2013-36-0100 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: Optimization of an Exhaust System Double-Muffler to Mono-Muffler
Resumo: The search for better products that meet the expectations of the current market is demanding more and more studies in the area of optimization. Both in the developments of new software or algorithms that are truly robust for certain applications as the tools of instrumentation becoming increasingly measured and dedicated. In this context, the auto industry has a crucial role, because this is the vehicle components that are born and exhaustively studied. Given the importance of suppliers in this process, this paper aims to present a study of optimization of an automotive exhaust system using the virtual tool GT-Power, a system which contained two silent here treated with double-muffler (expander boxes - resonator and muffler) were replaced by a single system of silent, single-muffler system. The results showed a performance gain, both acoustically and the back pressure on the engine in addition to cost reduction, because the system has fewer mono-muffler components. These studies could only be realized owing to the numerous studies devoted on the exhaust and the same specialization. All components were tested virtually tested experimental noise tip and measuring pressure to prove these results.

2013-36-0101 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: Thermo-Mechanic Transient Behaviour of a Exhaust Manifold with and without Heat Shield
Resumo: Exhaust system components are sensitive to temperature variation, since many work at temperatures above 900 ° C. This sensitivity is due to the acoustic behavior of the fluid, because the speed of wave propagation is directly proportional to this variable and the thermal expansion behavior with respect to material fatigue, which is subjected to shocks set high and low temperature. In this sense this paper aims to present a comparative study of the temperature field of the same set exhaust manifold, based on a thermal transient testing through the analysis by finite element analysis (FEA), using a system and another no heat shield. It is important to know the temperature field in the two conditions because the temperature distribution over the region which has the catalytic converter, for the same and the system that surrounds it, are not metal. The results showed a significant difference in the temperature field, especially on the body of the converter, where the heat loss to the system without a deflector was relatively high.

2013-36-0103 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Analysis of vibration and noise of an internal combustion engine by application of test and experimental analysis of the frequency spectrum.
Resumo: The problems of vibration and noise from an internal combustion engine are common because of the wide variety of parts and components that make up an internal combustion engine. In recent years engines have evolved considerably in relation to the control of vibration and noise emitted, since these effects reduce the useful life of the internal components of the engine itself and, besides giving discomfort to the occupants of the vehicle. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the main sources of vibration and noise in an internal combustion engine. The methodology involved instrumentation of an internal combustion engine (Otto cycle), the experimental tests of the engine on a test bench and involved the application of analytical techniques for treatment and analysis of experimental data. The equipments and instruments used in the tests were: Dynamometer bench - Equipment used to control the operation of the engine, add load and change the engine speed during the test. Instrumented spark plug - An instrument used to measure the combustion pressure in the combustion chamber. Pressure Sensors - Instruments used to measure the pressures of the intake and discharge. Data acquisition equipment - Equipment used for storing the data measured during testing. The test consisted of running the engine revs and load specific. After stabilization of the temperature of the water and oil data (related to the measured pressure sensors and instrumented candle) were acquisition and stored in the machine data acquisition. The test was performed at 1500 rpm rotation with partial load (16% of the opening of the throttle valve), 2250 RPM with partial and full load, part load 3875 RPM and 5500 RPM and total full load. Was used as a condition for data acquisition average water temperature around 95 ° C and oil at 135 ° C. The application of the test and experimental analysis of frequency spectrum has pinpointed accurately from the vibrations of the combustion process, noise from the valve train system (opening closing of the intake valves and exhaust) and noise from the flow of the air / fuel in the intake manifold and combustion gases in the discharge manifold.

2013-36-0104 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Resumo:   The automotive market is going through a major investment cycle due to increased credit, reducing the price of vehicles and opening new markets. Project management methodologies have been used by automakers as a tool to achieve strategic objectives. In all these methodologies, monitoring and control of project work is one of the most important processes to achieve effective and efficient projects, ensuring financial and market growth of the automaker. This paper was carried out on a national automaker in which the dashboard developed is a tool for monitoring and controlling time, scope, cost, risk and quality of the project, assisting project managers in making decisions.

