`s longitudinal dynamics has become increasingly important and common for engineering design. For this reason it is essential to evaluate the performance of the simulation through consistent validation metrics that allows a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data. This paper presents a simple systematic mechanical model that estimates the fuel consumption of an arbitrary small-size hatch back in a specific driving cycle, with all the modeling details of the energy balance throughout the system, as well as, the procedure of the test that reproduces the simulated conditions and the validation methods with different validation metrics. Besides, this work examines how the present metrics should be interpreted for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as, the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment computational model.
2012-36-0271 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY TESTS RESULTS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Autoria: ROBSON ASSIS MAGALHAES, KLEBER NOGUEIRA HODEL, DANIEL VITOR FARIA CARDIA, PASCHOAL FEDERICO NETO
Resumo: The constant advance of electronics in the various automotive systems and subsytems brings a lot of oppotunities and chalenges related to electromagnetic compatibility, regarding immunity and the emission of electric and magnetic fields. The evaluation of the electromagnetic compatibility is performed through tests that verify the vehicle behaviour in face of these parameters. The tests results and the approval criteria are linked to the electrical characteristics of the electric and magnetic fields, as well as the electrical systems behaviour. This paper presents a methodology to analyze the electromagnetic compatibility tests results.
2012-36-0272 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Methodology for developing and validating air brake tubes for commercial vehicles
Autoria: SILVIA FARIA IOMBRILLER, DAURI MANUEL DE SÁ EIRAS, MARCOS R. SOUZA
Resumo: The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised, as this is an important raw material predominant on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of choosing, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements. The possible alternative materials have been tested under different chemical, mechanical and thermal conditions, also respecting specific characteristics on heavy commercial vehicles application. In addition, static, dynamic and cyclic aging tests were performed in order to simulate its performance through the entire life of the vehicle. Also, parameters such as cost, assembly impact, handling and storing in assembly line and serviceability have been evaluated on this study.
2012-36-0273 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Performance evaluation methodology for frequency-dependent shock-absorbers
Autoria: VINÍCIUS LEITÃO SERRANO, GUILHERME CARAVIERI DE ABREU
Resumo: This work is dedicated to develop a methodology for evaluating the performance of frequency-dependent shock absorbers. Conventional shock absorbers are usually only dependent on the velocity excitation, making the diagrams force versus velocity and force versus displacement enough for its characterization. However, frequency-dependent shock-absorbers adds a second variable (frequency) to this characterization, making necessary different tests than those currently used in the automotive industry. It makes mandatory a testing method in the frequency domain, able of evaluating the force variation of the shock absorber not only in terms of speed, but also the frequency of excitation. To develop this work were made comparative tests between conventional and frequency-dependent shock absorbers.
2012-36-0275 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Computational Modeling of Polymer Composite reinforced by natural Fibers
Autoria: JOSÉ MANOEL FREIRE GUIMARÃES
Resumo: The use of composite materials has increased in recent decades in various industries, especially in the aerospace and automotive. Given this fact is of fundamental importance the knowledge of their properties and their behavior when required mechanically. This work is mainly focused on the analysis of polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers by the Finite Element Method (FEM). The two types of composites analyzed were fabricated in order to use the lowest possible level of processing, which may favor its choice in a future use. The matrix used in both cases is the pre-accelerated polyester resin and the reinforcements are the Sisal and Curuauá fibers, which already widely used in the automotive industry, the both fibers were arranged in the matrix in a continuous and aligned manner. By the FEM is possible to determine and analyze, both numerically and graphically, the distribution of mechanical stress in the matrix and the reinforcement of the composite. However, for a first analysis of complex stress state in the composite material is necessary to make some simplifications such as: to assume that the two materials have isotropic properties, to consider that the natural fiber has a cylindrical geometry and in order to consider the fiber-matrix interface as perfect. Finally, this paper aims to analyze the distribution of mechanical stress due to the variation of the concentration of fibers in the composite and determine what percentage makes more homogeneous stress distribution in the material.
2012-36-0276 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Wear at sliding tube and ptfe in clutch systems
Autoria: LEVI NASCIMENTO DA SILVA, GILSON APARECIDO SANTOS, RAFAEL ANTONIO AMORIM ZANINI, ALINE CRISTINA UEMA BUENO, MAURICIO CORREA, TIAGO WILLIAN CASTELHANO
Resumo: The clutch actuating systems evaluated from mechanic to semi-hydraulic and to finally to hydraulic. Over this time, it was necessary to improve the projects reducing vibrations and discomfort during clutch actuation. In search of the design improvement, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer, which is an important engineering material and also very popular due to its resistance to chemical attack in a wide variety of solvents and solutions, high melting point and low coefficient of friction when it slides against a hard surface. However, the weakness of PTFE is its poor wear resistance. This present work aims to evaluate the wear between the sliding tube and the PTFE after tests performed in rigs under predefined and controlled conditions, such as, temperature, sliding velocity, amount of actuations, application of dirty solution outside and samples with minimal and maximum interference.
2012-36-0277 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: DESIGN AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF A STUB AXLE FRONT SUSPENSION
Autoria: ANDRÉ CERVIERI, ANTONIO FLAVIO AIRES RODRIGUES, LUIZ CARLOS GERTZ, JULIAN ROBERT GIOVANAZ, MARILIA AMARAL DA SILVEIRA
Resumo: This paper describes the design and the analysis of a stub axle front suspension developed to a rear-wheel drive of an automotive prototype. The automotive prototype is a vehicle developed for use on public roads with motor and transmission located at the rear and four-wheel independent suspension, with capacity for two occupants. By means of a finite element software, they were analyzed the efforts that acted on the steering and suspension components that interacted with the sleeve axis The stub axle is subjected to various loads in various ways, due to several conditions imposed by the motion that occur due to movement of the vehicle. They were analyzed three situations during the simulations: straight due to the movement of the vehicle, making a turn and during a braking situation. The analysis of the structure in those three situations allowed obtaining some characteristics, such as their strengths and critic regions where those efforts were higher. Based on the results obtained during the simulations, it was possible to improve the geometry of the stub axle, in order to have a resulting structure with appropriated stress levels distributed on the material in a suitable way and a mass reduction in some places, avoiding an overestimation. The mass reduction is important in the stub axle because it is a component of the unsprung mass of the vehicle. The smaller the unsprung mass of the vehicle, the faster it back to its initial position, which is of extreme importance in a good suspension.
2012-36-0284 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: An innovative lightweight solution for connect a prop shaft with a differential.
Autoria: CHRISTOPH KARL
Resumo: Prob shafts and differentials have been still improved. They are getting even more efficiency and more lightweight. But the interface of these two parts looks still the same since more than 50 years what gives us a great change of improvement. Rear or front axle differential are currently armed with a flange. This flange is necessary to connect the prop shaft frictionally with the differential during the final assembly. Due to the substitution of the universal joint through constant velocity joint gives the possibility of replacing a flange connection by a compact, lighter screwed connection. This paper will present a new single peace screwed solution which fits perfectly on the demands of modern all / rear wheel driven cars.
2012-36-0288 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: A prevailing torque nut with incorporated washer as a solution for rear and front axle fastening
Autoria: JUVENCIO PEREIRA FARIA, MAURO MORAES DE SOUZA, PAULO CESAR SIGOLI, JULIANO SAVOY
Resumo: Wheel hubs are assembled in vehicles through nuts with self-lock features to assure safety. Those features may be an external component like a cotter pin, or a deformable element nut incorporated like polyamide or metallic ring or deformed nut like “stover”. Nuts with some self-locking elements are being used in order to eliminate cotter pins from the system. However, during the maintenance of vehicles, some disadvantages appear like damage in thread axle due “stover” disassembling or the replacement of nut with polyamide ring to assure self-lock featuring. This paper presents a solution to replace “stover” nut in a current front and rear wheel-hub for a passenger vehicle. The study is made comparing a current “stover” model from a polyamide ring nut with an innovative prevailing torque nut with incorporated washer. The solution presents a faster element that does not require any element or post process to get a self-lock feature and allows its reutilization, assuring the self-locking function. The incorporated washer provides system and maintenance cost reduction, has the advantage to be reused without axle’s thread damage disassembling and is error proof during assembling against a missing washer in the system.
2012-36-0291 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Methodology to increase the lifetime of forging tools for automotive components using FEM simulations
Autoria: HAMILTON CORRÊA, PAULO CESAR SIGOLI, MAURO MORAES DE SOUZA
Resumo: Currently, some manufacturers of forged components for automotive industry, in order to maintain competitiveness in the global market, use modern FEM simulation techniques to increase the lifetime of forging tools, but it is common in most of companies, to use the practical experience of senior technicians to improve the lifetime of the tooling. This paper presents a methodology based on FEM analysis to take decision to improve the lifetime of forging tools. Virtual and experimental results are used to predict the lifetime of tooling, increasing the productivity and the profitability.
2012-36-0292 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF A DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING WITH FUMIGATED ETHANOL FUEL
Autoria: MACKLINI DALLA NORA, PAULO ROMEU MOREIRA MACHADO, JONAS ROBERTO TIBOLA, HILTON ABILIO GRUNDLING, LUÍS FELIPE MANTEY DOS SANTOS, MARIO EDUARDO SANTOS MARTINS
Resumo: Due to the ever growing environmental concern regarding global warming and CO2 emissions, the use of renewable fuels has become increasingly important. Thus, substituting fossil fuels such as Diesel by ethanol from sugar cane can be a good alternative. There are, however, several ways of performing it. One of the simplest methods is to use fumigated ethanol with an electronic fuel injection system, while keeping a minimum amount of Diesel to enhance ignition. This paper demonstrates the effects of using fumigated ethanol on performance of a standard power generator 4-cylinder turbocharged Diesel engine. The research combines simulation results with experimental validation. Initially, a one-dimensional computational model of the original engine running solely on Diesel was created and validated for several power levels. After the model was adjusted and provided consistent results, according to the experiments, it was changed for using fumigated ethanol, the same applying to the experimental set-up, in which the engine received the ethanol injection hardware. Performance data was simulated, acquired and analyzed. Indicated and brake values were obtained to validate the final computational model and to point out directions for improvement.
2012-36-0297 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: COMPOSITE LAMITES WITH POLIESTER MATRIX AND BAMBOO FIBERS
Autoria: DEIBSON SILVA DA COSTA, LÉO CÉSAR DE OLIVEIRA PEREIRA
Resumo: The use of composites as engineering materials have gained more space in various sectors of human activity. The strengthening of these composite materials, the plant fibers have advantages compared to synthetic fibers because they are abundant, renewable and recyclable. In this paper, polyester matrix composites reinforced by short bamboo fibers arranged randomly were produced. The matrix used was polyester tereftálica pre-accelerated with cobalt naphthenate and cured with peroxide, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) in proportion to the resin of 0,33% by volume. The bamboo fibers used were extracted from Belém city, Pará. The fibers were manually cut in lengths of 5, 10 and 15 mm. The composites were made by molding by hand without pressure and at room temperature; varying the length of the fibers and different proportions between the components (5 mm – 5,41%); (10 mm – 4,87%) and (15 mm – 3,90%). The fibers were subjected to tensile testing, determination of density and microstructural evaluation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fracture surface. The composites were evaluated in tensile test and evaluation of the fractured surface. Correlating the mechanical properties obtained with the fractográfico aspect. The bamboo fibers showed the tensile strength (501,04 MPa) and density (1,35 g/cm ³). The tensile strength of bamboo composites of 5 mm was 17,94 MPa, for bamboo composites from 10 mm to tensile strength was 21,27 MPa and finally for bamboo composites of 15 mm the strength was 24,05 MPa. The fracture surfaces had the predominant failure mechanisms for each series of made composites.
2012-36-0300 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: CHANGE MATERIAL PROPOSAL FOR AN AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT DUE TO DESIGN BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Autoria: ALEXANDRE DA SILVA SCARI, THIAGO BRITO FAGGIOLI, YURI OSELIERI MILIONE, FREDERICO COSTA RODRIGUES, WELLINGTON ALEXANDRE CUNHA
Resumo: The search for innovative solutions has been object of study all over the world. Among its premises are: cost reduction, application of new materials lighter and stronger, faster production and assembly. The integration of finite element analysis (FEA), experimental tests and Materials Engineering allows the working group to develop an efficient and innovative product. The current paper will explore the development of a clutch pedal joint pin, where the design boundary conditions required innovative solutions, like the adoption of a new material and new geometry. These conditions were evaluated by a finite element model through an non-linear approach, which had its results correlated with experimental tests.
2012-36-0301 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Low cost ISM Band communications network and its application in tracking devices
Autoria: PAULO AUGUSTO RODRIGUES, RAFAEL ALEXANDRE FERRAREZI, CARLOS ROBERTO FRAGNITO, IVO TRIVELLA GIACOMINI
Resumo: Due to the increasing demand for wireless vehicle communication, we present a technical overview of a communication network and of the mobile devices develped aimed to vehicle tracking. The network communications operates over the ISM band. The advantages of this network are their lower costs,its better anti-jamming performance and celular operator independence when compared with a GSM/GPRS network. When compared with other RF based networks is has a better location accuracy and lower operational costs. For location information it uses GPS or it can estimate the location using the received signal radio informations. The estimation is based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) algorithms. The network is already deployed and in operation in several major cities.
2012-36-0302 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Low cost development Strategy for Pre-Compliance Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) tests with a Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell.
Autoria: RODRIGO BARBOSA BRONZERI, AYRES PINTO DE ANDRADE FILHO, JOAO L.DE C. MEIRA, EDSON RODRIGUES NASCIMENTO
Resumo: During development of electronic products , several measurements are performed to ensure the electromagnetic disturbances are in such levels permitted by costumer requirements. Normally these tests are performed in certified laboratories. This usually causes high impact on timing plan and development costs . In order to reduce the time and cost involved on pre-compliance EMC tests , a Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell was used as a tool for fast analysis of proposed design solutions during development of a brushless motor controller. The TEM was used as an Antenna to measure the electromagnetic disturbances (magnetic field) generated by the DUT . A mathematical correlation between the voltage measured by the Antenna (TEM) and results found in a Certified Laboratory are compared and presented.
2012-36-0303 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: ANALYSIS OF THE FRICTION LOSSES IN AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Autoria: MARILIA AMARAL DA SILVEIRA, ANTONIO FLAVIO AIRES RODRIGUES, LUIZ CARLOS GERTZ, ANDRÉ CERVIERI, MÁRCIO AMARAL SENGER
Resumo: This work presents the study of the forces involved in the rubbing friction between the moving parts of the Otto cycle internal combustion engine. In order to allow the measurement of the friction force, a Honda GX 35 engine was modified and a load cell was attached to its chassis. The friction forces between the internal parts of the engine were transferred to the engine chassis, and, by means of a support, to the load cell. Those forces were measured in several situations of the engine, making possible to distinguish the amount of friction related to each component of the engine. The total measured friction power was equal to 112W, representing about 10% of the developed power of the engine. The results obtained by the tests showed the contribution of each individual part of the engine on the friction losses. By the results, it was possible to propose modifications to reduce the engine total internal friction, in order to increase its efficiency. After the measurement of the friction force, new measurements were carried out in order to analyze the influence of the geometry of the pistons on the friction. During the tests, they were employed pistons with a different geometry in relation to the original one. When a modified piston was employed, a reduction of up to 24% could be obtained on the values of friction when compared to those ones produced by original crankshaft – rod – piston assembly. Most of the friction energy is dissipated as heat through the coolant and lubricant. This heat is removed from the system by the water and oil radiators, so the friction losses also have great influence in the cooling system design.
2012-36-0304 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Solutions for bearing fixation on aluminum Water pump housing and anchorage enhancement considering high temperature operation for materials with different coefficient of thermal expansion.
Autoria: VINICIUS DURAZZO NEGRISOLO
Resumo: As part of ordinary development of water pumps for engine cooling system the interaction between materials with different coefficient of thermal expansion is unexceptional. Though in very specific applications where the coolant temperature is over 130°C several factors and variables can cause movement between parts because of the stack up and coefficient of thermal expansion interaction combined with engine vibration and external loads. These factors were listed and evaluated considering several variables being validated physically and by simulation resulting on a optimized method to enhance these kind of fixation.
2012-36-0305 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Austempered ductile iron for gears
Autoria: CARLOS HENRIQUE DA SILVA, WILSON LUIZ GUESSER, FABIO KODA
Resumo: It is discussed the use of ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron) for gears. The gears were produced from continuous cast iron bars, heat treated for grade 3 of ASTM ADI Standard A897M-06 (LR>1200 MPa), and compared to carburized steel AISI 8620 and to induction hardened steel AISI 4140. Tests on gears were made using an equipment developed at UTFPR, measuring the time for pitting and spalling on the surface of the gears. The results show very good potential of using ADI for gears, replacing induction hardened steels. It is discussed additionally the mechanisms of crack propagation under the surface of the gears, for the 3 tested materials.
2012-36-0306 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: Evaluation of the method of failure analysis in angular contact bearings through the Envelope Technique
Autoria: RAFAEL ANTONIO AMORIM ZANINI, LEVI NASCIMENTO DA SILVA, ANDERSON L.M. GUTIERRES, GILSON APARECIDO SANTOS, THIAGO CAETANO FREITAS
Resumo: More efficient and more reliable methods to analyze the performance of the bearing test samples help to reduce validation time during development of rolling bearings. This paper presents a study of the impact on airborne noise and structural borne noise of especially prepared rolling bearings with angular contact submitted for durability tests. The study aims to link specific bearing failures to characteristics in airborne noise and structural borne noise using for instance the "envelope technique". In the future, these patterns enable more effective online monitoring of failure evolution.
2012-36-0309 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITE WITH POLYESTER MATRIX AND NATURAL FIBER (Agave sisalana)
Autoria: DEIBSON SILVA DA COSTA, LÉO CÉSAR DE OLIVEIRA PEREIRA
Resumo: The use of natural fibers in composite materials involves environmental, social and economic factors that must be achieved. This paper presents polyester matrix composites reinforced by short sisal fibers, randomly arranged in the mold without using technological in their production stages. The matrix used was terephthalic pre-accelerated polyester resin in relation curing agent /resin of 0,33% by volume. The sisal fibers were acquired in Belém city. The fibers were manually cut in lengths of 5, 10 and 15 mm. The fibers were characterized mechanically, physically and microstructurally. The composites were made by molding by hand without pressure and at room temperature, varying the length of the fibers in different proportions between the constituents in the relationship fiber length/mass fraction (5 mm / 5,41%)(10 mm / 4,87%) and (15 mm / 3,90%). The composites were evaluated in tensile test and by the fractured surface by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine the dominant failure mechanisms for each series of composites produced. The sisal fibers showed strength (453,62 MPa) and density (1,42 g/cm³). For composite of sisal with 5 mm, the tensile strength was 16,98 MPa, for the composite of sisal with 10 mm, the tensile strength was 22,78 MPa and the composites of sisal with 15 mm, tensile strength was 27,05 MPa. For the sisal composite with greater mechanical resistance, the dominant failure mechanism was the breaking of the fibers, for the sisal composites with lower mechanical resistance, the predominant failure mechanisms were the pull out (tearing of the fibers) and the detachment of the fiber matrix.
2012-36-0314 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: SULPHATE CONTENT FUEL INFLUENCE IN THE FORMATION OF INORGANIC COMPONENT DEPOSITS IN THE ENGINE INJECTORS WITH TECHNOLOGY OF GASOLINE DIRECT INJECTION
Autoria: HEDER FERNANDES, SERGIO LEAL BRAGA, LEONARDO COSTA BRAGA, CARLOS VALOIS MACIEL BRAGA, ANA ROSA FONSECA DE AGUIAR MARTINS
Resumo: The development of a four-stroke engine, spark ignition, with direct injection of fuel into the combustion chamber was an important initiative for the global automotive market. The thermodynamic potential of this type of engine and its significant improvement in fuel economy have meant this technology as focus of a large number of research projects, with the objective to understand, develop and improve the system of direct fuel injection. However, to meet new emission limits set by Euro 5 specification, it was necessary to revaluate the geometry design of the injector, which resulted in the development of a new component with a larger number of holes and with a diameter reduction (multi-holes injector). This change in the project aims to ensure a better spray, optimizing air / fuel ratio and, consequently, a better process of combustion inside the combustion chamber, satisfying the emission limits established by the applicable norms. The processes for preparing the mixture, injection, atomization and air flow control inside the cylinder have been the main source of periodic publications that study the direct injection system. Therefore, this paper purpose is to evaluate the formation of inorganic deposits in the injectors using fuels formulated with different amounts of sulfate. The engine used for running the tests was the EP6CDT of PSA Peugeot Citroën. For this study one has performed tests on test bench and in vehicles (road and dynamometer). Other vehicles, with the same technology available in Brazil, were also tested. The variables evaluated during the project were: the chemical composition of different fuels, the correction factor from the injection time (fra) and flow through the injectors during the tests. This study has indicated that the injector geometry modification, coupled with tested compositions of gasoline, resulted in the formation of deposits that will be discussed throughout this work.