2013-36-0105 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Resumo:   This work consists in the comparison between two different Modelling and Simulation (M&S) approaches: by physical and by signal flows. For this task, two simulation tools were chosen: AMESim of LMS and MatLab of Mathworks. The system chosen to be modelled was the Multimission Platform (MMP) Propulsive Subsystem, whose components and general diagram are described in order to increase the students knowledge of the space subsystem in question. After building both computational models and execution of simulations in predetermined operation conditions, the outputs of the models were compared and with the expected subsystem results, according to data provided by the company responsible for  thruster development, and also with experimental data. Consequently, it was possible to list advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Those comparisons suggest that signal oriented simulation is proper for systems that use control laws and/or whose analytical model used to support computational model evolves all physical phenomena that one wishes to represent; and that physical oriented simulation is proper for obtaining reliable physical models of the real system with less amount of information about it, being less interesting from the control law point of view.

2013-36-0107 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Resumo: The search for alloys with improved high temperature specific strength and creep resistance properties for aerospace applications has led in the last decades to sustained research activities to develop new alloys and/or improve existing ones. The maraging steels evoked tremendous interest, especially in the aerospace world. The extra low carbon, high nickel, iron based alloys held great promise of providing an extraordinary combination of structural strength and fracture toughness. Applications of this alloy include aircraft structural components and rocket engine case for Satellite Launcher Vehicle. The objective of this work is to study the creep behavior of the Maraging 300 alloy. Constant load creep tests were conducted with this alloy at 550°C and the creep parameters are determined. Samples with a gage length of 18.5 mm and a diameter of 3.0 mm were used for all tests

2013-36-0108 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Resumo: By using telecommunications, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) improve traffic safety and efficiency, facilitating an integral transport of people and goods. Even with the benefits obtained through ITS Systems nowadays, significant innovations will take place in the following years such as the ubiquitous and integral use of computer vision, or the development and future implementation of Cooperative ITS systems that will allow a direct communication between vehicles (V2V, Vehicle-to-Vehicle) and with the roadside elements (V2I, Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) by means of mobile and wireless communication. INTELVIA is a National Spanish project supported by the Industry, Tourism and Commerce Spanish Ministry. INTELVIA’s consortium includes electronic, technological and communications solutions providers, public research organisms and technological centers, user and automotive companies. Therefore, all the actors in the value chain, including end users, participate in INTELVIA guaranteeing its transversal and integrated vision. The INTELVIA project has set out to satisfy the needs of an intelligent traffic management by developing an Integral Control, Signaling and Communication System in order to offer a Safe and Intelligent Traffic Operational Management. To meet this aim, INTELVIA integrates technological solutions in the field of computer vision, cooperative ITS through wireless sensors/actuators, vehicular communications and Intelligent HMI. The INTELVIA’s project will allow the deployment of an innovative system that will improve traffic management increasing road safety and mobility, interacting with the driver through the HMI. Speed limit and other road sign information, weather alerts or warnings of approaching emergency vehicles, will be sent to the HMI on-board and the way of showing information to the driver is the main factor to achieve an effective system. Information must be showed to the driver with no distraction and easy understanding. To achieve these targets, investigations have been developed in order to get standards about priority, delays, positions, sizes and time to be shown of the information to be displayed, in accordance to the processed inputs from the wireless communications systems and the vehicle sensors. The system proposed will improve traffic safety by reducing the number of accidents caused by all the previous studied factors that can be a motive, for instance climatological ones (increasing the reaction time due to low or no visibility of the road, low or no visibility of the signposts due to heavy rain, fog, etc., or increased braking distance due to poor road status), or driver ones (inaccurate driving style for the road characteristics). With this information, the system will show the necessary information to the driver in order to prevent risk situations, minimizing distraction of the user from the driving activities by showing the information directly to the driver in an adequate, humanistic, non-disturbing way.

2013-36-0109 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Manufatura
Resumo: The heat generation and consequent temperature rise during the machining of metals has been extensively studied employing experimental techniques, analytical, numerical and artificial intelligences. The relevance of these analyses derive from their influence on tool life, meterials choice, machining parameters and final properties of the machined item. The objective of the present paper is to employ a technique of artificial intelligence, in the specific case, artificial neural networks to predict the temperature in the chip forming in the machining of aluminum alloy 6351 and steel SAE 1045, varying the cutting speed and feed, employing the traditional thermocouple insertion.