2012-36-0318 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: ANALYSIS OF aerodynamic performance of a HIGH ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROTOTYPE
Autoria: ANTONIO FLAVIO AIRES RODRIGUES, ANDRÉ CERVIERI, LUIZ CARLOS GERTZ, MARILIA AMARAL DA SILVEIRA, TIAGO PORTOLON DA SILVA
Resumo: The objective of this paper is to improve the aerodynamic performance of an automotive prototype. This prototype will be built at the Automotive Engineering Course Laboratory, of the Lutheran University of Brazil – ULBRA. Beginning with the original design, three models were previously analyzed. There were three steps to proceed the aerodynamic simulation on the 3D model: geometry generation with CAD software, mesh generation for the faces and volume involving the car, using a specific software, and solving the flow, with a CFD software. After the previous analysis, the model with the lowest aerodynamic drag was chosen to keep in the work. This model had some modifications on its design, like wheels and their housings, to give a more approximate result. Also, an air deflector was included on the prototype’s back, in the effort to reduce the drag. The obtained results were reasonable, because of the deflector, which gave a drag reduction around 6%.
2012-36-0320 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Route planning for part-feeding of automobile assembly lines
Autoria: LUIZ CACCALANO
Resumo: The definition of routes for part-feeding of production lines is a common problem in companies of the automobile sector. Costs of this activity are relevant and include investments in material handling equipment, its maintenance, man power hiring, storage, containers and information systems. This is a complex problem as many factors are involved: -Number and the mix of products. -Layout of the line, the assembly sequence and the location of work cells. -Line side inventory of parts, limited by the available area for the placement of containers. -Available equipment (trucks, trailers, AGVs) and transportation strategies (point to point, circle, or channel, consolidation point). -Strategies for resupply and command to supply: kanban resupply point, sequencing of parts, delivery schedule. In practice, companies use manual procedures for the determination of routes, often based the in experience of operators and material handling technicians. Solutions tend to be approximate and conservative, overestimating the number of resources or presenting unbalanced routes. Adjustments are done iteratively , demanding much effort of planners until equilibrium and satisfactory performance is achieved. This paper presents two techniques for the definition and validation of routes for part-feeding: -Optimization, based in a heuristic and implemented in a MS-Excel spreadsheet, used for operational purposes. -Discrete event simulation, where work cycles variability, fluctuations in production rates and availability of resources over time can be introduced for a thorough analysis. Real case applications of both techniques are presented showing the benefits of using such tools.
2012-36-0323 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: NUMERIC EVALUATION OF AN AUTOMOTIVE PLASTIC COMPONENT BY MEANS OF A FINITE ELEMENTS MODEL VALIDATED EXPERIMENTALLY TO VERIFICATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF SOME FACTORS ON ITS STRUCTURAL RESISTANCE
Autoria: YURI OSELIERI MILIONE, PRISCILA MELLO GODINHO, SAMUEL BRENO NUNES DE SOUZA
Resumo: The aim of the present work is to create a finite elements model of an automotive plastic component to numeric evaluation of some typically variant factors on its structural resistance. Such factors are the work temperature, the fibers orientation in the polymer structure, the humidity absorption by the plastic and the alteration of the component’s geometry itself. To guarantee the numeric results reliability, an experimental test was performed to validate the virtual model. Such test consisted on the measurement of the force necessary to break the component, using a compression test machine. Validated the model, the finite element analysis contemplating the above mentioned factors were accomplished. This study has great importance in order to reduce the costs in the manufacturing of prototypes for the experimentation cycles, also enabling the evaluation of the component in extreme temperature conditions, where practical tests are complicated or even impracticable. The generation of a reliable numeric model for future evaluations is also an advantage that must be mentioned.
2012-36-0327 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Methodology for design of small UAV aircrafts, focusing on aerodynamic, stability and control
Autoria: BRUNO RICARDO MASSUCATTO PADILHA, GUSTAVO FELIPE PLATTAU, IVO RODRIGUES MONTANHA JUNIOR, DOUGLAS ROBERTO ZAIONS
Resumo: The success of aeronautical design is directly related to methodologies used in the planning and organization of work, allowing the designer to have a global and organized view of the design process. Thus, it is encouraged the specialized information sharing, related to aeronautic design, given the high level of knowledge involved and costly resources used. In this paper, was proposed a design methodology for small aircraft, according to the Mini UAV category, due to the increasing use of such aircraft in civil and military applications in Brazil. This methodology focuses on the aerodynamic design, stability and control of the aircraft, given its importance and complexity to the definition of flight conditions, load capacity, levels of stability and control surface sizing of the aircraft. However, in parallel with the presentation of the methodology, the design of a Mini UAV for surveillance application is shown, following the proposed steps. Thus, it is expected to contribute greatly to the consolidation of aeronautical knowledge about the design of small unmanned aircraft.
2012-36-0329 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Practical evaluation and computational simulation of the effect of engine front end accessory drive (FEAD) dumpers on OBD misfire monitor signal
Autoria: MICHEL ZAMBON ALVES, CRISTIANO MORAES PEDREIRA, ANDREA REGINA DOMINGUES, CLAUDIO HARKOPF LOPES FILHO, BRENO HULLE DA SILVEIRA
Resumo: Misfire monitoring is currently a mandatory On Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulatory requirement in most of the main automotive markets. The most common method used for misfire detection is the one based on the calculation of the derivative of the angular crankshaft velocity in which sharp variations of the derivative signal are associated to misfire events. Therefore, the misfire detection calibration is practically unique for a given engine hardware and installation. Within this context, this Paper will present a practical evaluation and also a computational simulation of the impact of an engine hardware change (front end accessory drive dumpers) on the calculated angular acceleration signal and, therefore, on the overall misfire detection capability. The outcomes of this study will ultimately define the necessity of calibration changes as well as support a future development of an analytical method to predicted impacts in misfire calibration.
2012-36-0332 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Laser Surface Texturing and Laser Remelting - Their Applications
Autoria: LUCIANA CLAUDIA MARTINS FERREIRA DIOGENES
Resumo: Severe operating conditions of lubricated contacts cause wear on a surface. The reduction of the components life time can be solved with laser surface texturing (LST) or laser remelting which are promising technologies allowing to optimize the surface micro-topography. LST produces a very large number of micro-dimples or grooves on the surface and each structure can serve as a micro-hydrodynamic bearing, a micro-reservoir for lubricant in cases of starved lubrication conditions or a micro-trap for wear debris. Laser remelting is a recent technique to improve the adhesion of coatings and the tribological characteristics of the surface. The present paper shows the basic principles of the laser ablation, laser remelting, an assembly to texture internal surfaces and examples of success where the LST was applied.
2012-36-0333 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: The use of a mean value model to achieve the best efficiency for a variable speed generator coupled to a Diesel engine
Autoria: MARIO EDUARDO SANTOS MARTINS, PAULO ROMEU MOREIRA MACHADO, AUGUSTO FINGER PACHECO, JONAS ROBERTO TIBOLA
Resumo: Electric energy generators normally use commercial diesel engines as power supply at a fixed rotational speed. While the frequency of the grid cannot be modified, electric generators demand reciprocating engines to operate out not always at their best efficiency range. By the use of a generator capable of running on different speeds and an electronic system that controls the output frequency, it´s possible to use the best efficiency ranges from engines for a determined power output requirement. This paper describes the development of a variable speed diesel fueled generator set with permanent-magnet high-efficiency synchronous generator. It was used a 1-D computational commercial code to build a map trough a mean-value model that combines speed and load to achieve the required power with the best engine efficiency. The generator set was instrumented and brake and indicated data was obtained in order validate the computational model.
2012-36-0337 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: The limitations of can protocol considering the new automotive applications and the characteristics of flexray as a possible alternative
Autoria: RICARDO MOREIRA VAZ, KLEBER NOGUEIRA HODEL, PASCHOAL FEDERICO NETO, ARMANDO A.M. LAGANA
Resumo: The CAN protocol is used in most of today’s vehicular electronic systems. However, its characteristics may limit its employment considering the demands of future applications, making it necessary the development of other solutions. The automotive network protocol FlexRay was then developed as a result of an extensive research led by a group of companies of the automotive branch concerning the future of the automotive embedded electronic systems and the available network protocols. This article aims to present the new requirements for the automotive communication protocols, the limits of CAN and the characteristics of FlexRay.
2012-36-0342 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Oil pump performance correlation between use of test fluids at room temperature and automotive oils at extreme temperatures
Autoria: EDUARDO G. RIBEIRO, JOAO L.DE C. MEIRA, AYRES PINTO DE ANDRADE FILHO, EDSON RODRIGUES NASCIMENTO
Resumo: During the design and development of oil pumps, performance tests are required to provide accurate data about the oil flow and pressure relationships of pump under test. These tests are performed in test rig, which simulate the pump operation in the vehicle engine. The test rig is also a useful tool for the engineer, assisting in developing and new solutions testing. Depending on the application and use the engine oil temperature can vary from -40 ° C to around +150 °C. Once the tests are performed in a laboratory environment, it is interesting the use of a fluid at temperatures around 40 ° C, simulating the oil used in the final application at all temperature range, enabling the safe handling and preventing excessive oil exchange on test machines (cost avoidance), especially when we are developing more than one pump type and working with different applications. This paper describes the performance results and makes a correlation between test fluid and oils used in the final application.
2012-36-0344 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Normalizing Passenger Cars Acceleration Tests Results to Standard Ambient Conditions
Autoria: JULIANO PAGLIAI HONORATO, VINICIUS RANIERI VENTURA
Resumo: During acceleration performance tests on tests tracks, the vehicles are exposed to different ambient air temperature and pressure that directly affects the spark ignition engines torque response and vehicle aerodynamics drag. In order to compare two or more acceleration tests results conducted under different ambient conditions, the preliminary tests results must be corrected to standard ambient air temperature and pressure. The purpose of this paper is to create a method for vehicles acceleration performance correction by applying the standard SAE J1349 air density corrections for spark ignition engines and road loads air density corrections from SAE J1263 standard and NBR 10312 standard on test raw data and vehicle characteristics.
2012-36-0347 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Improved quality of information, through a robust and optimized for reflection in engineering with the manufacturing process.
Autoria: VIVIANE TUDESCHINI BRANDÃO
Resumo: In order to maintain and meet high quality manufacturing processes, it is essential to a system where the information is clear, reliable, secure and always available and easily found and simple. Traceability and maintenance of information can be performed with ease and reliability when you have a robust and optimized. This work aims to show the improvements in the daily processes through the implementation of a system with available historical and engineering changes to the date scheduled by item through an automatic process, which tends to reliable results and less divergent.
2012-36-0348 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Numerical evaluation of mass flow on instrument panels diffusers: domain size study
Autoria: TALES ADRIANO FERREIRA, FLÁVIO BOMFIM MARIANA
Resumo: An adequate air mass flow distribution on instrument panel diffusers is fundamental for passengers thermal comfort in an automobile. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool to achieve this goal, since one can identify flow patterns and details that cannot be seen with experimental tests. Despite the software and hardware developments in the last years it is still necessary and clever to make simplifications in the numerical models: the simpler and still representative the model the better it is. In this context the present work aims to study the influence of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system geometry on mass flow distribution simulation. A total of 5 different domains were studied: complete HVAC system in recirculation position, complete HVAC system in external intake position, HVAC cut in the filter area, HVAC cut in the evaporator region and one model without HVAC system. On the first three studies it was also verified the influence of the evaporator geometry. All the models with HVAC system presented similar results, and closer experimental data when compared with the one without the HVAC. The evaporator geometry had no significant influence in order to justify its modeling. The model with the HVAC cut in the evaporator region (without the evaporator) has demonstrated to be the best combination between accuracy and simplicity.
2012-36-0351 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Comparison of characteristics of the Diesel atomization in nozzle injectors new, used and reconditioned of Common Rail system
Autoria: CARLOS ALBERTO GOMES JUNIOR, JOSE EDUARDO MAUTONE BARROS, RUDOLF HUEBNER
Resumo: This study involves the operation of the Common Rail Diesel Injection, atomization characteristics of fuel and nozzles injector reconditioning of Diesel engine. Nozzles of the Common Rail system were made repairs to give them optimum conditions of operation. For this to be confirmed, was measured the injection angle, the cone angle, the spray evolution and velocity field of jet fuel atomized in new injectors (control), used and reconditioned. For the geometric characteristics of the fuel jet, were shot by high speed camera to 5000 frames per second, applying shadowgraphy techniques for measuring these angles. The kinetic characteristics of the jet fuel were measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). The experimental results allowed evaluating the types of changes in the nozzle after the reconditioning process. It was observed that the reconditioning process of nozzles does not modify the operation of the nozzle injector and thus the diesel engine, with no prejudice for the combustion of fuel, the performance, power and performance of the vehicle and does not alter the emission system pollutants from the vehicle to the environment. Keywords: atomization, Common Rail Diesel nozzle injector, reconditioning.
2012-36-0353 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: PRACTICES ANALYSIS OF PMI-PMBOK AND PRINCE2 IN THE AUTOMOTIVE EMBEDDED COMPUTING PROJECTS
Autoria: ANTONIO CESAR GALHARDI, PAULO CARLOS KAMINSKI
Resumo: This study shows a correlation between the different concepts and practices of the PMBOK and PRINCE2, in automotive embedded computing systems projects. It characterized the current state of projects performance in Information and Communication Technology - ICT, through the analysis on Standish Group Statistics, in the case of specific projects in the area. The study briefly describes the concepts about products and projects for automotive embedded computing. Comparing the best practices of the PMBOK and PRINCE2, always with focus on Project Management for Automotive Embedded Computing. Note also the practice of "Management by Exception" proposed by the PRINCE2 methodology. Finally draw up a summary table of more specific recommendations for automotive embedded computing projects. Keywords: Project Management, PMBOK, PRINCE2, Standish group; Automotive embedded computing.
2012-36-0354 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Evaluation of the performance of a W-Beam guardrail system used in Brazilian roads
Autoria: ADRIAN YU YONEDA, LARISSA DRIEMEIER
Resumo: The application of the Finite Element Method as an analysis tool has been increasing over the years because of its importance in cost reduction on physical tests and allowing further evaluation of the structure behavior when requested. One of the areas of development corresponds to the study of impact and assessment of kinetic energy absorption capability. The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of a W-Beam guardrail system used in Brazilian highways, in respect to the kinetic energy absorption and to the vehicle’s return angle to the road. The evaluation of the guardrails is done in a virtual environment using the Finite Element Method. The geometries of the guardrails components were created based on the Brazilian standard ABNT NBR6971. For the correct representation of the model, the material used in guardrails was characterized through experimental tests. Simplifications are taken from papers presented previously by other authors. A validated model of a vehicle provided by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC), of the U. S. Government, is used to represent its flexibility.
2012-36-0355 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: assessment of strategic management of end of life vehicles by technical comparison between regulations in brazil and germany
Autoria: LUCÉLIA MILDEMBERGER, GRAZIELLE DE ASSIS COUTINHO, LEANDRO WIEMES
Resumo: The treatment of end-of-life vehicle in Brazil, in principle is not being driven by a structured chain carrier or by legislation broadly structured to advocate the reduction of environmental impacts that such activity presents. Many aspects show the lack of efficiency in the management of end-of-life vehicle in the country, such as an adequate system of collection, decontamination, reuse of parts, a reliable database on the scrapped vehicles, adequate control of operators and standardization of operations to ensure environmental protection, quality and safety of second hand parts. Currently this activity is being conducted by the laws of the market where secondary products of commercial value are being used in a non-standard way creating serious environmental and safety risks. Yet very little of it has spread throughout the world is applied in Brazil and the global trends for the treatment of end-of-life and the closure of its life cycle. While the goals of recycling vehicles at the international level are becoming increasingly bold, as in the European Union (EU) where the goal is to reach 95% in 2015, in Brazil, while there is no clearly defined goal or much less concern about this issue. With the external pressure exerted by non-governmental organizations for environmental management and by the scarcity of natural resources, economic, technical and legal relevant become the focus of discussion also in Brazil. In this sense, the draft law on the legalization of activity dismantling of vehicles, vetoed in early 2011 for the presidency showed that the subject is already on the national agenda. The claim of the veto was the lack of minimum technical requirements to ensure safety and quality of used parts sold from the dismantling activity. Therefore, this study aims to compare in legal terms, the issues addressed in the bill vetoed in relation to German law that specifically examines end of life vehicles and finally show a direction about the improvements that can be adopted in Brazilian law.
2012-36-0358 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: PCU Solutions to Heavy Duty Diesel engines after Proconve 7
Autoria: ANDRE FERRARESE, RAFAEL ANTONIO BRUNO, MARCIO PAULO ALVES DOS SANTOS DIAS, MARIO S. PRACA, EDNEY D. REJOWSKI
Resumo: With the implementation of Proconve 7, several challenges were faced regarding the integrity of the Power Cell Unit (PCU), which comprehends pistons, rings, cylinder liners, pins, conrods and bearings. The technologies of reducing NOx affect directly the performance of these parts. The systems focused on EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) provoke the higher level of soot contamination in the oil, which creates to all the PCU an abrasion mechanism that leads to the increase of wear load. The systems focused on post treatment of the exhaust gas enables to reach higher PCP (peak cylinder pressure) and higher temperature of combustion. Such conditions are also critical to the PCU combustion, which needs to increase resistance to higher mechanical and thermal loads. Using the experience of Europe and NAFTA some expectations about the environment conditions of Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engines after Proconve 7 can be discussed. The main PCU challenges are described in an environment that basically may constitute on the combination of EGR and post treatment technologies, which will also demand a significant discussion about other measurement characteristics as green house gases. On the PCU components some challenges can be summarized among improved wear resistance materials, improved fatigue resistance from the use of material and design solutions, and reduced friction and consequently reduced fuel consumption. Results of numerical simulation, bench tests, metallographic analysis and engine tests are presented to support the discussions.
2012-36-0362 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: A Computational Methodology for Studying Sprays Characteristics of a Direct Injection Gasoline Injector
Autoria: MÁRCIO EXPEDITO GUZZO, JOSE EDUARDO MAUTONE BARROS, RUDOLF HUEBNER
Resumo: The focus of this study was to create a methodology to evaluate the spray characteristics in a direct injection injector by means of an automatic process of image analysis. Computational codes were used to get information about cone angle and breakup length of sprays based on images gotten from injection process. A mathematical function was created to locate the boundaries of sprays and the cone angles was studied as the angle of the arc situated within these boundaries. The centre of the arc, was located on the orifice of the injector and a value of angle was associated with several distances from the orifice. The breakup length was associated as a distance from the orifice of an arc whithin the sprays boundaries and formed by a group of pixels with the maximum standard deviation related to the values of these pixels. The velocities field was studied by the Particle Image Velocimetry technique and analysed both by a linear path from the orifice and by a circular path centered on the orifice. The injector was tested with three fluids: gasoline, ethanol and water.
2012-36-0363 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Friction and Pumping Losses Estimation in Flex Internal Combustion Engines with Variable Valve Actuation System Using Chamber Pressure Measurement
Autoria: LUCYMARA DE RESENDE ALVARENGA, MARCIO CALDEIRA PIEROBOM, MARCELA ESTEVES VIANNA, RODRIGO VIEGAS GRECO ANDRADE
Resumo: Increasing competition at the automotive sector, according with new energy and environmental legislations, require the vehicles to have higher performance with lower fuel consumption and pollutants emission. These factors encourage the study of new technologies such as Variable Valve Actuation System (VVA) in internal combustion engines. To accomplish this, a detailed study of friction and pumping losses present in the engine becomes relevant, as they directly influence its efficiency. According to Heywood (1988), these losses vary in relation to the delivered energy from 10% at full load to 100% at idle, when there is no production of effective work. This paper proposes the application of combustion chamber pressure analysis to separately identify and measure the friction and pumping losses in engines with VVA.
2012-36-0364 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: GLOBAL PROJECT – ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATION
Autoria: ALEXANDRE CESTARI DE BRITO, SERGIO RICARDO GOES OLIVEIRA
Resumo: Automotive industry has being faced to new challenges in the late years. In order to reduce development costs and increase production scale, new products are being aimed to global markets. This requires a vehicle to be designed facing different costumer requirements, but also by people spread in several countries. The research presented on this article was conducted on a global project lead by the Brazilian Development Center, to be sold in over 70 countries and manufactured in four different countries. Due to markets and engineering complexities, three continents were involved, comprising time zones from -5h to +8h GMT. The communication challenges faced by the team were analysed in different data collection phases to better understand how the team was working to overpass such challenges. Based on theories of global virtual teams’ management and communication management, a single case study was conducted on a global project, the first lead the Brazilian Development Center. Therefore, a status of art study covering project management, communication in project teams and project virtual teams was done to understand the nuances of communication in virtual teams, to embase the data collection phases. The data collection comprised three phases with different research tools, from the senior management to the analysts/engineers level, about the importance of communication in a global project, as well as personal perceptions of professionals who deal daily with people from around the world. The first phase results showed the importance of robust communication in a global project; the following phases deeped on the perceptions of team members, expliciting the differences, challenges and benefits of working globally. The communication tools used by team members were also explored, presenting the different ways people exchange information with colleagues from other locations and cultures. This study might serve as an initial guide for companies starting to work globally, and comply with the objectives to understand global communication. Therefore, the company where this research was conducted can better understand and improve future global projects.
2012-36-0367 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: SCHEDULER WITH DYNAMIC PRIORITY AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A CONTROL SYSTEM
Autoria: ROLF HENRY V.VALDIVIA
Resumo: In critical real-time computer systems, whether aircraft, automotive and industrial products is very common the use of a fixed priority scheduler. The fixed priority scheduler is shown a good performance in control applications in different applications where it was adopted. But nowadays go forward with the technology, be it in hardware and software, schedulers with dynamic priority can be a better alternative in certain situations. The present work aims to show that a scheduler priority variable can improve the performance of a control system obtained with a fixed priority scheduler, even when it was bad conditioned. This study is based on four motor position control systems For this, the study will make use of specialized tools simulation. In the future, we intend to extend this study to schedulers that use random and sporadic tasks.
2012-36-0368 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Air intake manifolds manufactured with chemically recycled material achieve a reduction of CO2 emissions and costs saving with similar mechanical resistance.
Autoria: SERGIO GRADELLA VILLALVA, FERNANDO LUIZ WINDLIN, GUILHERME HENRIQUE MAYER ALEGRE, THOMAS MACIEL MOURA, ANDRÉ LUIZ PULS SAVIOLI, PAULO DA SILVA MOTTA
Resumo: In the current Brazilian air intake manifold market, most of the small car applications use the reinforced polyamide PA 6.6 GF30 as base material. The glass fiber (30%) guarantees the required mechanical resistance, necessary once the manifold is assembled on the engine and is subjected to considerable vibration levels. Air intake manifolds were developed using a new chemically recycled material recuperated from textile fiber process, called Technyl ECO, which represents a reduction of 4.3 kg of CO2 equivalent per 1 kg of polyamide produced. This material can replace the current one, once it has the same formulation (PA 6.6 GF30) and similar mechanical resistance. Moreover, it represents a cost saving up to 10% in the raw material. The air intake manifolds injected with the recycled material were subjected to the mechanical validation tests under severe conditions of accelerated aging at temperature of 140ºC and thermal shock with abrupt temperature change from -40ºC to 120ºC. All samples were approved according to the specifications for life under vibration, metallic inserts extraction, bursting, pressure drop and impact.
2012-36-0370 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Combustion analysis of a Diesel engine using computer simulation
Autoria: VINICIUS RUCKERT ROSO, GLEISSON BALEN, PAULO ROMEU MOREIRA MACHADO, FÁBIO ECKE BISOGNO, MARIO EDUARDO SANTOS MARTINS, GABRIEL KIELING FROHLICH, MACKLINI DALLA NORA
Resumo: The ever increasing pressure for more efficient engines that show reduced cost and production time has led to the development of advanced simulation tools. Likewise, the experimental development of combustion systems has benefited from computational tools when reducing the necessary experimental time. This paper describes the analysis of combustion performance of a Diesel engine normally used on generator sets. The analysis was performed joining a 1-D simulation software with experimental results to achieve a detailed heat release analysis, point out to a complete description of combustion parameters of the engine. Brake and indicated values were obtained and analyzed to point out efficiency figures and to show the effectiveness of the simulation tool in engine and combustion systems development.
2012-36-0371 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Adequacy of vehicles dealerships to Brazilian Law 12305/2010 (National Policy of Solid Waste – PNRS)
Autoria: LUIZ HENRIQUE LOPES VILAS, PAULO AFONSO PEREIRA FERNANDES, LAURO SILVA RAMOS
Resumo: Adequacy of vehicle dealerships to Brazilian Law 12305/2010 (National Policy of Solid Waste- PNRS) The main objective of this study is to examine the adequacy of vehicle dealerships to Law 12305/2010. The data from this study has been obtained from literature review and 134 questionnaires in situ. It was quite often observed the use of stationary buckets like `Rear Load Dumpster` to discard waste, including the hazardous ones, which are potentially damaging the environment. The proof of proper disposal of waste after consumption has been observed in 42% of dealerships. 93% of dealerships send used oil to be recycled by officially approved companies. 8% of dealerships are properly registered in the Federal Technical Registry – CTF IBAMA. The National Policy of Solid Waste (PNRS), Law 12305/2010 obliges companies that generate waste, especially hazardous waste, to make a choice from the reduction, re-use and recycling (3Rs). For vehicle dealerships the consequences of this scenario can be listed in some topics analyzed during the research: environmental licensing, stakeholders education and environmental awareness, waste reduction, re-use and recycling policies (3 Rs), environmental suitability of the dealerships, reversal logistics, among others. Keywords: Law 12305/2010 – PNRS, car dealers, hazardous waste, reversal logistics
2012-36-0373 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Springback: How to improve its early prediction instead of late stamping dies rework
Autoria: CARLOS YUJI SAKURAMOTO
Resumo: In the middle of most arduous competition never seen before within the global automotive sector, computer simulations have been one of the most powerful weapons used to survive in this war. The manufacturing process has been one of the battlefields where the industries have concentrating their efforts, and within this broad and multidisciplinary field, the stamping process have being blamed for any problems found along the new vehicle development and launch process. Within the stamping process, it is well known that rupture, wrinkling and springback are the traditional problems, but the evolution of computer technology has greatly improved the accuracy of the predictions of the first two items, which does not happen with the prediction of springback, so that it remains the major problem of the stamping process, causing numerous stamping dies reworks in a process of trial and error. In recent years, research has intensified the search for improvement in the accuracy of computational predictions of springback, and up to now, the use of kinematic hardening model nonlinear-Uemori Yoshida has illuminated the path of this search This article aims to present and compare results between computational prediction and real test device part, which agrees with this line of research.
2012-36-0377 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Development of rear suspension bushings in passenger cars:a case study
Autoria: RAFAEL DINIZ SANTIAGO, DANIEL JOSE LAPORTE
Resumo: The bushings of twist beam rear suspension are a major contributor to the isolation of the inputs received from the ground in passenger cars, especially the longitudinal impulse type, characteristic impact, or random type, present in special tracks like Belgian Blocks. This paper shows an investigation of the influence in the ride comfort, reducing the bushing stroke, for durability improvement of the component. Tests were run with a vehicle on a Belgian Blocks special track and impact strips using an accelerometer as instrumentation on the seat track for the X and Y components, two tri-axial accelerometers, one on the bushing housing and another on the bushing body bracket (active and passive sides). Shown are the results obtained with two bushing stroke conditions, as the acceleration PSD of the seat track to the frequency range of 30 to 100Hz in order to analyse harshness behavior, as well as transfer function of the bushing. This study supports the search for a best compromise between durability and comfort during the bushings development.
2012-36-0378 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Application of methods to smooth the transition between control submodes in the Nominal Mode of the Multimission Platform
Autoria: JAIRO CAVALCANTI AMARAL, MARCELO LOPES DE OLIVEIRA E SOUZA
Resumo: The Multimission Platform (MMP) is a generic service module currently in Project at INPE. In the 2001 version, its control system can be switched between nine main Operation Modes and other submodes, according to information from satellite sensors and ground commands. The Nominal Mode stabilizes the MMP in three axes and takes it to a nominal attitude, using three reaction wheels. Each wheel has coarse and fine acquisition submodes. The use of multiple modes of control for specific situations frequently is simpler than projecting a single controller for all cases. However, besides being harder to warrant its general stability, the mere switching between these submodes generates bumps, which can reduce the performance and even damage the actuator or plant. In this work, we present an application of diverse methods to smooth the transition between control submodes of the Nominal Mode of the MMP. We will use techniques including, but not limited to, output tracking, anti-windup and crossfading to compare and identify the combinations which produce the more satisfactory results. The tests are based in simulations with the software MatrixX/Systembuild, of National Instruments, which helps developers with tools to model, analyze and test control systems. The tests focus on the worst cases the satellite may face. Being able to withstand these worst cases, the control system is considered apt to simpler situations. The tests show that many of the adopted strategies could smooth the transition and improve the performance of the system, and it was possible to identify advantages and disadvantages of each one.
2012-36-0379 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: APPLICATION OF TRIBOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS ON THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF FRICTION MATERIALS
Autoria: GRACILIANO PEREIRA FERNANDES, AMILTON SINATORA, PAULO ZANOTTO
Resumo: In the first phase of the development of new friction materials, laboratory tests are carried out on dynamometers. The tests conditions range from low energy (25 J/cm2) to high levels (150 J/cm2). In these tests are traditionally evaluated the wear rate of assembly (friction material + pressure plate) and the friction coefficient. For the new friction material be considered approved, must present wear rate equal to or less than 15 mm3/MJ (low energy), and 30 mm3/MJ (high energy) and a friction coefficient equal to or greater than 0.3. The pressure plate must present wear rate equal to or less than 1 mm3/MJ (low energy) and 10 mm3/MJ (high energy). After this phase, the friction materials are tested in vehicular to estimate the friction material useful life, and verify that the estimation obtained in bench tests matches the reality. To reduce costs, allows the detection of a greater number of alternatives for developing a friction materials and having greater control over variables assay a test methodology using a tribometer pin on disc configuration was developed, which allows to reproduce the wear mechanisms and estimating the wear rate tests as dynamometers tests (wear rate of assembly) and the friction coefficient [1, 2]. This methodology successfully employed maintains as dynamometer, the wear rate and friction coefficient set as output variable. This paper aims to apply the tribology concepts in order to explore other output variables of the dynamometer test versus pin on disc tribometer tests and establishing how they can be used to get a better understanding of the effect of different operating conditions. For this purpose tribometer tests were carried out varying the sliding speed of 750 rpm and 1200 rpm and the normal load from 200 N to 450N employing a standard friction material and a gray cast iron perlitic pressure plate. The weight loss of assembly, as well the weight loss of the friction material and pressure plate were analyzed versus the normal load, and the wear rates due to the energy of the test and the sliding distance. The assembly weight loss and wear rates remain constant for the lower speed while the sliding speed was increased a transition in the regime of wear has been observed. The tribology concepts have been giving more consistency in analyzing the causes of the transition observed.  Fernandes, G. P., “Application of Tribology to the Study and Development of Materials for Automotive Clutches”, 2007, 142 f. M.Sc. Dissertation, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil.  Fernandes, G. P. et al. “Correlation between laboratory small scale pin on disc and full scale bench tests of dry clutches”, World Tribology Congress – Japan, 2009.
2012-36-0380 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Multiple analysis method for DVA’s simulations apllied to stategy of vehicle manufacturing
Autoria: FILIPE SALES NASCIMENTO, ANDERSON ALMEIDA DE MACEDO CARVALHO, MAURICIO LERINA BONIFATI
Resumo: The DVA (dimensional variation analysis) area is a kind of CAE (computer aided engineering). This area is a part of product engineering and DVA’s mainly point is to analyze dimensional variations that happen during the manufacture step trough computer simulations. It’s essential to apply DVA during the automotive product development because it makes possible to realize the result of this production. All variations applied in the mounting process or in the manufacturing process have to be considered otherwise the simulation will not be representative. DVA’s results analysis need some time of computer processing to be done because data that needs to be analyzed are a little complicated and there are a lot of possibilities of vehicle pieces mounting. DVA’s analysis revealed many benefits that allows the creation of a new tool used to guarantee product manufacturing quality in automotive engineering, this tool is used to reduce processing time of DVA’s analysis result. The inventors of this tool intent to connect computer simulation science to comparative and qualitative methods. The purpose of this new invention is to use the results of DVA’s simulations and mix all the information achieved by each possibility with concepts of the use of selection tools conceptions, such as the PUGH matrix and QFD (quality function deployment), resulting in a robust methodology to stratify a better solution for automotive engineering. The tool result shows us how selection of conceptions and strategies of mounting can be safe and robust. It is necessary to use this tool mostly when mounting possibility is great, because process variations tend to be greater. To decide between conceptions is faster with this tool, there are more chances to be precise what makes manufacturing step low cost in automobilist industry [Key-words] Locating strategies, DVA, Pugh, QFD
2012-36-0381 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: CREEP ANALYSIS OF INCONEL 718 AGED SUPERALLOY AT 675ºC
Autoria: FELIPE ROCHA CALIARI
Resumo: The study of creep has a major importance when materials are submitted to high stress and homologous temperature. Superalloys are designed to operate under high stress, temperature and corrosion environment. Those properties of superalloys are due high temperature stable matrix, solid solution elements and precipitated particles. This study aims to determine the creep resistance of Inconel 718 aged superalloy obtained through the tests according to ASTM E139-06, at stress range of 510 to 700 MPa and temperature of 675ºC. The parameters as the primary creep time (tp), steady-state creep rate (έs), time to rupture (tr) and strain to rupture (εr) are important to evaluate the creep resistance. It used a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain images of the fracture surface of specimens. The images of the fracture surface were investigated in order to relate the temperature of test with the fracture mechanism. The microstructure evolution was analyzed using optical microscope (OM) to determine grain size and precipitated particles dispersion.
2012-36-0386 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Comparison of the cost of replacing batteries, fuel consumption and electricity in all-electric vehicles
Autoria: ANDRE A.F. MARANHAO, MARCELO MASSARANI
Resumo: Electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) evolve and increase its sales every year and there is a tendency to reach percentages of around 10% of vehicles manufactured by 2020, compared to current numbers of 1%. Due to this overview and motivation, it sas developed the comparative cost of replacing batteries and fuel consumption and electricity in all-electric vehicles, in order to define the advantages and disadvantages of each architecture electric propulsion according to specific type of use . For this analysis, it was selected a model of EV, HEV in a parallel and a series HEV, in order to investigate what the best configuration for each different type of use. The three configurations are exemplified in the figures below. It was chose the best selling models of each of the electrical architectures studied with dimensions, capacity and load weight similars. It was suposed the same distance traveled by each of a same period of time to force the battery replacement time of use and by comparing the viability of fuel or electricity after all the distance was traveled. A point to be scaled by the manufacturers of HEVs is the change in state of charge of the battery during the driving. This factor is essential for increased battery life. The challenge is to have a large battery that increases the autonomy of ICE without assistance for longer, but at the same time increasing the topping-off and a total mass of the car, or reduce the battery to reduce weight and have greater dependence on the combustion engine . The degree of hybridization was taken into account as a factor reducing the battery life. GH also directly affects the ligament and strategies related to the shutdown of MCI to charge the battery in HEVs series and parelalo. It is also an issue to be considered in relation to the total of the vehicle, because as this tends to a factor, the weight of the battery tends to be larger, also increasing the overall vehicle weight. The great secret of the project is to combine the type of GH use taking into account the increased autonomy and greater dependence of the electric motor. With all the information, coupled with the consumption of each model informed by the U.S. EPA LA4 City Cycle, we calculated the cost of electricity, gasoline and battery replacement within the test period. It was evaluated the Leaf Nissan EV, the parallel HEV (Plug-in) and the Toyota Prius HEV in series (plug-in) Chevrolet Volt.
2012-36-0387 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Study of the corrosion resistance of automotive tanks ecological in contact with ethanol fuel
Autoria: MILENE ADRIANE LUCIANO, VANESSA DE FREITAS CUNHA LINS, MARIA DAS MERCÊS REIS DE CASTRO
Resumo: In metal tanks for storage of chemicals is always observed the presence of electrochemical corrosion. This type of phenomenon can generate both economic losses due to the decrease in lifetime of the reservoirs, and environmental concerns due to a leak of chemicals. In the sector of the automotive industry, tanks fuel have been the subject of studies to propose new materials to replace plastic tanks or tanks with metallic finishes. The plastic tanks are alternating layers of thermoplastic materials and thermosetting with the disadvantage of not being able to be recycled at the end of useful life. Have tanks with metal coatings are basically made of tin, which must have painted the outside even more endearing production process and generating more waste. On the market today can find tanks automotive coating based on organometallic nickel and aluminum. This coating is promising not to use heavy metals in its composition and does not require external painting enabling a lower cost of production. This study evaluated the electrochemical behavior of carbon steel EEP (printing extra-deep) with and without organometallic coating in contact with hydrous ethanol using the technique of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This technique is very versatile, as well as being non-destructive, can separate the different contributions of the resistive and capacitive electrical interface formed between the metal and the electrolyte. The basic principle of this technique is the application of a potential sinusoidal response having a current out of phase. In the system formed by the uncoated steel in contact with the alcohol was associated with a circuit of a resistor in series with the solution interfacial resistance in parallel with the capacitance not ideal [ZCPE = (1 / Cwj)n] of the electrical double layer. The polarization resistance was found to 132.7 ohms. Moreover the coated steel organometallic the polarization resistance was 2.37 MOhm. This shows that the organometallic film increases by approximately three orders of magnitude the polarization resistance compared to carbon steel. Furthermore, the circuit used had more time constant indicating the presence of an interfacial resistance between the organometallic film and the steel. This result indicates the correct functioning of organometallic coating to protect steel against corrosion is showing an environmentally friendly alternative for the production of automotive tanks.
2012-36-0395 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION of Knucke for Mac Pherson to improve mass reduction and cost
Autoria: SUSSUMU NOHARA, CARLOS EDUARDO BARCHA, VINICIUS JOSE MOREIRA PEIXOTO
Resumo: The aim of this work is to demonstrate the methodology used to optimize a knuckle for Mac Pherson to improve weight reduction and cost considering the various engineering design criteria that apply to this type of component. The engineering design criteria surrounding this development and that will be present in the study are: stiffness, critical loads, fatigue and plasticity (permanent deformation).
2012-36-0398 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: An Investigation of Techniques for Accurate Phase or Time Synchronization in Reconfigurable Control Systems
Autoria: ELOY MARTINS OLIVEIRA JUNIOR, MARCELO LOPES DE OLIVEIRA E SOUZA
Resumo: Current systems such as: satellites, aircrafts, automobiles, turbines, power controls and traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754 Standard. Such systems and their control systems use many modes of operation and many forms of redundancy to achieve high levels of performance and high levels of reliability under changing environments and phases of their lifecycle. The environment disturbances, environment variability, plant non-linear dynamics, plant wear, plant faults, or the non-symmetric plant operation may cause de-synchronization in phase or time among: 1) simultaneous units in the same normal mode of operation; 2) successive units in successive normal modes of operation; 3) main and spare units from normal to faulty modes of operation. So, techniques to reduce those causes or their effects are becoming important aspects to consider in the design of such systems. This paper presents an investigation of techniques for accurate phase or time synchronization in reconfigurable control systems. It is based on the review of the literature, discussion and simulation of some techniques used in a reconfigurable aerospace control system which require phase or time synchronization among simultaneous rotor units in the same normal mode of operation due to environment variability. The preliminary results of such investigation shows that the techniques used: 1) can reduce the phase skew between simultaneous rotor units in the same normal mode of operation; 2) can contribute to high levels of performance and reliability of reconfigurable control of aerospace, automotive and power systems.
2012-36-0399 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL VIBRATION BEHAVIOR EVALUATION OF AN POWERTRAIN WITH DIFFERENTS STIFFNESS LEVELS
Autoria: LUIS CARLOS MONTEIRO SALES
Resumo: The vibrations related to powertrain stiffness contributes strongly to the vehicle acoustic comfort. The connection between the engine and transmission influences the vibrational powertrain behavior. The subject of this work is the numerical and experimental behavior evaluation of an powertrain vibration behavior under influence of the connection between an internal combustion engine and the transmission. Were evaluated three powertrain configurations with different levels of stiffness. The results (based on natural frequences modes) matched the experimental evaluations at vehicle.
2012-36-0405 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: heating due to Material elastic deformation
Autoria: ARTHUR VIEIRA DE OLIVEIRA, GUILHERME HENRIQUE MAYER ALEGRE, SERGIO GRADELLA VILLALVA, THOMAS MACIEL MOURA
Resumo: Several projects in engineering involve rotating parts submitted to bending loads, which can result in the material heating. This thermal load happens due to energy loss because of the material damping. This heat source can be great enough to make the component reach high temperatures and, consequently, risk its performance or even its resistance. A theoretical approach, considering that part of the mechanical energy is converted to thermal energy, implies that the maximum temperature found in a uniform rotary beam is linear dependent with the rotating speed and is directly proportional to the square of the applied load. This work intends to present some results acquired from an experiment performed in a fatigue test machine and also validate the theoretical formulation. Metallic specimens were painted with matte black ink to improve their emissivity. The temperature was measured via a FLIR thermographic camera. The experimental results match with the theoretical prediction. Furthermore, it was evaluated the percentage of the mechanical energy which is converted to thermal loss. The result showed that this fraction also is dependent to the rotation speed and the applied load.
2012-36-0412 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: STUDY OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF OIL APPLYING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES.