2013-36-0113 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: An Approach of the Engine Cylinder Block Material
Resumo: The increasing demand for energy savings in cars of high production volume, especially those classified as emerging market vehicles, has led the automotive industry to focus on several strategies to achieve higher efficiency levels from their systems and components. One of the most diffuse initiatives is reducing weight through the application of the so-called light alloys.  An engine cylinder block can contribute nearly two percent of the vehicle´s total mass. Special attention and soon repercussion are given when someone decides to apply a light alloy such as the aluminum to this component.  Nonetheless, it is known that peculiarities in terms of physical, chemical and mechanical properties, due to the material nature, associated with regional market characteristics make the initial feasibility analysis study definitely one of the most important stages for the material choice decision. The present review study will address the technical aspects related to the issue of material selection of the four cylinder block engine most commonly used in emerging markets, where cost and fuel efficiency is a primordial need. In addition, a contribution attempt for the understanding on the correlation of cost impacts with the benefits of improved efficiency.

2013-36-0116 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Evaluation of Fuel Consumption and Emissions from a Vehicle Operating with Hydrogen-Ethanol-Gasoline Blends
Resumo: A production vehicle operating with hydrogen-ethanol-gasoline blends was evaluated regarding specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. A hydrogen production cell through hydrolysis was adapted to the vehicle. Hydrogen was injected in the intake system, before the injection location of the main fuel. The results show that hydrogen can be an important ally for the reduction of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. However, special care should be taken to adjust the hydrogen amount injected at the different engine operating conditions to avoid an opposite effect on the specific fuel consumption and knock occurrence.

2013-36-0117 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: Emissions from an Automobile Fuelled with Ethanol, Gasoline and Natural Gas
Resumo: This paper describes a comparative study between the pollutant emissions produced by a spark ignition engine operating with three different fuels: commercial gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG) and hydrous ethanol. The emission levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), total hydrocarbons (HC), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and methane (CH4) produced by a Tetrafuel engine operating according to the US 1975 Federal Test Procedure (FTP 75) were analyzed. Tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer, according to NBR 6601 standard. The results demonstrate that CNG emitted the lowest CO, NOX and CO2 concentrations, and produced the lowest fuel consumption. Gasoline presented the lowest emission levels of HC, NMHC and CH4 and an intermediate. Ethanol showed the highest fuel consumption and higher pollutant emission levels than the other fuels, except for CO2, which was higher than CNG and lower than gasoline.

2013-36-0118 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: A case study for automotive door closing effort uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo Simulation Method
Resumo: In the automotive industry, quality means development and manufacturing of vehicles whose specifications meet customer requirements. Among many other quality issues, the door closing effort is a vehicle characteristic that strongly affects the customer first opinion about vehicle design. The door closing effort is affected by uncertainties in materials and manufacturing processes. The present paper presents a reliability-based method to evaluate the uncertainties associated to the door closing effort due to manufacturing processes. The door closing effort is defined by the energy required to make the door reach the latch position. A formulation is proposed to calculate that energy based on three components: energy used to compress air into the vehicle, energy used to seal compression and energy used to lock the door. The reliability analysis concepts are used to quantify the probability that the door closing effort is greater than a target value due to the uncertainties associated to door gap which is strongly influenced by the latch position. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to define door closing effort variability due to variation of the side door latch position. That analysis allows defining maximum allowable latch and striker position variability in order to keep door closing effort below a target value. The method is applied to analyze the door closing effort of a small notch-back vehicle. The latch position uncertainty is modeled by a probability distribution defined based on data collected from the assembly process. The door effort variability is defined by a probability density function. The probability of having a door closing effort magnitude lower than a target value is calculated. That simulated distribution is compared to experimentally based door effort analysis showing a very good agreement between them. The simulation based model is used to evaluate the feasibility of some manufacturing processes changes to reduce door closing effort and achieve design values.

2013-36-0119 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Resumo:   The depletion of non renewable energy sources, emissions of harmful gases to the   atmosphere, the impact of fuel consumption in highway freight transportation in Brazil,   are the motivators of the study proposed in this work, where by means of field tests were   performed tests for the three main segments of heavy transport in the state, with different   combinations of settings of engine power and final drive ratio, in order to obtain significant   reductions in fuel consumption. The test vehicles underwent the operation in a test route   that has similarity with the main trade route in the state that is Porto Alegre - Sao Paulo,   where evaluations of consumption showed significant differences between the settings,   always showing the best specification, validating the methodology applied.