Autoria: EDILSON MARINHO DA SILVA JUNIOR, RUY DIAS ALVES SILVA NETO, LUCIAN ISLAN FELIX DE ASSIS, EFRAIN PANTALEON MATAMOROS
Resumo: The study of the wear track oil analysis is a technique commonly used in industrial, preventive and predictive maintenance of mechanical systems that suffer during the process of deterioration in service. This technique allows to study the behavior of the elements suspended in the lubricating oil. The paper proposes developing maps representing the wear of diesel analyzing the chemical analysis of the lubricating oil by the correlation of the chemical elements with the alloys of the mechanical components of the system. The methodology of this study was based on using data mining techniques for obtaining the data clustering of chemical analyzes, using the MATLAB 6.5 to obtain the maps. The software allows the display of trend curves, graphic correlation between the elements that have convergent or divergent behavior, interpolation and curve fitting as well as the clustering of elements in a map of wear on the engines examined. Keywords: Analysis of Oil, Clustering, tribological Maps.
2012-36-0413 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: MICROSTRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF Ti-6Al-4V ALLOY TREATED WITH PULSED LASER Nd:YAG
Autoria: ADRIANO GONÇALVES DOS REIS, DANIELI A.P. REIS, CARLOS DE MOURA NETO, FABRÍCIA ASSIS RESENDE, JOÃO PAULO BARROS MACHADO, FRANCISCO PIORINO NETO
Resumo: The search for alloys with improved high-temperature specific strength and creep-resistance properties for aerospace applications has led in the last decades to sustained research activities to develop new alloys and/or improve existing ones. Titanium and its alloys are excellent for applications in structural components submitted to high temperatures owing to their high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and metallurgical stability. Its high creep resistance is of great importance in enhancing engine performance. However, the affinity by oxygen is one of main factors that limit its application as structural material at high temperatures. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy was submitted a superficial treatment of pulsed laser Nd:YAG (l=1.064 mm) in atmosphere of 40wt%nitrogen-60wt%argon. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy and electron scanning microscopy after creep test in load constant at 700ºC. The results suggest that the laser treatment leads higher creep resistance in the samples.
2012-36-0421 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Implementation method to optimize product development processes.
Autoria: LUCIANA SALVATERRA CUSIN, VIVIANE TUDESCHINI BRANDÃO
Resumo: Title: Implementation method to optimize product development processes. Authors: Luciana Salvaterra Cusin e Viviane Tudeschini Brandão Summary: Due to the demand’s increase for new products, based on market requirements, it becomes necessary the optimization of development processes. Through standardization and methods that assist in structuring and organization of information, with quality and reliability, and resulting in better activities performed, interactivity of the areas involved and time optimization. This work aims to illustrate the implementation of methods of optimization’s cycles involved in the processes of development of engineering projects.
2012-36-0422 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Analysis of the sealing of a system, using hyperelastic material, by a finite elements method
Autoria: DANIEL TEIXEIRA GERVASIO, ALISSON ASSIS MUNIZ
Resumo: The objective of this work was to evaluate, through a finite element analysis, the sealing of an engine´s system of a small vehicle. The parameters used in the FEM modeling are those used in the actual assembly. It’s constituted by metallic parts, such as inserts, bolts, and base surface, plastic parts - such as a plastic cover, and a hyperelstic material that is the sealing of a system. Hyperelastic materials are difficult to be reproduced in a FEM model. For solve this problem that have big strain and displacement, the best constitutive models for modeling de hyperelastic material were researched, based on compression curves of the rubber. The analyzed problem has contemplated the bold loads and for consequence the sealing rubber compression. We intent to find in this phase the contact pressure in the interface between the rubber and the base surface, and compare this numeric result with the physical test using a pressure film. Next, it was applied the working temperature and pressure of the actual assembly to the model, and this way analyze the strain of the plastic cover and the contact pressure between the seal rubber and base surface. This contact pressure cannot be verified in practice after the engine work, so the importance of the FEM model for this case.
2012-36-0425 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF A CONCEPT OF REAR SUSPENSION SYSTEM FOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE
Autoria: DIEGO DAVID SILVA DINIZ, RAPHAEL SOUSA SILVA, ARTHUR FERREIRA AZEVEDO, ANTONIO ALMEIDA SILVA, WANDERLEY FERREIRA DE AMORIM JÚNIOR
Resumo: Abstract. The studies in the field of vehicle dynamics have been performed since the beginnings of the automobile industry, however in relation to advancements in embedded technologies for greater security and performance of vehicles in adverse conditions, research on this subject, gained a greater intensity in recent decades. Several research groups have sought to understand and model the real dynamic behavior of vehicles subject to the conditions imposed by the irregularities of the soil, in order to obtain suspensions of innovative concepts for vehicles that have high reliability and dynamic performance car. This paper presents a study for a cinematic concept of independent rear suspension, applied to off-road vehicles (off road). Thus, the analysis was performed using the software MSC ADAMS CAR, a type of vehicle suspension traditional Double wishbone front with direction of tendency geometry to the oversteer effect and rear suspension arms overlaid with guiding bar. In these simulations allows perform an analysis of the behavior of the change in camber and convergence of the rear wheels during work vertical of the suspension by the method of kinematic analysis, using the theory of instantaneous centers of rotation. The concept developed is a modification of suspension of overlapping arms (double wishbone), with an addition of a guiding bar. The simulation results show the combined effect of the variation in camber and especially the variation in the effect of convergence in the oversteer of the vehicle, which was verified in experimental tests on a vehicle off-road Mini-Baja. Furthermore it has been found beneficial effect of rolling of the chassis on the difference of change of the convergence of the wheels, which involves a tendency of exit from the rear of the vehicle. Based on these results verified the validity of the applicability of the suspension of arms superimposed with guiding bar for off-road vehicles, especially the of the Mini-Baja, which one of main characteristics is sought to obtain the ability to perform at the lowest curves possible radius.
2012-36-0429 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Finite State-machine verification applied to Hybrid systems
Autoria: ALESSANDRO GERLINGER ROMERO
Resumo: The notion of a hybrid system is centered around a composition of discrete and continuous dynamics. In particular, the system has a continuous evolution and occasional jumps. The jumps correspond to the change of state in an automaton whose transitions are caused either by controllable or uncontrollable external events or by the continuous evolution. The continuous evolution and these jumps in control loops are the origins from the most stringent temporal demands. These temporal demands are one of the reasons that hybrid systems usually require a high level of safety. Inevitably this type of system is present in mobility devices such as cars, ships and aircraft. Works present data showing that SLOC (Source Lines Of Code), one controversial metric of complexity, growth at current rate using existing development practices will seriously impact affordability of the next generation of commercial aircraft (remarkable hybrid systems). Efforts to develop this type of system have increasingly suffered from cost and schedule overruns. These trends are largely attributed to: (a) increasing system complexity, driven by requirements for increased functionality, performance and dependability; (b) using inadequate development practices. In fact, the verification of such systems has become a key activity in the development life-cycle. Historically such activity demands experts and high efforts, and uses ad-hoc methods. Therefore, the aim of this work is to apply the vast theory of automatic test case generation for this type of system, showing an effective and reproducible alternative for automatic test case generation based on finite state-machines. A case study that was developed considering the problem of inverted pendulum evaluates the suggested approach. The inverted pendulum is a model of attitude control for satellite launch vehicles at its departure (the objective of the attitude control problem is to keep the vehicle in a vertical position). The uniqueness of an inverted pendulum, due to its natural instability, provides various researches in areas of control, electronics and software. Furthermore, the inverted pendulum is a classic hybrid system, since it is composed of continuous dynamic (stabilization of the pendulum in a vertical axis) and discrete (failure mode management). This case study has given strong indications that the approach can bring significant gains for the effectiveness coupled with the reduction of time for planning and execution of verification, as well as contributing to fulfill certification requirements.
2012-36-0432 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Lean Six Sigma to improve quality and production automotive. A application with climate control systems.
Autoria: FERNANDA SILVA OLIVEIRA, LEANDRO GUIA DAMASCENO
Resumo: Climate control systems are essential to function comfort in cars. In this regard, defects in this system are immediately noticeable by the customer, causing dissatisfaction. The production control and people`s action at manufacturing group must be aligned with the objectives to achieve efficiency and product quality. Lean manufacturing focuses on growth efficiency by reducing waste, so is necessary to have involvement and commitment of people, inventory management, continuous improvement, pursuit of high quality, low cost and robust and flexible process. Six Sigma is an approach that delivers improved business performance and the enhancement of customer satisfaction. This occurs through the strategic focus of management from the application of statistical thinking at all levels of activities, use of performance indicators and use of systematized methodology. The combination of Lean and six sigma culture in industrial organizations, especially in the automotive has become necessary every day. This paper present a case study where it was applied Lean Six Sigma and achievements obtained for a application in climate control car`s systems.
2012-36-0433 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: body in white sheet metal joining: comparison between weld spot and clinching in aN environment perpective
Autoria: ALISSON ALVES SARMENTO, ANDRE LUIZ J. PEREIRA
Resumo: Nowadays, the product quality and process efficiency are not only competitive factors on OEM’s. Sustainability has been gained visibility on automaker, especially in a strategic matter. Green processes able to add value to company with lower environment impact are well accept either for the costumers or stockholders. The Electric Resistance Spot Weld is widely used in an automotive industry to produce body in white and will be showed in this article. This process generates a considerable impact in the environment mainly for the generation of gases. Some manufacturers in recent years has replaced it by clinching, which also performs the union of sheet metal, but for metal forming. The process of spot welding generates dust, fumes and pollutants gases, which will be transported to the external environment somehow. Therefore, in addition to the non-emission of gases from the clinching process, it has some advantages such as the possibility of union between different materials, no changes of the anticorrosive protection plate, no generation of the heat affected zone (HAZ), increased resistance to fatigue to small effort and others. Considering all these factors, it will be compared both process, checking the environmental advantages in each of them aiming to seek sustainability.
2012-36-0444 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: AISI 304 Steel Intergranular Corrosion (Failure Analysis)
Autoria: ALEXANDRE ALVES DE QUEIROZ, RODRIGO MONTEIRO DE OLIVEIRA
Resumo: This paper presents an approach in the context of intergranular corrosion process, its causes, effects and its direct relation with the Engineering, once the responsible professional shall consider the numerous losses that may be caused by this deterioration. The intergranular process of corrosion in stainless steel has been studied. A failure occurred by intergranular corrosion in service in Isolator Exhaust, which is critical to the functioning of the air diesel engine system. A microcrack was generated in the grain boundary region due the precipitation of complex carbides, which was aggravated by the working temperature. Given the working conditions of the isolator exhaust, it is suggested to replace the material AISI 304 with AISI 310, for it contains higher percentage of chromium, inhibiting intergranular corrosion occurrence.
2012-36-0446 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Silicone Elastomers - Clear as Glass
Autoria: ALEXANDRE ATILIO ROMANI DE PONTES
Resumo: Since many years PC and PMMA were materials of choice for optical applications beside glass. The advantage of these polymeric materials compared to glass is the economical manufacturing process, which allows the production of optical parts with much lower energy consumption and less post treatment like milling and polishing. A new alternative is now available through the “glass-clear” liquid silicone rubbers of the LSR 7000 family of Momentive Performance Materials. This new materials combine the typical LSR properties like high temperature stability and process ability with a transparency of 95% and an outstanding UV and blue light stability which makes the material an ideal candidate for the production of lenses for high-power LEDs for automotive applications or indoor lighting. Especially the area of indoor lighting demands a combination of extreme material properties. E.g. materials have to withstand the harsh blue light radiation in combination with a maximum lamp temperature of up to 150°C for 100.000 h, which is the lifetime of a typical LED System. Since silicone polymers have an inorganic backbone LSR offers the largest chance to survive this extreme environment compared to other transparent organic plastics. From the processing side, LSR offers the possibility to manufacture very cost efficient optical lenses through injection moulding. While for thermoplastic lenses still a large sprue is required to apply a long after-pressure to compensate the thermal shrinkage of the lens, only a small runner is needed for the LSR injection process. Thus the waste of material is reduced to a minimum. The paper gives an overview of the special material properties of the ultra-transparent LSR and compares physical data to commercial optical thermoplastics. Experiences from manufacturing of those grades following the LSR process are explained. First transparent LSR parts are shown and discussed together with their innovative application potentials through the combination of rubber-like elasticity and full transparency.
2012-36-0449 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Cast-in cylinder liners concepts to improve bonding and shear strength for aluminum block
Autoria: EDMO SOARES JUNIOR, MARCO MAURIZI, EDNEY D. REJOWSKI
Resumo: The tendency to use aluminum alloys to replace conventional gray cast irons materials in crankcases applied in passenger cars is gain more and more importance mainly driven by the market requirement and new emission legislation levels in connection with the engine weight reduction to achieve continuously growing expectation for lowering fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The cast-in liners designs are commonly applied inside these moderns aluminum engine blocks. These technologies are usually selected in connection to the aluminum die cast process, complexibility of block geometry, thermal and mechanical loads. Depending on the level of thermal and mechanical loads and the optimization needed to reduce the engine weight, the cylinder liners may be more sensitive in terms of deformation. One of the main features of these optimized aluminum blocks is the ability to dissipate heat from the combustion chamber in a suitable level supported by a good clamping capacity between the cast-in CGI liners and aluminum material block. Therefore good quality of radial bonding between both parts even in high temperature levels can guarantee a reliable heat transfer flow and thus low bore distortion and oil consumption. A good bonding of the liner to the block can also contribute to improve the final machining of the liner after block casting. Nowadays an increasing number of outer diameter concepts for GCI cast-in liners have been employed with the most cost-effective designs based on machined undercuts and as-cast projections (rough cast design). This study aims to discuss these designs by showing results of a screening test related to the radial bonding and transversal shear strength of four different outer diameter concepts recommended for all most known aluminum die cast processes. The results show that the rough cast design reaches maximum requirements for bonding and shear strength in a comparative basis. It is also taken in consideration that the machined undercut designs increases significantly the performance when compared to conventional machined liners with some additional advantages as the freedom of outer design enabling different shapes and tight tolerances aligned with the possibility to reduce cylinder bore distances.
2012-36-0450 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Experimental and Numerical analysis on coil springs pre-set plastic deformation
Autoria: ROBINSON FERRARI BARBOSA, BRUNO GEOFFROY SCURACCHIO, JOSE ROBERTO CURITIBA, WESLEY DA COSTA ARAUJO
Resumo: The pre set process is largely applied on coil spring manufacturing. It is mainly used to guarantee, under work load, that the spring don’t plastically deform changing the original dimensional restrictions. However, the difficult to predict its behavior under permanent strain is a constraint on projects. All the spring calculations are based on its final geometry (after the pre-set process), and today the initial geometry definitions are based on empirical information. The aim of this paper is, through F.E.M. and experimental work, to comprehend the stress-strain phenomena involved on the pre-set process.
2012-36-0452 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Methodology for press fit validation
Autoria: CLODOALDO BORGES CHAGAS, THIAGO CAETANO DE FREITAS, BRENO GARCIA CARNEIRO, RENAN FRANCISCO PIRES DA SILVA
Resumo: Industrial applications frequently use interference between shafts and holes to fix parts together. The present work shows the methodology for validation the calculus of Finite Element Analysis for press fitting a shaft in a dust shield hole. In the case of study the dust shield can be easily hit by shocks during transport and handling of the product. The shocks would change the position of the parts and consequently the new position could become a quality problem. The process of verification determines the factors which become the project more robust using the technical of Design of Experiment (DOE). The test and the computational simulation are shown as parallel way to determine the appropriate friction coefficient which could be used for prediction the assembly and disassembly force for current project as well as the new design with similar features.
2012-36-0453 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Correlation between Simulations and Tests for determining the Stress State on Raceways of Bearings due to the press fitting and loading at Test Rig
Autoria: CLODOALDO BORGES CHAGAS, THIAGO CAETANO FREITAS, BRENO GARCIA CARNEIRO, RENAN FRANCISCO PIRES DA SILVA
Resumo: Nowadays it is common for engineering applications the usage of software in parallel to test for a better understanding about some phenomena of study. The present paper intents to correlate different software and experimental practices to understand the stress state on the bearing raceway. The most important factor which determines the bearing life is the operational load. Others factors such as the stress state on the raceway due to press fit process can contribute to reduce the bearing life. A large number of factors have been studied to know the behavior of press fit. The first step, in this paper, treats about the press fit following by the operational loading. The press fit uses a similar geometry of the housing where the bearing works, the samples were picked up according a Design of Experiment (DoE) in order to understand the correlation between the press fit and Stress State which reaches the bearing raceways. Some Statistical tools were applied for interpretation of results. The operational loading compares the experimental results to the finite element analysis. The Finite Element Analysis use as incomes the outcomes from software which is dedicate to treat with bearings. The stress state was measured using strain gages rosettes.
2012-36-0454 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF DYNAMIC AUTOMOTIVE CLUTCH DAMPER
Autoria: EDSON LUCIANO DUQUE, RODRIGO ALVES AUGUSTO
Resumo: DUE TO THE MORE DEMANDING AUTOMOTIVE MARKET, THE ANALITICAL FORMULATION OF DYNAMIC CLUTCH DAMPERS DEVELOPED HIGH IMPORTANCE FOR REDUCING CLEARANCE-INDUCED VIBRO-IMPACT PROBLEMS OF THE VEHICLE TRANSMISSION (e.g. RATTLE). LINEAR AND NON-LINEAR MODELS WILL BE IMPLEMENTED THRU MATLAB/SIMULINK PROGRAMMING, AND RESULTS WILL BE COMPARED TO REAL VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS, SEEKING A DESIGN PROPOSAL FOR THE TORSIONAL DAMPER OF THE CLUTCH DISC.
2012-36-0455 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Replacing the body of a spot welding of thin sheet of low carbon steel and galvanized steel minimized by structural adhesive
Autoria: TIAGO FRUET, ALEXANDRE LUIS GASPARIN
Resumo: Structural adhesives, each year, are being more used in the automotive, aerospace and shipbuilding, in order to improve the structural characteristics, reduction of production time, improving esthetics and even, in some cases, reduce costs. This paper presents a proposal for replacement of spot welding on thin sheets of galvanized steel and carbon steel body of a utility vehicle, by a modified acrylic structural adhesive base Maxlok, by Lord. This solution helps to eliminate imperfections in the parts derived from use of spot welding, therefore reducing steps in the component production. Taking as the basis of this study, the comparison of load values in standard test specimens, as AWS/SAE D8.9M (2002) welding point before and after salt spray tests, according to ASTM B117 (ATSM, 2009) and surface preparation before treatment with phosphate, that exists in the components production process. Production times are not displayed, only the percentage comparison with the current process proposed. The development work has four steps. The step of monitoring the current process, time measurements, manufacturing parts and specimens comparative testing of loads and. At the end of all tests and time measurements, noted that there is technical possibility to replace the spot welding and structural adhesive to occur 53% reduction of production times, especially of the after welding process. The steps of vehicle body finishing.
2012-36-0456 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Reconstruction tests design to support the correlation of real injuries with dummy readings
Autoria: ALEJANDRO LONGTON LEIVA, ADRIÀ FERRER ABAD
Resumo: Research Objectives: The main aim of the CASPER project is to reduce fatalities and injuries of children in road accidents. To achieve this goal, the participants in the project carried out a survey to diagnose the current level of child safety in cars and the demands of the parents were analysed. Additionally, modelling human bodies and developing tools for dummies were approached. In-depth analysis of accidents involving children was carried out. Then, a list of cases for reconstructions was created and they were carried out so that in addition to other complementary and virtual dynamic tests, based on finite element models, a correlation can be made between the real world injuries and the dummy readings. The existing injury risk curves were improved by adding new points to it. Methodology: Information on accidents, in which children were involved, was collected in four different European countries. Some of these cases were selected and introduced in a large accident database. Then, the most appropriate cases for improving the injury risk curve were selected for an in-depth analysis. After the design of the reconstruction and an analysis of its results, a final step was an in-depth analysis of data and diagrams in order to validate and correlate the injuries and the data captured. The correlation had to be based on validated data of the dummy readings. In the same way the accidents were saved in a DB, the reconstructions were also collected in a reconstruction database. Once the results were validated by the CASPER partners, a new point is introduced to the injury risk curve. Results: The selected cases were reconstructed using similar CRS and the same type of vehicles as in the real accidents. Reconstructing real cases has several limitations, such as crash speed, cars’ approximation paths and crash angle. Simulation tools were used for both accident and reconstruction analysis. However, a few changes and applications on the testing conditions were applied to reduce the limitations and improve the representations of the real accidents. After reconstructing the selected cases, a comparison between the deformations of the cars and the final positions were made in order to validate the tests. Additionally, videos of the reconstruction were analysed in order to check the kinematics and loads on the dummies and the movement of the cars. Then, a group of experts concluded whether the tests were valid or invalid. Once a test was validated, the pulses and the dummy readings were analysed and compared to the data for the child injuries in the real accident. Then, the new point procedure was reviewed in order to introduce to the injury risk curve. Conclusion: The CASPER project conducted a large research programme on child safety. On technical points, developing injury risk curves as a result of in-depth accident investigations and reconstructions is a promising research area.
2012-36-0457 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ANALYSIS OF THE CHARGING AIR TUBE SUPPORT FOR A DIESEL ENGINE OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLE
Autoria: THIAGO B. NEGRETTI, HELIO KITAGAWA, ALEX PETRUK, CARLOS FERNANDES MILETOVIC, ANTONIO AUGUSTO COUTO
Resumo: In a diesel engine development process, the focuses are performance, economy and ecological responsibility. In the current economic condition and country growth, the commercial vehicles manufacturers seek to meet the high demand with dynamism and applicability for different power requirements in the same engine, changing some components such as turbine, air tubes, air cooling system, among others. However, with increasing engine power, the loads on the support are amplified. This contributes to shortening the support life. Avoiding failure due to the new working conditions, motivates the structural components study. The diesel engine charging air tube support, produced from hot rolled steel, has the important structural function of supporting the charging air tube, fixed on the turbine and the intercooler. The tube or turbine failure precludes the engine operation. The support also has the function of reducing the displacements imposed on the turbine by engine vibrations, that may damage the structure of the mentioned assembly. The study is carried out through numerical and experimental methods. The finite element method is used to simulate the support mechanical behavior via modal analysis, and for the evaluation of stress concentration regions through pressure and thermoelastic static analyses, and dynamic analysis. The fatigue life is calculated for the presented stresses. Stress, acceleration and temperature data were obtained through dynamic test. For material evaluation, chemical analysis, hardness and metallographic tests were carried out. For thoroughness, a failed support fractography will be presented. The objective of this study is to correlate the data obtained by numerical method with experimental data, and as a result, it is intended to identify the support failure mechanism and present the solution to avoid it for the determined loads.
2012-36-0458 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: A DISCUSSION ON METHODS USED IN THE VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF CONTROL SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURES OF CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS BASED ON MODELS AND SYSTEMS METRICS
Autoria: SILVANO VARGAS PRUDÊNCIO, MARCELO LOPES DE OLIVEIRA E SOUZA
Resumo: The architecture is a concept very broad and important that is directly connected to the realization of a system. It defines what the system is capable of doing, how it accomplishes its mission and how the system is. Currently, the development of system architectures is considered a domain of knowledge where science meets art. In some specific areas, the methods on the development of system architectures are already well formalized. However, when analyzing the evaluation of system architectures such as those for multi-domain control systems, it is clear that there is still much room for rationalization. In these cases, the search for new methods for the evaluation of system architectures is currently in the state of art. In this work we discuss methods used in the verification and validation of control systems architectures of cyber-physical systems based on models and systems metrics. To do that, we review and discuss the literature on available methods of verification and validation of systems architectures, models and metrics of the attributes of control systems, and cyber-physical systems. As a case study, we apply our investigation to a first order system and compare our results with some results of the literature. This case study is used to evaluate sensor and actuator architectures where we use a first order plant as a reference. For the case study described above we investigate at least three goals as the objective function for evaluation of architectures, including: performance, complexity, cost or reliability. We expect to show that such discussion can contribute to better verification and validation of control systems architectures of cyber-physical systems based on models and systems metrics.
2012-36-0459 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Evaluation of the wear rate between thermoplastic and thermoset material
Autoria: FABIO RENATO CAMARGO SIRBONE, LUCILA MARIA REBELLO TEIXEIRA
Resumo: With the increasing internationalization of the markets, increase of the diversity and variety of products, and with the reduction of the products life cycle in the market, the competitiveness of the companies has been fierce. Moreover, the customers are each time more informed, demanding and with many possibilities of choices. In the decade of 90 the great concern of the companies to support the market was the quality. Nowadays, beyond the quality a special attention must be given for the social responsibility and the environmental impact caused by manufacturing process and the materials recycling. Currently, the industry uses several types of materials such as steel, ceramics, aluminum, copper, tin, zinc, silver, gold, bronze, among others, to manufacture products. The replacement of these materials for polymers have been sufficiently widespread in the engineering departments of the companies. The injection molding and material polymer present an inferior cost compared to the components manufactured in ferrous and not ferrous materials, addition to being easily recycled and reused. However a polymer in special, the Thermoset, does not have the same advantages than thermoplastics. The Thermosets are extremely rigid and fragile, a recycling process or reuse of this material in an efficient and effective way is unaware until the moment, and the injection mould needs a special treatment that is expensive. A great number of thermoset components have been used in the Industry such as gears, pistons, housings of pumps, inks, plates of circuits, coatings and seats. The replacement of these materials for thermoplastic could contribute for the manufacturing costs reduction and its possible recycling. In this work is presented a tribological study with the goal to evaluate and to compare the wear rate between a thermoplastic (polyphthalamide - PPA) and a thermoset (resin epoxy) being used the assay reciprocating (ASTM G133-05). This tribological analyze are some of the necessary activities for new products development in special the replacement of materials, remembering that the temperature condition in the product application influences strongly in the choice of the polymer type.
2012-36-0460 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: Analysis of the automotive electrical connections in relation to the functions of the cars, to increase the penetration of new products
Autoria: ANDRÉ AUGUSTO VASCONCELOS
Resumo: Currently, the major challenges of the portfolio management of the automotive companies are to identify the technologies in electrical connections automotive and to develop mechanisms to allow the company to fill these gaps in Portfolio, making it possible to supply options of connectors for the new functions of motor vehicles. The objectives of this study are the identification of types of electrical connections that are related to the functions of the cars, what are your suppliers and what the trend of these connections for future projects. With this view it is possible to identify new development opportunities to increase the product portfolio, creating strategies for the company to compete equally with your competitors and finally penetrate this market sector.
2012-36-0463 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: THE INFLUENCE OF WIND AND ELETRIC FAN ON EXPERIMENTAL TESTS IN AUTOMOTIVE ROLLER’S DYNAMOMETRIC
Autoria: LEONARDO VINÍCIUS MENDES PEREIRA, JORDANA LAÍS VIMIEIRO MELO, LUCAS PIRES MARTINS DE OLIVEIRA
Resumo: This paper describes a research about a reduction of experimental tests on public roads and tests roads in development vehicles. Doing automotive simulation in the climatic tunnel with roller´s dynamometric where the operator has a control of temperature, humidity and velocity is very common to the product engineering so all the real condition of the vehicles at the road can be properly tested. However, there are a few studies about the correlation of experimental tests in climatic tunnels and tests road, a reason for that is the high cost of the tests. The objective of this paper is to present results about the wind distribution at the frontof the vehicle inexperimental tests in a climatic tunnel and tests road under a performance test. The main point of this analysis was the condition of the wind in the fan and the force in the roller´s dynamometric. This study shows the analogy of the road and climatic tunnel data througha development vehicle prototype, the result of these analyses have identified the time savedand the repeatability of automotive tests in a climatic tunnel with roller´s dynamometric.
2012-36-0464 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Reduction of Weld Spots on Vehicle Moving Panels as a result of the Usage of Room Temperature Curing Structural Adhesives
Autoria: JULIANA LOPES HOEHNE
Resumo: The automotive industry, subjected to a broad internal and external competition, is forced to look to alternatives for improving its productivity and reducing its costs, at the same time as keeping quality requisites demanded by the market. Weld application is a costly process on automotive productive chain and can also impact on the vehicle life time. Welding is complex and affects performance of the material which becomes more susceptible to corrosion and more fragile, furthermore affects how compounds look: moving parts of the vehicle – doors, hood and trunk lid – after the welding they have to be submitted to repair process for improving their superficial finishing. Moving parts are composed by two metallic parts: an inner structural panel and a finishing outer panel. These parts are assembled using welding spots combined with a single component epoxy base structural adhesive. This type of adhesive reaches significant levels of adhesion only after submitted to high temperature. On this work a room temperature curing structural adhesive named Versilok, from LORD company, was used on the hemming section of the moving parts with the purpose of eliminating welding points. This adhesive is a two components system, which has acrylic and epoxy combined on its formulation. The case study base of this analysis was done on a vehicle assembly line of a great OEM. On the panel tested, doors of a pick-up vehicle model, it was achieved total elimination of welding spots. Consequently it was observed an improvement on corrosion resistance, a reduction on manufacturing lead time, rework levels and total cost associated.
2012-36-0466 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: IMPLEMENTATION OF ABS SYSTEM ON AN EXISTING HEAVY TRUCKS LINE-UP IN ACCORDANCE TO BRAZILIAN RESOLUTION NO. 312/09 (CONTRAN)
Autoria: PAULA DRIUSSI PERROTTA, PAULO CARLOS KAMINSKI, GUILHERME CANUTO DA SILVA
Resumo: The automotive industry has been increasingly researching and working on improving vehicle and passenger safety over the years. Following countries such as the United States and European Union, the Brazilian government has been publishing many resolutions with the objective of improving the safety of their fleet. With the publication of resolution 312 from CONTRAN (National Traffic Counsel), on April 3rd, 2009, the installation of ABS (Anti-lock Brake System) feature has become mandatory for all car and truck models to be sold in Brazil, following a staggered implementation starting on January 1st, 2010. The ABS system adds to the vehicle`s current brake system, not allowing the wheels to lock during braking, which helps preserve the vehicle`s stability and improve it`s safety, thus avoiding accidents. The technology, which is already available in a few car models, is not yet developed for the heavy trucks applications in this market. The aim of this article is to present the implementation of the ABS system on an existing heavy truck line-up for the Brazilian market. Keywords: ABS System. Heavy Trucks. CONTRAN. Brazilian Resolution 312/09. Vehicle Safety.
2012-36-0467 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Production of Ti-22Nb-6Zr Shape Memory Alloy by powder metallurgy
Autoria: VINICIUS RODRIGUES HENRIQUES, ELIENE NOGUEIRA DE CAMARGO, THAIS DOS REIS LUZ, EDEVALDO FARIA DINIZ, JOSE LUIS DE OLIVEIRA
Resumo: Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are novel materials which have the ability to return to a predetermined shape when heated. SMA are useful as actuators which are materials that change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields. Applications include engines in cars and airplanes, electrical generators and surgical implants utilizing the mechanical energy resulting from the shape transformations. Powder metallurgy allows the SMA production with savings of energy and time and with greater microstructural homogeneity than those obtained by conventional processes. In this work a new nickel-free titanium alloy Ti-22Nb-6Zr was produced in order to expand the application field. Samples were produced by mixing of initial metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering between 900-1400 °C, in vacuum. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. Density was measured by Archimedes method. It was shown that the samples were sintered to high densities and presented homogeneous microstructure and superior superelasticity, with high recoverable strain.
2012-36-0468 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: COLD FLOW PROPERTIES OF B5, B7 E B10 BLENDS
Autoria: MARIA CLARA KREMER FALLER, IVNA OLIVEIRA DA CRUZ, MAURO IURK ROCHA
Resumo: In the present Brazilian scenery, soy oil represents around 80% of biodiesel production feedstocks. Beef tallow answers for approximately 15% of the market and the remaining 5% corresponds to the participation of cotton oil, lard, recycled oil, amongst other fatty materials. With biodiesel being incorporated to diesel oil a series of technical concerns regarding the fuels cold flow arise, particularly in situations when this biofuel exhibits higher concentrations of saturated esters, such as the case of beef tallow biodiesel. The present work presents the results obtained in the evaluation of the effect of the incorporation of biodiesel in the cold flow and crystals formation properties of diesel oil. In the sense of better representing the marketed products reality, two distinct biodiesel samples (soy biodiesel and tallow - soy biodiesel 85:15) and two diesel oil samples (S500 and S50 diesel oils) were used in the formulations. The evaluation of B5, B7 and B10 blends revealed that the addition of soy biodiesel or tallow – soy biodiesel to both diesel oils did not cause significant alterations or show adverse effects in the Cloud Points (ASTM D5771) or Cold Filter Plugging Points (ASTM D6371), characteristics which are present in international specifications. In the other hand, respective arising and dropping tendencies were identified for the characteristics of Crystals Initial Identification Temperature (TIAC) and Pour Point (ASTM D5950).
2012-36-0470 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Quality evaluation of diesel fuel s50 types A and B
Autoria: HELINEIA OLIVEIRA GOMES, TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO, CARLOS VINICIUS COSTA MASSA, AIRTON GIONGO
Resumo: The growing appeal of improving air quality has guided the environmental legislation to establish goals for vehicular pollutants reduction. From 2012 on, the S50 diesel is available for vehicles with technologies that apply to CONAMA, phases P7 and L6 (diesel vehicles). The new formulation includes changes in the diesel fuel production that directly reflect in its chemical composition and consequently in the vehicles performance. In this paper are discussed aspects of the performance and oxidation stability (thermal and storage) of diesel fuels commercial S50 (type A) and their respective blends with 5% vol./vol. biodiesel soybean (type B). The importance to preserve the intrinsic quality of these fuels is also highlighted by indication of some practices associated with the handling and storage of diesel oil type B (B5).
2012-36-0471 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF Blind RIVET FOR STANDARDIZATION OF ASSEMBLY LINE IN USE AND DISPOSAL OF NOISE AFTER APPLICATION
Autoria: MARCELO ARROJO SABIO, GILMAR FERREIRA BATALHA, PAULO CARLOS KAMINSKI
Resumo: With widespread use in the automotive industry rivet fountain, also called blind rivet, requires increasing attention when its development, since the different application possibilities in different parts of automobiles, seat car, instrument panels, mechanisms of glass among others. This paper presents the design and development of a rivet spout designed for use in the automotive industry, aiming at improving the productive needs of standardization of the rivet in the same job, as well as service requesters to mechanical noise and the non-appearance after application .
2012-36-0474 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: GASOLINE-ETHANOL COMBUSTION STUDY IN A RAPID COMPRESSION MACHINE
Autoria: ANTONIO CARLOS SCARDINI VILLELA, GUILHERME BASTOS MACHADO, CARLOS VALOIS MACIEL BRAGA, SERGIO LEAL BRAGA, JULIO CESAR CUISANO EGUSQUIZA
Resumo: Combustion images are not simple to be obtained in a conventional engine. Therefore, some experimental apparatus, such as a rapid compression machine, are useful to conduct this kind of study. Imaging techniques allow flame front propagation analysis, which is a very important parameter to understand engine performance using different fuels and also to generate data to improve fuel modeling in engine simulation softwares. A rapid compression machine was adapted to operate in a spark ignition engine mode. It was used to obtain cylinder pressure measurements synchronized with gasoline-ethanol combustion high-speed photographies, over a range of ignition timings. Contours plots of the flame front profiles in successive frames with the assumption of spherical flame were used to calculate the propagation speeds toward the cylinder walls. Additionally, pressure, heat release, flame trajectories and other gasoline-ethanol combustion parameters, under engine typical condition, are discussed in this paper.
2012-36-0475 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: MULTIFUEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE, EMISSIONS AND COMBUSTION USING ANHYDROUS AND HYDROUS ETHANOL
Autoria: ANTONIO CARLOS SCARDINI VILLELA, GUILHERME BASTOS MACHADO
Resumo: The increasing ethanol participation in Brazilian fuel market and its supply and price oscillations, motivate studies on multi-fuel engines behavior with the two specified types of ethanol in Brazil, the anhydrous and the hydrous. The present work includes a comparative performance engine test bed study of a multi-fuel engine equipped with a programmable electronic central unit (ECU), fueled with anhydrous and hydrous ethanol. Fuel properties, engine performance and combustion parameters are reported using these two fuels for different operating points. Due to the possibility of setting some parameters, normally fixed in commercial engines, torque was optimized regarding spark advance and air fuel ratio, for all selected fuels and operating points. It was also possible to simulate anhydrous ethanol usage in an engine calibrated to hydrous ethanol. Test results presented the effects of water ethanol content, air-fuel ratio and ignition timing influences on a multi-fuel engine performance, emissions and combustion. Additionally, some correlations between performance and combustion parameters are presented.
2012-36-0476 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: GASOLINE-ETHANOL PERFORMANCE IN AN OUTBOARD ENGINE RUNNING AT WATER TANK
Autoria: ANTONIO CARLOS SCARDINI VILLELA, JOSE ROBERTO ROCHA
Resumo: The national gasoline boats market is composed mostly by vessels equipped with imported engines, which are not prepared to use Brazilian gasoline, due to its higher ethanol content. CENPES has large experience in automotive engines and vehicles fuels testing. However, gasoline marine engines have different characteristics that prevent the adoption of methodologies, infrastructure and equipment typically used in automotive testing. This work describes infrastructure and methodologies developed by CENPES to assess fuels performance in an outboard engine, running at water tank to simulate the real condition of use. The entire set was developed based on international research methods and also from improvement of methods created and adopted in Brazil. Due to a more accurate knowledge about the outboard engines and disposing of test methodologies applicable to them, it was possible to obtain results on the influence of gasoline formulations with different ethanol contents in these engines performance and fuel consumption. Additionally, it was performed an endurance test using a commercial gasoline.
2012-36-0477 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: METHODOLOGIES FOR FUEL DEVELOPMENT USING SURROGATE FUELS ON SPARK IGNITION ENGINES
Autoria: GUILHERME BASTOS MACHADO, JOSE EDUARDO MAUTONE BARROS, SERGIO LEAL BRAGA, ANTONIO HENRIQUE MONTEIRO DA FONSECA THOMÉ DA SILVA, EDIMILSON JESUS DE OLIVEIRA, ELLEN CRISTINA ZALONA DE AZEVEDO
Resumo: Gasoline is a complex mixture that possesses a quasi-continuous spectrum of hydrocarbon constituents. Surrogate fuels that decrease the chemical and/or physical complexity of gasoline can be used to enhance the understanding of fundamental processes involved in the interaction between fuels and internal combustion engines (ICEs). The object of this paper is to present methodologies for fuel development and show how surrogate fuels can be used to investigate the effect of individual components and fuel fractions on fuel properties and the performance of commercial engines. For this purpose, experiments were designed and SI engine dynamometer tests were conducted using ten mixtures of iso-octane, toluene, n-heptane and ethanol. Response surface models were statistically developed to analyze the interactions between fuel components, fuel properties and engine performance. It was possible to identify the importance of each component, and its corresponding chemical group, for different engine performance parameters. The methodology implemented can help fuel formulation in general and can be of particular interest for special applications, such as race fuels.
2012-36-0479 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: FUEL ECONOMY AND CO2 EMISSION – A COMPARISON BETWEEN TEST PROCEDURES AND DRIVING CYCLES
Autoria: SERGIO WILLIAM BOTERO, ROGERIO NASCIMENTO DE CARVALHO, ANTONIO CARLOS SCARDINI VILLELA
Resumo: The growing humanity concern about harmful effects of global warming in consequence of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission has been translated on CO2 emission reduction targets for the next years in many countries. These targets, and regulations for exhaust gas pollutants with local effects have led to the introduction of new vehicular technologies as gasoline direct injection or hybrid vehicles, for instance. New fuel developments, including alternative ones, have already an important contribution. In the United States, up to 2016, all manufacturers shall accomplish with the average production target of 35,5 mpg, becoming 55 mpg in 2025. In Europe, the target is 130 g/km of CO2 average emission by each manufacturer production and reduced for 95 g/km in 2020. Japan, China, India and other countries have their own limits defined for the next years too. In Brazil, the national labeling program informs the energetic efficiency level of each participant model and a classification of them but did not establish targets for CO2 emission mitigation. Particularly, a very detailed discussion must take place regarding ethanol participation on the fuel matrix. However, a comparison between contributions of each country target is not direct, since different measurement procedures and driving cycles are adopted. The USA applies 5 cycles to obtain fuel economy, in Europe is used the NEDC cycle and Japan has the JC08, all of them looking for simulation of each local traffic condition. In Brazil the FTP-75 for urban path and HWFET for highway path are used, both coming from USA procedures. This work presents an overview of main driving cycles in the world assessing their characteristics, main vehicular technologies available in each market and a proposal of correlation between the North American, also adopted in Brazil and the European procedures, based in a test program performed in the Petrobras Research Center (CENPES).
2012-36-0481 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: CHALLENGE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF DIESEL ENGINES INJECTOR NOZZLES DEPOSIT TEST IN BRAZIL
Autoria: AIRTON GIONGO, TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO, CARLOS VINICIUS COSTA MASSA, CELSO PERIN
Resumo: One of the diesel oil quality evaluation requirements is the injector nozzle coking performance. One of the world’s most used methodology to test these deposits is the diesel engine injector nozzle coking test procedure known as Peugeot XUD9 engine coking test. This test follows the international CEC (Coordinating European Council) F-23-01 procedure that defines a controlled cycle sequence and states some operation variables in order to reach trustable and representative results. This paper discuss about the challenges to improve the XUD9 engine coking test in a dynamometer bench including mention about equipment and instruments demanded on the test implementation. It comments about the challenge to fit the tests results of CENPES (CENTRO DE PESQUISAS E DESENVOLVIMENTO – the PETROBRAS research and development center) with the same test running on different laboratories worldwide. The methodology implemented can be used for evaluation of different types of diesel oils, biodiesel blends and its additives.