2013-36-0122 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Innovative Product and Project for Timing Chain Drive System with increase in transmission efficiency
Resumo: A proper way to innovate consists of identify some kind of customer dissatisfaction and within of this observation the companies ought to develop products which will be acceptable by the market. Only in this way companies will be able to stand out in front of their competitors and the innovative companies can create new needs and valuable knowledge. More and more, the automotive vehicle consumers tend to opt internal combustion engines which use chain drive in their timing system, since the chain drive system presents high durability, avoiding the usual maintenance common to the belt timing system. The necessity of developing parts which increase the efficiency and minimize the fuel consumption, noise and vibration in the timing chain drive system lead the study and comprehension of some physical phenomena such as “polygonal action”, whose study of mathematic models guide the developing of better adaptable components which will find market demand.

2013-36-0124 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Resumo: Alternators usually have a solid pulley to connect it to the Front-End Accessory Drive (FEAD) system. Current stringent emissions regulations and fuel economy pushed for new alternatives to meet those goals as, for instance, reduced idle speed and engine downsizing, but both could ultimately generate NVH issues, as belt slip chirpy noise, or accessory-drive supporting bearings reduced life due to the high vibration levels in the FEAD. Besides of that the increased demand for on-board electric/electronics systems are requiring the use of larger alternators, with bigger inertia, becoming an additional source of vibration. To minimize the negative impact on NVH, the alternator solid pulley has been replaced, in some applications, by the Overrunning Alternator Pulley (OAP) or even an Overrunning Alternator Decoupler (OAD), with the aim to detach the alternator inertia from the FEAD during high speed transients and to reduce the transmission of torsional vibrations from the internal combustion engine to the FEAD, respectively. Experimental test results are an effective way to have a global and detailed evaluation of the performance of each alternator pulley configuration. The dynamometer testing proposed herein was setup using a fully instrumented vehicle and the case study presents the main effects of the different solution principles of alternator pulleys onto the FEAD overall performance in an actual vehicle application. The results of the functional tests aid the decision-makers based on a truly trade-off between increased complexity and cost against FEAD overall performance increase.

2013-36-0125 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Resumo:   ABSTRACT   The researches of clean energy have become a priority over the past decades. Developed countries create rules and market barriers for countries that are not looking for new technologies. Based on the Seebeck effect, our work aims at the generation and waste heat energy through the exhaust system of automotive vehicle. In order to reduce fuel consumption caused by the system of power generation by the alternator, now used by all vehicles propelled, and consequently reduce gas emissions, which are increasingly the targets of global standards that vision to continuously improve the air of our planet. We seek innovative ways to introduce technology in the country. Based on the Peltier effect, currently used mainly in the field and cooling, which provides energy to remove heat or get hot, the Seebeck systems is just the reverse: it removes it or get it to heat for power generation through movement electron pair of a semiconductor material of the positive and negative type contained in small modules. One of the module surface when in contact with the exhaust of the vehicle receives heat by conduction. It keeps a temperature differential in the other surface so that there is movement of electrons from the hot side to cold side of the plate. With the new technology in materials science, it is possible to develop semiconductor materials with greater ability to both heat and power generation, I point to withstand the high temperatures dispelled by the combustion chambers of the vehicles and auxiliary power in electrical systems increasingly complex of the vehicle.         Keywords: clean energy, innovation, Seebeck, heat

2013-36-0127 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Study on the dynamic stiffness variation on structural automotive component using topology optimization
Resumo:   In  this work is presented a study on the improvement of a structural automotive component (subframe), where its dynamic stiffness is estimated through topology optimization specifically SIMP (Simple Isotropic Material with Penalization) strategy. Some topology methods were studied such as SIMP, ESO and BESO that use search strategies in the pre-determined domain of an ideal distribution of mass (material). The solutions of balancing equations were approximately obtained using finite element method considering a subspace with finite dimension and tridimensional elements. The optimization methods depend on constraints set and design subspace and they are applied to problems that have not analytical models or high complexity. The problem studied has a lack because there were no analytical or numerical models. The use of finite element with SIMP strategy allowed determining regions on the structure sensible to variation of dynamic stiffness. In this work are simulated two cases in the subframe component: load applied in the bearing of the control arm and in the motor bearing. To the most critical region where it was added more mass (reinforced) to raise the dynamic stiffness. SIMP method allowed an energy balance identifying regions with low strain energy in all subframe structure.   Key-words: topology optimization; automotive structures; finite element method; design development.