2012-36-0482 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: THE PHASES OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AT INPE
Autoria: MARIO CELSO PADOVAN DE ALMEIDA, MARCELO LOPES DE OLIVEIRA E SOUZA
Resumo: Since its introduction, in the late 1960s, systems engineering at INPE has passed through phases of greater and lesser importance. Three different phases are clearly recognized. The first two phases are closely associated with efforts to develop space systems. The third and present phase is associated to the recent importance of systems engineering to the development of the contemporary large and complex systems. This paper intends to uncover the history of use of systems engineering at INPE and to analyze some of the causes of the occurences of its phases.
2012-36-0483 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: EVALUATION OF THE TORSION BEAM OF A SUSPENSION OF TYPE TWIST-BEAM VIA NUMERICAL SIMULATION
Autoria: MARCIO EDUARDO SILVEIRA, LUIZE SCALCO DE VASCONCELOS, ANDRÉ LUIS CHRISTOFORO
Resumo: Considering the competitiveness of the automotive market current, the search for low cost solutions that meet all quality demands, it has become essential in the process of product development. The principles of large-scale production have become a limiter component complexity, mainly due to difficulties in the manufacturing process. Suspensions of the twist-beam type are an example of this competitive environment. This solution presents a very satisfactory performance when applied to light vehicles and has an excellent relationship between cost / benefit for the Brazilian market. It is estimated that more than 95% of light vehicles manufactured in Brazil using this type of suspension at the rear. Despite the large use in the Brazilian automotive market, there are few studies related to the twist-beam suspension. There is little literature available on the project and research in suspensions of this type, perhaps because of its simplicity and low cost design and manufacturing. The main objective of this work was to evaluate through numerical simulation based on finite element method, the influence of the torsion beam on the kinematic behavior of a twist-beam suspension. It were evaluated the influence of factors such as moment of inertia, polar moment of inertia and neutral axis position of the torsion beam on the convergence and camber of the suspension.
2012-36-0484 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Influence of the cooling liquid temperature on the fuel consumption and performance of an Otto cycle flex fuel engine.
Autoria: ROGÉRIO FRANCHI, ROGER TADEU GONDIM GUILHERME
Resumo: Due to the increasing importance of vehicle energy efficiency, the current project modification of Flex engines that aims reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions becomes priority. It is known that, due to chemical difference between hydrated ethanol (E100) and commercial gasoline (E22), parameters as combustion pressure, burn speed and knock tendency vary according to the fuel and are decisive for the thermal engine efficiency. This study has the objective to show and quantify the influence of the cooling liquid temperature in these parameters and on the thermal, mechanical and global efficiencies of an Otto flexible fuel engine, aiming to observe opportunities of fuel consumption reduction and performance improvement, as a way to compensate the fixed compression rate of flex engines. The results show that it is possible to have better efficiency in partial and full loads, adjusting the cooling liquid temperature according to the used fuel. In the vehicle, the gain can be increased by the reduction of fan duty cycle.
2012-36-0485 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: BIODETERIORATION OF B5 BLENDS
Autoria: ADRIANA URURAHY SORIANO, MARIA CLARA KREMER FALLER, RENATO ROCHA VALÉRIO, LUIZ FERNANDO MARTINS, FREDERICO HENRIQUE TEIXEIRA GERKEN DE LANDA, FÁTIMA REGINA DUTRA FARIA, ELIANE DE ASSUMPÇÃO VENTURA
Resumo: BIODETERIORATION OF B5 BLENDS Adriana Ururahy Soriano1, Luiz Fernando Martins1, Eliane de Assumpção Ventura1, Frederico Gerken de Landa1, Renato Rocha Valério2, Fátima Regina Dutra Faria1, Maria Clara Kremer Faller1 1 CENPES, Petrobras – Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 2 Fundação Gorceix The presence of water consists in a determining condition for microorganisms proliferation. Thus, the incorporation of biodiesel to the diesel oil, considering hygroscopic behavior and chemical composition of this biofuel, generates technical concerns related to the biodeterioration potential of fuels that are nowadays commercialized in Brazil. The present work dealt with the evaluation and comparison, in bench scale, of the biodeterioration processes of S500 diesel oil, soy biodiesel, beef tallow biodiesel and the resulting B5 blends. Fuels were stored with and without the introduction of biodegrading microorganisms, under conditions that simulated service station storage. It was aimed not only to establish if biodeterioration susceptibility varies as a function of biodiesel type and blending level, as well as to verify the occurrence and magnitude of the formation of microbial metabolism residues, which can potentially contribute to the obstruction and reduction of fuel filters life time. It was evidenced that fuels biodeterioration levels, even though small, differed among samples. Consistently, the oxygen consumption and the carbon dioxide production were more pronounced in the presence of the inoculum, especially for the inoculated B100 and B5 blend from beef tallow. Concerning the formation of residues, it was observed in all inoculated products, especially for the B5 blend from beef tallow. Fungi predominated in the biodeterioration process for all the fuels analyzed. Finally, the results showed that the biodeterioration of all the above mentioned products occurred in the storage conditions tested. Nevertheless, this phenomenon had small magnitude, even in inoculated samples.
2012-36-0486 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: IN CYLINDER PRESSURE CURVE AND COMBUSTION PARAMETERS VARIABILITY WITH ETHANOL ADDITION
Autoria: TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO
Resumo: An experimental investigation was performed on na engine dynamometer to study in cylinder pressure curve and combustion parameters variability with ethanol addition. It was used a Flex-Fuel engine, 1.4 L, 4 cylinders, with a programmable engine control unit to optimize the calibration for different blends of gasoline E25 and hydrous ethanol. Engine was calibrated for maximum break torque limited by knocking. In-cylinder pressure was measured by using a pressure sensor installed on the spark plug and analyzed by a combustion data system.Combustion duration, mass fraction burned, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and others were calculated based on in-cylinder pressure curve data. The combustion variability was analyzed from 300 recorded engine cycle for each operating condition. Results for some operating conditions indicated that ethanol addition can reduce combustion variability on a non linear pattern.<br /><strong>Autores:</strong> TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO, GUILHERME BASTOS MACHADO, MARCELO JOSE COLAÇO, CARLOS EDUARDO FERNANDES PAIVA, LEONARDO DE OLIVEIRA CARVALHO, JOSE EDUARDO MAUTONE BARROS, CARLOS RODRIGUES PEREIRA BELCHIOR
2012-36-0487 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: COMPUTER SIMULATION OF A FLEX-FUEL ENGINE RUNNING ON DIFFERENT GASOLINE-HYDROUS ETHANOL BLENDS.
Autoria: TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO, DANIEL GATTO OLIVEIRA, MARCELO JOSE COLAÇO, GUILHERME BASTOS MACHADO, JOSE EDUARDO MAUTONE BARROS, CARLOS EDUARDO FERNANDES PAIVA, CARLOS RODRIGUES PEREIRA BELCHIOR
Resumo: Nowadays computer simulation is an important tool to support engineering projects, but still further studies are necessary for it use in fuel development. In order to study the influence of fuel properties on engine combustion and emission performance, a computer model was designed based on a Flex-Fuel engine geometric data. Model was validated with experimental tests done on an engine dynamometer. Commercial software was used to simulate the experimental conditions, by using Wiebe two zone combustion and Woschini heat transfer models. In-cylinder maximum pressure, IMEP and emission data were calculated for different gasoline-hydrous ethanol blends at 3875 rpm, 60 Nm and 105 Nm. Total hydrocarbons concentration was simulated comparing the experimental data of hydrocarbons and unburned ethanol emission measured with a FTIR analyzer. The computer model presented good agreement with experimental data for maximum in-cylinder pressure, intake air, fuel consumption and IMEP. Regarding emissions, the simulations could not match experimental data without specific adjustment for each fuel, showing the need for further modeling development.
2012-36-0488 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: PROCEDURE FOR UNCERTAINTY OF MEASUREMENT DETERMINATION OF SPARK IGNITION ENGINE EMISSION TESTS
Autoria: TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO, GUILHERME BASTOS MACHADO, CARLOS EDUARDO FERNANDES PAIVA, MARCOS FERNANDO MENDES DE BRITO
Resumo: Experiments in engine test cells are under the influence of several parameters and equipments, which may impact the fuel results. Many variables of interest are derived from the combination of more than one quantity, increasing the results uncertain of measurement. This paper describes a detailed procedure to calculate uncertainty of measurement of emission tests using a FTIR (Fourrier Transformed Infrared) emission analyzer. A Flex Fuel engine using gasoline and ethanol was tested under different operating conditions on a engine dynamometer equipped with automation system. For each operating condition at least four different measurements were done. The expanded uncertainty was calculated by combination of type A (due to repeatability) and Type B (due to calibration, sensor resolution and others).
2012-36-0489 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR THE INTAKE VALVE AND COMBUSTION CHAMBER DEPOSITS FORMATION ON PORT INJECTION FLEXIBLE FUEL SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES
Autoria: RICARDO ALMEIDA BARBOSA DE SA, EURICO SILVA MELLO, ANA PAULA DO CARMO FIGUEIREDO
Resumo: This work presents a new methodology to evaluate intake valve and combustion chamber deposits formation on port injection flexible fuel spark-ignition engines. This test methodology was adapted from ASTM 6201 standard, using a commercial Brazilian engine that can be run with blends of gasoline and ethanol in any proportion from pure gasoline to pure ethanol. It also describes every step of the methodology development, test conditions and the main criteria discussed by workgroup created by The National Agency of Oil, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP to propose a suitable standard for Brazilian engines and fuels. This methodology will also be used to evaluate the results of detergent dispersant additives that may comply with the compulsory Brazilian gasoline additivation that will be due at January 2014.
2012-36-0490 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: BIODIESEL BLENDS SPRAY FORMATION AND COMBUSTION SIMULATION COMPARED TO ENGINE PERFORMANCE
Autoria: PAULO CESAR PEREIRA DE OLIVEIRA, MARCIA FIGUEIREDO MOREIRA, GUILHERME BASTOS MACHADO
Resumo: Biodiesel use has grown in Brazil over the last years. Currently, 5% blend in diesel (B5) is mandatory in Brazil. However, it is necessary additional research on the properties of these fuels and their impact on engine performance and emissions. A wide range of actions is in progress whose purpose is to broaden knowledge about these fuels, ranging from the raw materials production processes to the finished products use by the final consumer. In order to develop preliminary studies using simulation methodologies to investigate these fuels performance in engines, spray formation and combustion were assessed comparing diesel and diesel-biodiesel blends. Spray and combustion in a diesel engine were simulated using S50 and S500 diesel and S500 diesel blends with 5% and 20% animal fat and soy bean biodiesel. Fuel properties were obtained and implemented in the simulation software. The simulation results were compared to each other and to performance and emissions experimental tests, conducted in an engine with common rail injection and EURO III technology.
2012-36-0491 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Numerical and experimental stress analysis of an internal combustion engine valve during the closing event
Autoria: FERNANDO ZENKLUSEN, ALBERTO CARDONA, CESAR DANIEL LUENGO, FEDERICO CAVALIERI, JOSE RISSO
Resumo: Valve engine manufactures have to satisfy the demands of a market that require to increase the strength of their products and to extend the time between servicing. In a combustion engine valve, the mechanical stresses are generated during the close event by loads coming mainly from the return spring, the inertia loads of retainer, keeper and stem, closing velocity, valve tilt and the thermal loads from the combustion. The objective of this work is to understand the valve closing process, and to predict numerically the maximum stresses in new valve designs in a shorter time and at lower costs compared with experimental procedures. In this work, the experimental valve stem stress response under impact velocity was registered using strain gauges and then compared by Finite Element Method solutions showing good agreement.
2012-36-0492 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Wear prediction in internal combustion engine valve materials
Autoria: FERNANDO ZENKLUSEN, SANDRO ROGERIO RODRIGUES DA SILVA, JOSÉ MAURILIO CORDEIRO LINS, ALBERTO CARDONA, FEDERICO CAVALIERI, CESAR DANIEL LUENGO
Resumo: In internal combustion engine valves, wear often develops at the interface of the valve seat and the insert as a result of the high pressures produced by the combustion process at the moment of the closing event. An alternative to study the wear is by carrying out experimental tests in specific wear testing machines. The main drawback is that they are time consuming and expensives due to the need to carry out many tests for the usually observed scatter in the results. In the area of numerical methods, the wear simulation has been widely developed in the last years because it can solve complicated time consuming problems with general geometries. The aim of this work is to characterize the wear rate coefficients for bi-metallic pairs commonly used in internal combustion engine valves using experimental results and numerical solutions by using the Finite Element Method. Then, a numerical valve model is provided to demonstrate that the numerical and experimental solutions are in agreement.
2012-36-0493 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: CONDITIONING PROCEDURE FOR HEV´s BATTERIES APPLIED TO DIFFERENT EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY CYCLES
Autoria: SERGIO WILLIAM BOTERO, TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO, ROGERIO NASCIMENTO DE CARVALHO, KENYO COLNAGO DOS SANTOS
Resumo: The automobile industry has developed and marketed hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) internationally for over 10 years. The presence of batteries in these vehicles poses difficulties for their approval in laboratory trials. The difference between the initial and final battery state of charge changes the energy balance measured in the tests, affecting the emissions and fuel economy levels. Two proposals have emerged to address this problem. One is described in ISO 23274, which consists in determining and applying a correction factor to the emissions and fuel economy results. This factor is based on the difference between the initial and final battery state of charge after the test. The other is described by SAE J1711 which consists in conditioning the battery, in order to equal the state of charge level at the end and start of the test, avoiding the factor recalculation. The main objective of this paper is to study the energy flow in the batteries during the tests and, based on this study, to propose a new procedure for its conditioning. The SAE J1711 proposes the resumption of the old proposal FTP75 cycle with four stages in order to condition the battery. However, it is possible, also, to achieve the same effect using other cycles. In addition to theoretical studies, experimental tests were performed with three hybrid electric vehicles using FTP75 cycle (three phases) and European cycle ECE-1505.
2012-36-0498 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: INVESTIGATION ON THE FUEL AND ENGINE PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT THE OPTIMUM CRANK ANGLE FOR HALF MASS FRACTION BURNED (CA50)
Autoria: LEONARDO DE OLIVEIRA CARVALHO, RUBELMAR MAIA DE AZEVEDO CRUZ NETO, TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO
Resumo: In-cylinder pressure measurements and indicating diagrams have proven to be a valuable research tool for the analysis of combustion in spark-ignition or compression ignition engines. With the use of thermodynamic models, the rate of heat release and mass fraction burned curves are calculated, and from the latter the CA50 parameter (crank angle fifty), which is the angle in which 50% of the total fuel has been burned. The empirical process of the optimum start of combustion typically leads to a value of CA50 from 7° to 8° after top dead center. This paper attempts to experimentally investigate which properties have an influence on this optimum CA50, from both the fuel and engine perspective, by using a variable compression ratio engine and different fuels.
2012-36-0499 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: A Study on the Camshaft Lobe Microstructure Obtained by Different Processing
Autoria: PAULO HENRIQUE OGATA, DINECIO DOS SANTOS FILHO, LUCIANO OKAZAKI, LUCAS PINTOL NISHIKAWA
Resumo: The present work aims to characterize the microstructure of valvetrain camshaft lobes that are currently applied in the automotive industry, obtained by different processing routes. From Hertzian stresses typical of L4 engine low displacement, calculation on the actual contact area between the bodies has been carried out. The cam lobe microstructure has been assessed by microscopy, whereas the mechanical properties by hardness profile measurements on the surface region. Microconstituents type and form which compose the final microstructure at the cam lobe work region are defined by the casting route and/or post-heat treatment process, other than alloy chemical composition, so that the knowledge and control on such factors is vital to assure suitable valvetrain assembly performance and durability, since the actual contact area is significantly smaller with respect to the apparent area. As a result, the microstructure performs a direct role to the performance of interface region between the cam lobe and counterpart.
2012-36-0500 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: MODELING THE EFFECT OF THE BRAZILIAN GASOLINE COMPOSITION ON THE VEHICULAR EMISSIONS – A NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH
Autoria: PEDRO CAFFARO VICENTINI, ROGÉRIO PINTO ESPÍNDOLA, NELSON FRANCISCO FAVILLA EBECKEN
Resumo: Vehicular emissions are in concern of automobile industries and oil companies due to its impact on the human health and global warming. Less pollutant technologies and more efficient fuels have been developed in the last years driven by constrains imposed by government regulations. However the estimation of such improvements in the actual scenario is very hard to evaluate due to a number of reasons but mainly due to the difficulty of reliable emission models. The main oil companies and automakers usually perform emission tests to support the development of new fuels and to evaluate new production technologies. So a large amount of data is generated that can be useful to develop data based models through data mining techniques. In this work, a data base that has been collected over more than 10 years is used to build a neural network model for pollutant emissions, given the gasoline properties and vehicle characteristics. The resulting model has achieved a performance comparable to the uncertainty inherent into the emission test. The model is used to estimate the emissions impact of the new gasoline composition that should be produced in Brazil in a near future. The results show that the new fuel composition allows the reduction of the main pollutant concentration without a significant drop in the vehicle autonomy.
2012-36-0502 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: GASOLINE LUBRICITY: AN EXPLORATORY EVALUATION
Autoria: LUIZ GUILHERME ROQUETTE LOPREATO, EDIMILSON JESUS DE OLIVEIRA
Resumo: Internal combustion engines injection systems are directly lubricated by the fuel, being this lubricating ability known as lubricity. For gasoline fuels, although the lubricity requirements appear to be lower than the ones for other fuels, concerns arise due to the use of high pressure injection systems, which might be more susceptible to intrinsic problems of lubricity, in direct injection engines. Still, until today, only few studies involving gasoline are available in technical literature and the methodology for gasoline lubricity analysis is still object of study. In this sense, this paper aims to evaluate a modified HFRR test method with respect to its applicability to Brazilian gasoline, as well as verify ethanol’s influence on lubricity. The results provide grounding to the gasoline lubricity test procedure under study.
2012-36-0505 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Estimating method for the avoided non-recyclable CO2 due to the use of Brazilian ethanol in flex fuel vehicles
Autoria: ROGER TADEU GONDIM GUILHERME, GILBERTO N.G. EL GAMAL
Resumo: The introduction of the flexible fuel vehicles in Brazil had the first objective to protect the customer against fuels – commercial gasoline (E22) and hydrated ethanol (E100 or AEHC) - price variations. Nevertheless, while the Flex technology became dominant in the Brazilian market, the environmental aspect of the possibility of using a renewable fuel, ethanol from sugar cane, increased in importance due to the reduction in non-recyclable CO2 and its benefits for the green house effect. The objective of this article is to propose a practical method to quantify the avoided CO2 using available engine management system parameters, basic chemical calculations, literature information and simplifying assumptions. The resulting flow chart shows that it is possible to have a practical avoided-CO2 calculation procedure which can be performed on-board and used for customer information and for quantifying the environmental advantage of using ethanol in fleets of flexible fuel cars.
2012-36-0506 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION RESULTS OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES AFTER MILEAGE ACCUMULATION - BEST PROJECT
Autoria: KENYO COLNAGO DOS SANTOS, TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO, SERGIO WILLIAM BOTERO, SÍLVIA MARIA STORTINI GONZÁLEZ VELÁZQUEZ, ROBERTO MATARAZZO BRAUN
Resumo: The "BEST Project" comprehends one Brazilian goal of the European Program known as "BEST" (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) – an initiative of the Stockholm City, Sweden, that aims to promote the viability of ethanol as alternative fuel for public transport and light vehicles. In 2009, an agreement was signed to meet the goals of the "BEST Project”, in order to test light Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) with E25 PREMIUM GASOLINE, a low-sulfur and high octane Brazilian gasoline mixed with 25% v/v of Anhydrous Ethanol. The main objective was to study the performance, emissions and fuel economy of three HEVs fueled with E25 PREMIUM GASOLINE and PREMIUM LUBRICANT OIL. The HEVs were driven for 40.000 km (mileage accumulation) in a road cycle with real conditions, covering traffic jams, free road and highways, passing also through the main and secondary streets. This paper presents the emissions and fuel economy results of HEVs, found in the begin, middle and after the mileage accumulation, according to the national standard methodologies NBR 6601, 7024 and 12026. For it´s execution, a methodology, based on international standard ISO 23274:2007, was implemented in Brazil. It was also implemented a Hybrid Electric Vehicles Data Acquisition System (HEVDAS) to use in laboratory tests.
2012-36-0507 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: THE EFFECT OF 4 PHASE FTP-75 CYCLE ON EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY RESULTS OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Autoria: KENYO COLNAGO DOS SANTOS, TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO, ROGERIO NASCIMENTO DE CARVALHO, SERGIO WILLIAM BOTERO, PEDRO CAFFARO VICENTINI
Resumo: The light and heavy duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are growing fast and being accepted in the world market, particularly in the U.S., Japan and Europe. In Brazil, the introduction of this technology is in the early stage - there are three HEV models available in the market. However, there is no Brazilian regulation that defines procedures for testing HEV in laboratory published yet. The standard vehicles are testing using NBR 6601, that is equivalent to FTP-75 with 3 phases. Among the standards that specify testing methodology for light duty HEV, there are ISO 23274:2007 and SAE J1711:2010. They have different procedures to measure HEV emission and fuel economy on laboratory, concerning battery state of charge (SOC) variation. This paper presents the effect of 4 Phase FTP-75 Cycle (SAE J1711 procedure) on emissions and fuel economy levels of three HEVs models. It also describes about the battery bank conditioning of the HEVs tested. The results of this paper will also serve as reference for elaboration of the methodology to be standardized in Brazil for HEV emissions and fuel economy testing.
2012-36-0508 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Performance potential of an ethanol fueled turbo charged direct injection Otto engine
Autoria: PAULO KENJI TAKAMURA, ROGER TADEU GONDIM GUILHERME
Resumo: The search for better energetic efficiency of the flexible fuel engines will guide the next design changes in this technology. The use of direct injection and the downsizing of volumetric displacement compensated by supercharging is a possible solution to reduce the fuel consumption. The direct injection brings the thermodynamic benefits of the charge cooling; the reduced displacement reduces the pumping work in partial loads and engine friction, while the supercharging allows the performance of a bigger engine. The combination of these technologies with hydrated ethanol (E100 or AEHC) represents a performance and CO2 reduction opportunity, but also a challenge in terms of cold start and durability. The objective of this article is to show the full load performance potential of the use of hydrated ethanol in a direct injection turbocharged engine. The result is that, with the adjustment of manifold pressure, spark advance and air to fuel rate, it is possible to achieve a significant power improvement, without compromising the main engine parameters for durability.
2012-36-0509 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Methodology for conversion of vehicle emissions in g / kWh to g / km
Autoria: PEDRO CAFFARO VICENTINI, TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO
Resumo: The Brazilian Program for Motor Vehicle Pollution Control (PROCONVE) establishes the emission limits for light duty vehicle following USA legislation, which uses the FTP- 75 dynamometer driving cycle and express the emission results in g/km. For heavy duty vehicles, PROCONVE adopted the European legislation that establishes measurement procedures on engine dynamometer bench, which provide emission results in g/kWh. Because of the difference between the results obtained by measurements performed on engine dynamometer bench and chassis dynamometer, it is a challenge to compare the results obtained by both procedures. In this paper it is proposed a method to make this comparison possible in order to assess the environmental impact of vehicle use in real world situations, facilitating the calculation of emission inventories
2012-36-0510 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: THE ARRIVAL OF ARLA 32 IN BRAZIL
Autoria: AIRTON GIONGO, TADEU CAVALCANTE CORDEIRO DE MELO, CARLOS GUERRA PEREIRA, CARLOS VINICIUS COSTA MASSA, CELSO PERIN
Resumo: Since January 2012 took effect the new regulations of CONAMA P-7. This regulations establishes a new standard for the pollutant emissions on heavy-duty diesel vehicles. To meet the new requirements of this regulations, one of the technologies adopted by automakers uses an aftertreatment system called SCR in order to reduce NOx in tailpipe. This system requires a reducing agent that is known in Brazil as ARLA 32. This article discusses this new phase of CONAMA and discuss some concepts about the ARLA 32, as it acts on exhaust emissions, and the comparison between the ARLA 32 that is produced in Brazil and AdBlue, that is the similar produced in Europe and has been used since 2005 in that continent, in engines of technology from EURO IV.
2012-36-0513 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Refinements of the GPS Kalman estimates for the position and velocity of a vehicle during high acceleration transients using IMU measurements
Autoria: ALESSANDRO GONÇALVES ADINOLFI, MARCELO LOPES DE OLIVEIRA E SOUZA, HELIO KOITI KUGA
Resumo: Currently, the use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems-GNSS has been widely disseminated for the most different applications, from the aeronautical navigation to the car traffic system, being the Global Positioning System-GPS the most used system for such objectives. New applications of such systems have presented more demanding requirements in terms of precision for the position and velocity provided by these systems. Some solutions, as the precision augmentation systems based on satellite or ground improve the precision of the position and velocity estimates. However, the sampling rate of these systems is not substantially improved. Therefore, it constitutes a major limitation of such systems for the position and velocity estimates during high acceleration transients. On other hand, Inertial Navigation Systems- INSs present superior performance under these circumstances. In this work we study refinements of the GPS Kalman estimates for the position and velocity of a vehicle during high acceleration transients using measurements from the Inertial Measurement Unit-IMU of an INS. For that, we: 1- identify a case in the literature with discrete-discrete type Kalman Filter applied to the linearized version of a two dimension vehicle movement, with uncertainties from the GPS sensors modeled as stochastic gaussian processes characterized for small or null acceleration transients; 2- apply the case for high acceleration transients; and 3- repeat this with GPS and INS for high acceleration transients. We expect to show: 1- the difficulties to tuning the Kalman Filter to obtain a behavior of convergence; 2- after the Kalman Filter is tuned, the estimates of the state variables can be obtained with sufficient precision; and 3- the use of IMU measurements refines the GPS Kalman estimates for the position and velocity of a vehicle during high acceleration transients.
2012-36-0514 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Mechanical Vehicle Vibration effects on Printed Wired Board (PWB)
Autoria: EDUARDO B. FREITAS, WILLIANS DE SOUZA DIAS
Resumo: Based on the growth of automotive two-wheelers was found to require further study the impact of mechanical vibrations in the electronic components used in this segment. The material and manufacturing technology for Printed Circuit Board (PWB), selected for an application usually represents a balance between cost and application related to reliability engineering. The present study aims to investigate the effects of mechanical vibrations with emphasis on automotive wheels focusing on two PWBs used in assembling the instrument panel, assessing the factors that may affect the reliability of electrical circuits and mechanical components. This work also contributes to determine the optimal combinations of the factors that determine the functioning and reliability of the components present in the instrument panels, obtaining an electrical and mechanical specification, suitable for this application, avoiding unnecessary costs on materials and processes.
2012-36-0515 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Summarizing the influence of vehicular parameters on fuel consumption and CO2 emission
Autoria: ADEMAR RUDGE FILHO, ROGER TADEU GONDIM GUILHERME, RAFAEL IULIANO SAMBIASE
Resumo: Fuel consumption and CO2 emission are important drivers of automotive industry product evolution. In Europe, the manufactures have the compromise to reduce their fleet consumption steadily and, in Brazil, a still voluntary but growing labeling program makes the vehicular energetic efficiency one of the main concerns during the concept phase. Although power train efficiency plays a decisive role, also vehicular parameters such as weight, aerodynamic, tires rolling resistance and electrical and mechanical loads have an important influence on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The cost-benefit analysis of the modifications in these parameters needs to be performed in the early project stages, where prototypes are still not available. Therefore, the objective of this article is to summarize and compare the magnitude of influence these parameters on the fuel consumption and CO2 emission on the urban and highway cycles defined by the Brazilian standard NBR7024 using a computational simulation tool and taking a small popular flexible fuel vehicle as the base of comparison.
2012-36-0516 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Simulation of the fuel consumption reduction potential of a mild hybrid system applied to a popular flexible fuel vehicle
Autoria: ADEMAR RUDGE FILHO, ROGER TADEU GONDIM GUILHERME
Resumo: Fuel consumption and CO2 emission are important drivers of automotive industry product evolution. In Europe, the manufactures have the compromise to reduce their fleet consumption steadily and, in Brazil, a still voluntary but growing labeling program makes the vehicular energetic efficiency one of the main concerns during the concept phase. Different from the full hybrid technology, where the car can be driven purely by the electric motor, the mild hybrid has been mentioned in literature as cost-effective route to reduce CO2 emissions through the combination of a highly responsive low power electric motor, which acts supporting the internal combustion engine in special driving situations, with and energy recovery and storage system composed of advanced batteries. Therefore the mild hybrid system can be understood as one type of downsizing strategy. In Brazil the tax reduction policy for 1.0 vehicle makes this strategy attractive to improve vehicular performance and reduce fuel consumption. The objective of this work was therefore the evaluation via simulation software of the potential of this technology applied on a typical popular vehicle in terms of performance and fuel consumption and CO2 emission reduction.
2012-36-0518 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: New Direction and Trends for Vehicle Entertainment Systems
Autoria: ARY PONTES DE MIRANDA, JOHN STANLEY GERMAINE
Resumo: The need for entertainment and information has been a constant desire since people began driving cars. Over the last decade, the entertainment systems for vehicle applications have transformed from a basic audio system to an infotainment and information center similar to what is available in the home or office. The vehicle passenger compartment has already integrated the major innovations available in the home entertainment market, such as HDTV, Gaming, DVD, MP3, USB, Navigation and Internet connectivity. This rapid growth has been driven by both customer demand and increased affordability. This revolution has driven major changes in vehicle design to accommodate the new concepts and features. The new vehicles are an extension of our homes and offices in terms of convenience, information and entertainment, in a safe and pleasant manner for the drivers and passengers. The objective of this paper is to review the transformation that were implemented over the last decade, to identify the trends and new technologies under development that can be implemented in five years, and to propose solutions to be integrated in the current vehicle design increasing entertainment, connectivity and safety.
2012-36-0519 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: A DISCUSSION ON THE PROCESS OF ELICITING AND VALIDATING REQUIREMENTS TO HANDLE SINGLE EVENTS UPSETS IN AVIONIC SYSTEMS
Autoria: SERGIO ROBERTO FERREIRA MACHADO, MARCELO LOPES DE OLIVEIRA E SOUZA
Resumo: Abstract: Avionics Systems are increasingly used to perform safety-critical functions at high altitudes. But their increasing capacity and concentration of memory and logics leads to more frequent occurrences of single event upsets, especially in high altitudes. In this work we discuss the process of eliciting and validating requirements to handle single events upsets in avionic systems. To do that we initially summarize and update the concepts of radiation environment of the atmosphere, radiation induced errors, single event upsets, etc. presented in a previous paper. Then, we discuss some of their effects on avionic systems and ways of mitigation, reported in the literature. Finally, we discuss provisions to demand the adoption of such mitigation measures, and their sufficiency by transforming them into requirements, according to recommendations of compliance described in standards as SAE ARP 4754 and RTCA DO-254. This will help in the process of eliciting and validating requirements to handle single events upsets for avionic systems. Keywords. Avionics, Radiation Effects, Single Event Upset, System Engineering, Requirements Engineering.
2012-36-0520 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: INFLUENCE OF INTERMETALLICS AND PRECIPITATES ON THE FATIGUE CRACK NUCLEATION AND PROPAGATION IN ALUMINUM ALLOYS AA6005, AA6063 AND AA6351
Autoria: SANDRO VICTOR POLANCO ESPEZUA, ANA MÁRCIA BARBOSA DA SILVA, CARLOS ANTONIO REIS PEREIRA BAPTISTA, DENISE FERREIRA LAURITO
Resumo: Due to their excellent mechanical properties, aluminum alloys are also applied in transport vehicles, like trucks and buses. With respect to their mechanical behavior, fatigue is a process that alters the life of a structural component producing local stresses and floating strains and consequently giving rise to crack nucleation and the fracture of the material. In this work it is shown the influence of microstructure and intermetallic particles in aluminum alloy AA6005-T6, AA6063-T6 and AA6351-T6 that were tested for tension and fatigue. The microconstituents and the crack path on the fracture surfaces were analized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The variation of the geometry of the precipitated particles of Mg2Si, intermetallics (Fe, Mn)3SiAl12 and irregular distribution of particles in the matrix of the alloys were observed. The test results, together with the fractographic analyses, allowed determining the differences in the fatigue behavior of the studied alloys.
2012-36-0521 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: A strategy based on the architecture ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) for calibration of internal combustion engines
Autoria: VALDENIO MIRANDA ARAUJO, FABRICIO J.P. PUJATTI
Resumo: Nowadays the necessity of diminish the processing time is searched incessantly in the industry in general, what it is not different for the automotive industry. The test of internal combustion engines (MCI) adds in general, a significant cost for the automobiles manufacturers due to difficulties found during the calibration of the engines. Had to the high cost that involves all the process, we consider the use of Neuro-Fuzzy systems to facilitate the calibration, to diminish the running time and to avoid the using of high cost equipments introducing a new strategy for mixture air-fuel control. This strategy can describe the non linear characteristics of the MCI and adds a level of adaptability to the system, through the adjustment of its parameters by means of functional data of the engine. The controller`s system is adjusted to supply the adequate amount of fuel in each operational condition of the engine, providing better dynamic performance and increasing efficiency. In this article a strategy based on architecture ANFIS (Adaptative Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) will be described, as well as the creation of rules for input variables of the system by the application of a simple and efficient methodology of training of the output polynomial, allowing the MCI to operate with the ideal mixture for each point of operation, with fast convergence and without high computational cost.
2012-36-0526 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: Hybrid FE-SEA modeling and experimental validation of an aircraft floor structure with vibration isolators
Autoria: JULIO APOLINARIO CORDIOLI, MARCELO ANDRÉS BUSTAMANTE, ANDRÉ DE OLIVEIRA, GREORIO GOUDEL AZEVEDO, SAMIR N. Y. GERGES
Resumo: The Hybrid FE-SEA method is a recently developed numerical technique that deals with the so-called mid-frequency problem. Such problems involve the dynamic analysis of systems that include, at the same frequency range, components with high and low modal density. Systems with a reduced number of modes are usually modeled using deterministic methods, as the Finite Element (FE) Method, while modal dense systems need to be treated by means of statistical methods such as the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). Neither FE nor SEA can properly describe a system that displays the mid-frequency behavior due to ta prohibitive computational cost (FE) or the lack of accuracy (SEA). The floor structure of an aircraft is a typical case of a mid frequency problem, where the floor beams are relatively rigid and have very few modes while the floor panels have a very high modal density. These characteristics considerably complicate the design of the vibration isolators installed between the floor beams and the floor panels. In this study, the floor structure is modeled using the Hybrid FE-SEA method, with the floor beams as FE subsystems and the floor panels as SEA subsystems. The model of each component is separately validated through experimental tests, and later coupled as a Hybrid FE-SEA model. The full model is then experimentally validated and some analyses are carried on comparing different representations of a vibration isolator.
2012-36-0528 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Study of the vibrational behavior of a noise baffle applied on heavy duty vehicles by means of finite elements analysis and design considerations
Autoria: ANDRE LUIZ OLIVEIRA DE FARIA, YURI OSELIERI MILIONE, VINICIUS TADEU DOS PASSOS ALMEIDA, HELTON DE OLIVEIRA LAGE
Resumo: Abstract: The present work describes a comparative study of proposals for a metallic plate, used as an air compressor’s noise baffle in heavy duty vehicles. Computational structural frequency response analysis were performed in four configurations of the component, using a commercial finite element software. After the calculations completion, the best configuration was selected for prototyping , based on the comparison of the obtained stresses results and on the design considerations regarding the technical feasibility of each proposal. The final results show that, by inserting a reinforcement welded at the plate most critical region, a considerable reduction on the maximum stress magnitude was achieved. Keywords: Noise Baffle, Frequency Response,Vibration, Heavy Duty Vehicles.
2012-36-0530 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Chassis e Cabine
Título do Paper: Determination of structural performance indices through correlation analysis between experimental x virtual x analytical calculation of a implement road chassis freight type bulk carrier (3 axes) subjected to lateral and vertical dynamic conditions m
Autoria: JOEL BOARETTO, WALTER JESUS PAUCAR CASAS, LEANDRO GARBIN, SERGIO DE OLIVEIRA CORREA
Resumo: The railroad for freight transportation in Brazil prevails over to the other, that’s occupying a market share over 60% among the other bathing suits to air, river and rail. This meant that an increasing law was imposed on the loadings, lengths, Vehicle Load Combinations (CVC – Combinação de Veículos de Carga), and especially ways of monitoring to ensure compliance with these and so promote the safety of truckers. One of the models sold in the domestic market is to implement road freight for grain transporting, a product that carries an average of 32,000 kg to 35,000 kg of lega liquid cargo. This charge, from the loading condition under Brazilian law, combined with the road conditions in Brazil and the implement constructive way, generate requests in the product structure that cannot always be measured in evaluations of analytical calculation, it is necessary to pass the responsibility these faults of evaluation for the high safety factor, which increases the tare of the equipment taking the opportunity of greater loading fluid, given that these variables are inversely proportional. Another important point to considering on this study of the structure of the chassis is that the geometric shape of the beam limited by the boundary conditions of the coupling in front of the horse by the tractor and the rear suspension. This geometry creates some critical points of accumulation of strain due to the height of the cross section. The objective of this work is to obtain, through standard maneuvers that expose the products to the lateral and vertical accelerations, requests for critical points of a road chassis implement, using analytical, experimental and virtual instrumentation in order to suggest a more appropriate model to combining lower tare weight to the implement and ensure the structural integrity of the chassis. The initial setting was based on a simplified analytical equation, limited in lateral and vertical acceleration conditions to obtaining the set, and secondly being used commercial software dedicated to vehicle dynamics analysis called TruckSim to submitting to movement conditions, and thus obtain the lateral and vertical accelerations on the axis of the product in a third step, with this information, the chassis model in finite elements using SolidWorks Simulation software to study stress the critical pre-determined (neck of the stringer), the implement this instrumentation under the same conditions of simulation / analytical calculation completes the fourth stage of the study, followed by the proposal of a new model chassis with less tension at the critical point previously determined. The results show that with loading in accordance with Brazilian laws, the product structure was taken to high stress levels, considering the steel used in its construction (ASTM A36) which shows the accuracy of the simulation is seen that the products are taken to rupture due to excessive load they are subjected. The model proposed presents less tare and a significant reduction in voltage level when compared with the previous model without there being any increase in weight of the machine, thus ensuring a greater capacity for liquid cargo. Attending to the goal of this work, while respecting the legal restrictions on the use and creating a new chassis model structure, new design and better response to load conditions and traffic.
2012-36-0534 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Engine tunnel air flow analysis for commercial vehicles
Autoria: FLÁVIO ARCANJO SANTANA
Resumo: It is presented in this study a methodology based on a numerical simulation by means of the computational fluid dynamics for the analysis of the air flow inside the engine tunnel for commercial vehicles, aiming primarily at the performance of the cooling system. The simulations are carried out with the software Ansys CFX. Starting from the geometry of the water and engine charge air radiators, a 3D finite volume model is automatically generated for this system by means of a macro written with Excel, taking into account the dimensions, forms and quantity of tubes, as well as the fluid inside them, in order to represent the heat exchanges which occur on the water and air radiators. Besides the models of the radiators, the geometry and the movement of the fan, as well as the surfaces inside the engine tunnel, as the engine, gear box, vehicle suspension, and the external surface of the vehicle body are all included in the complete finite volume mesh, which includes also the openings on the frontal area of the vehicle for the air to enter the engine tunnel. The movement of the vehicle is also considered in the numerical simulation, in order to represent the actual test conditions. As results, one obtains detailed visualizations in vector form regarding the air velocity which flows inside the engine tunnel, making the decision process of putting additional surfaces easier, in order to avoid regions of hot air recirculation in the cooling system, or even the suction of hot air by the engine air filter. Detailed visualizations of the temperature development inside the tubes of the air and water radiator are also possible, and provide information for the performance evaluation of the cooling system for different configurations of commercial vehicle bodies. This procedure provides a reduction of time and costs in the development of commercial vehicles, as well as the improvement of quality of the final product.
2012-36-0536 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Aerodynamic Evaluation of a Circular Wing
Autoria: HELIO PEKELMAN, GUILHERME TELLES BRAGA, KLAUS GUTIERREZ DE CARLI, CAIO CÉSAR MOREDO
Resumo: This work deals with the validation of previous experiences in the wings of a circular shape on the basis of aerodynamic theory and calculations, with the main object, to compare the lift force between the retangular and circular shape wing with the same airfoils used in the CFD simulation. With the data, we validated the computational results by making a real physical test in a circular shape wing.
2012-36-0538 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Chassis e Cabine
Título do Paper: USE OF AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION IN THE PRELIMINARY AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN PROCESS
Autoria: NELSON GARCIA-POLANCO, JAVIER ANTONIO PALENCIA CUENCA, TILMER HORACIO
Resumo: This paper describes a computational and experimental study to document the detailed flow field around a prototyping vehicle, used as tool in the conceptual design process. The conceptual designed car called ALLSCAPE has obtained the 3th place at IV International concourse of design Peugeot P.L.E.A.S.E. Innovate 2007. Experimental tools of fluid mechanic will be used to know the aerodynamic behavior of this future prototype. The methodology propose was based on studies of the body in a subsonic wind tunnel with a cross-sectional section of 0,45x0,45 m and rank of speeds from 5m/s to 35m/s. A similarity study was made geometric and dynamic which result in a 1:12 scale model. Also an artificial ground was used to in order to create the ground effect in this varied the separation between the model and the ground. The computational methodology used was CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The software used was the ANSYS-CFX 10.0TM. The simulations was realised with a Three-dimensional Geometry (3D), in scale 1:12, validated with experimental tests in wind tunnel. Drag coefficients CD, lift coefficient CL and the flow pattern around the model were reported. Changes in the prototype design will be suggested to improve their aerodynamic behavior. For the experimental studies we counted with a wind tunnel in the Fluid Mechanics laboratory of Simón Bolivar University from Caracas-Venezuela.
2012-36-0540 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: EVALUATION OF THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT GASES EMISSIONS FROM ETHANOL BUSES
Autoria: SÍLVIA MARIA STORTINI GONZÁLEZ VELÁZQUEZ, JOSÉ ROBERTO MOREIRA, SANDRA MARIA APOLINARIO DOS SANTOS
Resumo: This work has as its purpose to evaluate the greenhouse effect gases (GHGs) emissions from ethanol-powered buses, which were introduced in the urban transportation system of the city of São Paulo, in 2007, by means of Project BEST – BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport. With the goal of promoting ethanol usage in substitution to diesel in public transportation, aiming at the reduction of atmospheric pollution in great urban centers and at the reduction of global warming, the Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO) developed and coordinated the project in Brazil, which compared the performance of buses powered by ethanol to buses powered exclusively by diesel. The results of the demonstration tests, performed to raise awareness of the society and of the public power, based the recommendations for formulation of public policies for incentive to substitution of diesel by ethanol. The engine is advanced even for the strict European emission standards, because it meets the EURO 5 specifications and the Enhanced Environmental Vehicle (EEV), besides surpassing the limits imposed by the P-7 stage of PROCONVE. Today, ethanol-powered buses became a reality, because the chassis and the engine, then imported, as well as the additive for the ethanol, are already manufactured in Brazil. Starting from the signature, by initiative of the city hall, of a protocol of intent for the purchase of the first 50 ethanol buses, which were delivered to Viação Metropolitana in May 2011, other actions come following, as 10 more buses were delivered to Viação Tupi in January 2012. Besides evaluating GHGs emissions from ethanol-powered buses, this work analyzes the impacts in CO2 emissions due to the gradual substitution of the whole fleet of the city of São Paulo, currently powered by diesel, by ethanol buses. As there are no methodologies approved by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Council, of the Kyoto Protocol, that fully apply to the proposed situation, calculations are executed from equations predicted by the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol and the Intergovernanmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in order to determine the income generated by the carbon credits that, if destined to the operator companies, would allow to equate the operation and maintenance costs of diesel and ethanol vehicles. Since February 2012, ethanol buses can be benefitted by the Máquinas e Equipamentos Eficientes (“Efficient Machinery and Equipment”) subprogram of the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES), with a 6.9% interests rate per year, financing deadline of up to 96 months and participation in up to 90% of the financeable items.
2012-36-0541 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: E85 PERFORMANCE, EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION IN LIGHT DUTY VEHICLES
Autoria: ANTONIO CARLOS SCARDINI VILLELA, EURICO SILVA MELLO, RICARDO ALMEIDA BARBOSA DE SA, ROGERIO NASCIMENTO DE CARVALHO
Resumo: This study presents an assessment of the E85 fuel, composed of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline in flex-fuel vehicles. The goal is to present the advantages and disadvantages of using this fuel in relation to hydrous ethanol currently available in the Brazilian market. In addition, H81 mixture consisting of 81% hydrous ethanol and 19% C petrol (E22) resulting in a 15% fuel gas, was also evaluated. The main difference between E85 and H81 is the content of water present in hydrated ethanol. Since the E85 is not available in the domestic market, this is the mixture that can be used currently in Brazil. The fuels were evaluated and compared with hydrous ethanol, with respect to the attributes of cold start and driveability, speed recovery, emissions and urban autonomy via vehicle tests. The results showed that by the technical point of view, E85 presented significant gains in cold start without auxiliary systems, fuel consumption and the emissions, most notably in the aldehydes and unburnt ethanol. As for H81, the conclusions are very similar, but all gains were lower than those obtained with the E85.
2012-36-0542 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: MARINE PREMIUM DIESEL PERFORMANCE IN LEISURE BOATS
Autoria: ANTONIO CARLOS SCARDINI VILLELA, DANIEL FONSECA DE CARVALHO E SILVA
Resumo: This paper describes the activities performed during the development of a new marine premium diesel for leisure boats. This work consists on the presentation of the developed or improved methodologies to ensure the proper comparative analysis of performance, fuel consumption and smoke emissions, with the appropriate precision to elucidate the differences between the new fuel and the conventional marine diesel. The performance tests were performed by using radar monitoring. For the fuel consumption, constant engine speed tests were made, with acquisition of fuel flow measures. The smoke tests were performed using a total flow smokemeter, installed direct on the exhaust gas stack. The results showed that, because of the special formulation and additives, the new diesel allows performance gains up to 6%, smoke emissions reduction up to 83%, and keep the fuel consumption in the same levels of the traditional marine diesel.
2012-36-0543 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: VALIDATION OF AN ANODIZED AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE PISTON WITH A FULL ANODIZED LAYER
Autoria: CASSIO JOSE AZANHA LEITE, GILMAR ALVES DE PAULA JUNIOR
Resumo: The anodization process, which is characterized by forming a thin oxide layer through chemical process, contributes to increase the surface hardness where it is deposited, improving the resistance of the part in terms of corrosion and abrasion. This treatment has been applied to automotive engine pistons with the objective to improve the component durability confirmed by the observance of significant gain in terms of performance related to wear on the top hat and on the first land. With the anodized layer on the whole piston, the piston machining process has potential to be reduced, resulting in lower costs. Based on this opportunity to reduce process costs and improve compontent performance, this paper shows the engine validation process required to evaluate the application of an anodized layer around the whole piston. Due to the interactions of the new component design, supporting tools are used to build the validation plan, like a component Boundary Diagram and an analytical review of the FMEA. As conclusion, the results for a current engine application are presented.
2012-36-0547 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: STUDY OF THE PINPOINT INJECTION GATE WITH THE AID OF COMPUTER INJECTION SIMULATION
Autoria: PEDRO PALMA PASTORELLI, CARLOS MAURICIO SACCHELLI
Resumo: On an injection mold, the runner system is divided in: main runner, secondary distribution runners and injection gates. As for the injection gates, one of the most widely used designs is the pinpoint gate, for being simple and leaving small marks on the injected part. In the literature, the authors diverge for the values for the optimization of the gate, recommending further studies for each application. On that note, the objective of this study is to analyze through CAE the values recommended for the pinpoint gate in order to obtain the optimized injection process, varying the material, shape and thickness of the product. At the end of the study, a reference chart will be presented with the gate dimensions that were the most efficient in the computer simulation for each type of part, to aid in the project of future injection molds.
2012-36-0548 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: SMart rrs: project results
Autoria: ARTURO DAVILA
Resumo: SMART RRS is an FP7 SST 2007 RTD1 European collaborative project funded by the EC with the participation of 10 institutions from 5 countries. The project aims to develop a new smart road restraint system that will reduce the number of deaths and injuries caused in road traffic accidents by integrating primary and tertiary sensor systems in it, providing greater protection to all road users, warning motorists and emergency services of danger for prevention purposes and alerting emergency teams of accidents as they happen to minimize response time to the exact location of the incident. This new smart restraint system will: • Reduce the number of accidents through better information on the actual state of the road and traffic flow (climatic conditions, traffic flow, obstructions, hazards, accidents). • Eliminate dangerous profiles from road restraint systems (crash barriers) that currently endanger vulnerable road users. • Optimise road safety by providing exact information of where and when accidents happen in real-time. The project obtained interesting results from an in-depth review of motorcycle accidents, which shows that some of the most aggressive elements for riders are protection systems installed on roadsides. These systems may be continuous, punctual, and rigid or wire rope. It is also learnt that the accidents involving roadside protective systems include high speeds and the rider commonly impacts the barrier in an upward position, with severe outcome. Some of the most important injuries received by riders are blunt impacts to the head, member amputation and severe thoracic intrusion. Also, the dynamics of such accidents were researched, providing valuable information on where and how accidents take place and their outcome. Most of the accidents occur on rural roads, where a rider loses control and leaves the road, impacting some roadside obstacle. This impact is generally very severe, as actual roadside protection systems are not designed to absorb energy from the riders but from heavy vehicles instead. The next step was to analyse actual road restraint systems evaluation methods and to include simulation and testing phases for both systems and subsystems, providing a previous idea of how a barrier would behave in case of accident. All the previous steps have been completed and are now presented as a finished project during this year. The system includes primary and tertiary systems, followed by some evaluations of different designs of road barrier and energy absorbers. The project included barrier simulations and actual tests in specialized facilities, where the behaviour of the system was analysed.
2012-36-0549 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Application of tools design methodology in the stage of exploration of new solutions for development of a regenerative shock absorber for vehicles
Autoria: FERNANDA CRISTINA CORREA, JONY JAVORSKI ECKERT, GERALDO GONÇALVES DELGADO NETO, FABIO MAZZARIOL SANTICIOLLI, ROBSON IEZZO, LUIZ ANTONIO BLOEM DA SILVEIRA JUNIOR, FRANCO GIUSEPPE DEDINI
Resumo: The function of the suspension of the vehicle is the comfort and safety for users while operating under various conditions. The energy dissipated by the shock absorber raises the question of wasted energy potential and the possibility of reusing this through conversion technologies and energy storage. For the development of solutions for the recycling of energy dissipated in systemic way it is necessary to use tools, methodologies, to guide the whole creative process. The design methodology can be defined as a collection of procedures, methods and techniques, in order to assist designers in product development activity. However, the methodology used to design a product varies from product to product and from company to company. The application of a critical project and their respective methodological tools increase the chances of success in developing a product. Thus, this study aims to apply tools of methodology so that new solutions are developed regenerative shock absorbers, seeking solutions to the viability of this technology. Used for this are the steps for feasibility study, which is the need for the product analysis, exploration of the systems involved, development of alternative solutions, feasibility study physics and ends in the design of new solutions to the problem at hand, thus resulting the development of new regenerative shock absorber.
2012-36-0552 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: the role of electronics in road safety
Autoria: RICARDO A. S. WETZEL
Resumo: The demand fo mobility in an interconnected world is ever increasing. The increase in traffic and also on the speed of vehicles in general creates, as a side effect, traffic accidents that produce losses, injure or even kill people. Studies from WHO indicate that road deaths are increasing and if the trend continues, 2.4milion people will die in road accidents in 2030. The objective of this paper is to discuss the alternatives to reduce the chance and/or the severity of accidents. From these alternatives, the electronic systems that can increase traffic safety are listed, with focus on commercial vehicles application.
2012-36-0558 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: A DISCUSSION ON THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THERMAL AVALANCHES IN ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE BATTERY CHARGING AND DISCHARGING SYSTEMS
Autoria: RENATO OLIVEIRA DE MAGALHÃES, MARCELO LOPES DE OLIVEIRA E SOUZA
Resumo: The supply of electrical power is one of the most important functions required by the diverse payloads of satellites. A fault in the corresponding subsystem can cause and mission and even vehicle loss. Among the causes of such faults, we highlight the phenomenon of thermal avalanche in batteries. It can be explained as an energetic unbalance where the rate of heat generated in the interior of the system exceeds its capacity to dissipate it. This occurred to the OAO1 of NASA just after its launch on April 8, 1966; and with the CBERS2 of CAST and INPE already in orbit in 2007 and 2009. This work presents a discussion on the causes and effects of thermal avalanches in artificial satellite battery charging and discharging systems. To do so it: 1) revises the literature on the known causes and effects; 2) develops a block diagram model for a battery charging and discharging system in artificial satellites, based on macroscopic principles which can be generalized to a wide variety of topologies and technologies of power supply and batteries; 3) discusses new causes and effects; as the 1st .part of the Doctoral Thesis of the 1st. author, under the supervision of the 2nd. author, concluded in 2012. Such discussion allows: 1) explains the thermal avalanche occurred to OAO1 and CBERS2; 2) estimate whether this will occur or not to other similar satellites as the CBERS3, 4.
2012-36-0560 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: The use of rice husk ash (sílica) in a hybrid Polyamide 6.6 Matrix composite employed in the injection of air deflectors of automotive cooling system; an analysis of parameters for a friendly environmental project.
Autoria: CIRO SEIJI YOSHIYASSE, HERVELLY SARA LIMA FERREIRA, WALDIR PEDRO FERRO, ROBERTO BECKER, DANIEL ABÍLIO SOARES MASCOTA
Resumo: The present study aims to analyze the use of silicon dioxide (SiO 2) obtained from the burning of rice husk in thermal power plants, such as mineral filler in a hybrid composite with glass fiber in Polyamide 6.6 matrix used in the injection of air deflectors of automotive cooling system. The rice husk ash (RHA) is a waste product from the energy recycling process of rice husk carried out in thermal power plants. The potential for energy recycling of approximately 1 million tons of rice husk can generate a power of 106-139 MW. The ash from that burning consists of 96% of SiO2, and although it has interesting technical characteristics, it was initially treated as a reject. In order to develop Green Seal products, the product engineers must resort to a very quick tool to compare the real benefits in the use of new friendly environmental products. In this study a comparison wil l be made between the deflector that is currently injected with 30% Polyamide of black glass fiber and the deflector injected with RHA composite; for this, the assessment of loss/gain of energy used in each manufacturing process (embodied energy) will be used as indicator, by comparing the amount of needed energy for the production of glass fiber mass and carbon black contained in the original formulation in relation to the amount of energy resulting from the mass of RHA used. The search for the viability of a product with lower environmental cost and the complexity of parameters involved also immediately refers to the demand created by the current process of regional regulations of the National Solid Waste Programme and some of its evolutions in the industry, in so far as they propose criteria of prioritization of the industrial production, namely: 1) non-generation, 2) reduction, 3) reuse, 4) recycling, 5) treatment, and 6) appropriate final disposal. Nevertheless, besides the proposed general delineation, we seek to validate the notion that a product design resulting from the strategy of the minimum consumption of energy and mass is a practice of convergence between low environmental cost and low economic cost.
2012-36-0572 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: A DISCUSSION ON THE STANDARD SAE-ARP-4754A AND A PROPOSAL FOR USING IT IN PRODUCT CERTIFICATION AND QUALIFICATION OF STAFF
Autoria: GILBERTO DA CUNHA TRIVELATO, MARCELO LOPES DE OLIVEIRA E SOUZA
Resumo: Systems such as satellites, aircrafts, automobiles and air traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated, as prescribed by the standard SAE-ARP 4-754A Standard. They integrate many technologies and they work in very demanding environments, sometimes with little or no maintenance, due to the severe conditions of operation. To survive such harsh operating conditions, they require very high levels of dependability, to be reached by a diversity of approaches, processes, components, etc. Some are suggested by the SAE-ARP-4754A as one of the highest level standards to be met. So, it is important to know it and its consequences for product and staff deeply. The aim of this paper is to present: a discussion on the standard SAE-ARP-4754A and a proposal for using it in product certification and qualification of staff. To do that we present: i) an overview of the ARP-4754a, ii) its contextualization with Systems Engineering and CMMI maturity models, and iii) a preliminary proposal for its application in developing a system with the simultaneous goals of product certification and qualification of staff. We expect to show that: i) the ARP-4754a presents secure guidelines for aircraft and systems development process to be necessarily certified; ii) its implementation requires professionals with maturity in the area of Systems Engineering as well also maturity in product development throughout its lifecycle; iii) the main pitfalls and possibilities of errors appear in the connections between the categories of planning, development and integral process and in the feedback intervals definition between the macroactivities presented in the standard; and iv) the proposed solution in this paper, with ongoing implementation in a real project, promises satisfactory results mainly in increased staff maturity.
2012-36-0573 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: FMEA to improve the project management
Autoria: CLEBER WILLIAN GOMES, EDUARDO BORTOLOTO PERES, CARLOS RENATO JUITI MIYAKI, PAULO MARCOS AMORIM DOS SANTOS, CAROLINA LUCHESI REICHEL, ROGERIO LUIZ GONCALVES
Resumo: The FMEA methodology, widely used in projects through the application of DFMEA (Design FMEA), and processes for implementing the PFMEA (Process FMEA), represents a great opportunity to be used in project management GPFMEA (FMEA Project Management), recording the experiences and lessons learned in current or past projects in order to prevent the recurrence of project failure. Because of globalization and the consequent need to launch products in the shortest possible time, project management has been essential for business survival. The advantage of recording business learning, provides an immeasurable improvement on project management activities, as well as, makes possible the best practices on project development and new products launching. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the advantages, characteristics and practices needs for GPFMEA be applied and used in project management. The FMEA methodology, widely used in projects through the application of DFMEA (Design FMEA), and processes for implementing the PFMEA (Process FMEA), represents a great opportunity to be used in project management GPFMEA (FMEA Project Management), recording the experiences and lessons learned in current or past projects in order to prevent the recurrence of project failure. Because of globalization and the consequent need to launch products in the shortest possible time, project management has been essential for business survival. The advantage of recording business learning, provides an immeasurable improvement on project management activities, as well as, makes possible the best practices on project development and new products launching. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the advantages, characteristics and practices needs for GPFMEA be applied and used in project management.
2012-36-0576 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Automotive Connecting Rod Development: Oval Beam Design and Testing
Autoria: RAFAEL AUGUSTO DE LIMA E SILVA
Resumo: Automotive internal combustion engines use connecting rods to compose its mechanical set-up based on a piston-rod-crank mechanism. Typically, a connecting rod has an i-shaped beam along its length in order to have better moment of inertia distribution on two axes, one aligned to the engine rotating axis and other, orthogonal to the same. An alternative design was developed by the use of an oval shaped beam in order concentrate the moment of inertia just along the engine rotating axis. The structural simulations based on Finite Element Analysis showed that the fatigue and buckling strength were maintained and finally, experimental fatigue testing had proven that oval beam design kept the fatigue and also buckling strength. Keywords: connecting, rod, oval, beam, FEA, fatigue, buckling.
2012-36-0577 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: Proposal of Technical Interface between Product Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and the Operations Engineering as Assistance to the Automotive Product Development Process
Autoria: GUILHERME CANUTO DA SILVA, PAULO CARLOS KAMINSKI
Resumo: The performance of product engineering, manufacturing engineering and operations engineering during the automobile development occurs in different ways. In the product planning macrophase there is an active participation of the product engineering that works in the automobile development. With the evolution of the product development begins an interface between product engineering and manufacturing engineering, responsible for the processes development and the facilities required for the production of the automobile. In the development of processes macrophase occurs also an interface between manufacturing engineering and operations engineering. This interface is necessary for the operations engineering to understand how works the processes and the workstations, to define maintenance routines, besides to elaborate the necessaries trainings to the operative workers. Since the productive processes are concluded, starts the production. In the production and discontinuation of the product macrophase occurs a gradual decline of the manufacturing engineering involvement that still accompanies the start of the production. Then the automobile production begins with an active participation of the operations engineering, until the process be stable and capable to full production to assist the consumer market. From the exposed, it is possible to observe three gaps. One during the process development macrophase with the absence of the product engineering, other with the absence of the operations engineering during the product planning macrophase. The last one gap occurs in the production and discontinuation of the product macrophase, when the production of the automobile is already stabilized and the automobiles are being commercialized in the market. In this moment, there are almost no one or none participation of the product engineering and the manufacturing engineering in the accompaniment of the production. Exceptions just are found when there is an alteration of the product or one improvement of the process, for many times, suggested by the own operative workers or by the operations engineering. The present work has as objective to propose a methodology as a tool to assist the automotive product process development. This methodology can contribute with the product engineering, manufacturing and the operations for the capping of the technical information about the product, the process, and the operations during all the cycle of the automotive product development. Keywords: product development process (PDP); product engineering; manufacturing engineering; operations engineerin
2012-36-0581 || Ano de publicação: 2012
Título do Paper: New robust bearing solution for dual clutch system
Autoria: JEROME BOUSSAGUET, FABRICIO TEIXEIRA
Resumo: Drivers such as fuel consumption and CO2 emission reduction, as well as enhanced driving comfort, have led to a strong evolution of powertrain module designs over the past 5 years. Dual clutch systems appear to be a major technical trend contributing to this mutation. The clutch system is consequently becoming more complex with additional features and new parts. Thus lots of internal components are exposed to more severe conditions while in the meantime a higher reliability and longer service life is required. Dual Clutch Transmission - DCT - applications require an optimized and reliable engineering approach combining a strong technology expertise with advanced modeling, calculations and testing capacity. New optimized bearing solutions are engineered to the highest robustness level to face severe operating conditions and achieve an extended lifetime in a compact and light package. These new designs not only improve global DCT efficiency and reliability but also set a new standard in noise reduction. Focusing to support the introduction of this new clutch system in the market and considering different aspects like reliability, service life and environmental requirements, a new bearing solution with innovative seal system and bonded piston has been developed successfully, which will definitely contribute to the CO2 emission reduction.