2013-36-0129 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Resumo:   Historically, the means of propulsion, the source of mechanical work for vehicles are Otto and Diesel engines. Power train arrangements gain whole new possibilities with electric engine. The demands of work regime and specific performance on automotive applications are now imposed to the electric engine power train. That effect, the electric energy storage has been of interest in science and technology by the multiplicity of solutions that function can brings. The theoretical principles have been advanced, as well as the technological resources and materials knowledge. This paper discusses batteries with the objective of focusing on automotive propulsion application for UFEV, Urban Family Electric Vehicle. There are several alternative technologies for batteries for vehicle propulsion. The solutions proposed bring several trade off when considered vehicle application and users demands. This paper brings the currently developing battery types and their characteristics. In the study are considered the most used battery solutions on UFEV. This research identifies factors in the use and application of electric vehicle propulsion batteries. In this exploratory and qualitative research, primary data were obtained through interviews with experts in batteries and electric vehicle. Secondary data were obtained through product brochures, companies’ website on the internet and references from literature. As a result, it has been verified as the main critical factors: the battery charging time, the battery and vehicle weight ratio, the rating of power delivery, and the packaging in the vehicle. These factors impact under the user’s point of view, in energy performance, in the masses that are added to the vehicle and their distribution and the environmental safety, are considered. Taking the contents of the related theoretical analysis as a base, the critical factors are identified, as proposed.

2013-36-0130 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: The planning of the application of innovating solutions of engineering of the product and process in the life-series vehicles
Resumo: Even before new car models start their commercializing career, their future and / or possible developments have already started being planned by the automotive engineering. Other improvements will only be set after the start of the in series production of new vehicles. These engineering solutions are properly organized to be applied at certain times of the year within the daily routine of production by automakers; these are called windows of product/ process evolution. This article intends to present a general, through a case study at a specific automaker, planning these windows in the lives of these new series vehicles.

2013-36-0133 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: DUAL FUEL – Potential of combined combustion of CNG and Diesel Fuel
Resumo: The continuous increase in the price of diesel fuel, the longer availability of CNG and the potential to reduce CO2 enhances the attractiveness to replace diesel fuel by CNG, in particular in the aspiring economic markets. One possibility of this is the portrayal of Dual Fuel operation, using a conventional diesel engine with minor modifications, which can be operated as selected for diesel or a mixture (gas/diesel). Thereby, in asynchronous mode, it must be possible to obtain a ratio of gas added up to a maximum of 90 % or 70% on average, as the available work indicates. In order to portray the potential of such a concept, tests were carried out on a 4 cylinder, 7 litre commercial vehicle engine, which was equipped for external carburation using commercial CNG components, as well as a development control unit with software functionality designed in-house.   The objective of the investigations is the calibration of the engine for Dual Fuel operation by optimizing the injection and combustion parameters to conform to the EU6 emission regulations, under stationary and transient conditions. The difficult conversion of methane, which only takes place at comparatively high temperatures, presented the greatest technical challenge. Energetically, the concept presented a bridging technology to pure CNG operation and can contribute to the quicker development of the CNG infrastructure.

2013-36-0137 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Protection System of Electric Charge, with discriminator Intelligent Peripheral adaptive.
Resumo: ABSTRACT Understand tools and techniques for protection of loads directly influences on, reducing the consumption of electricity, the greater longevity of controlled loads and system miniaturization. Performing control the actuation of electric charges, by estimating the consumption by the Method of Modeling Power Consumption Auto adaptive, makes it possible to recognize; variation of nominal power over the lifetime of the load, variation in power nominal loads of the same species and or mismatch discrimination profile of power consumed for the charge-coupled. This results in better control of power management, enabling better management of electrical current directly influencing on: - the mass reduction system because the lower safety coefficients. - the reduction in electricity consumption in more effective control over the chain. - the reduction in fuel consumption on the premise of reduction of mass and less waste for the protection mode. - increasing the lifetime of the loads Electronic systems associated with computer programs grow dramatically in the automotive industry, in search of better value, with more features, system optimization and priority on reducing the power consumption becomes increasingly necessary to develop techniques for controlling electromechanical devices.

2013-36-0139 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Suspensão
Resumo:     REFURBISHED AUTOMOTIVE SHOCK ABSORBERS EVALUATION ACC TO SELECTED CRITERIA FROM ABNT NBR 13308 GUIDELINES   Currently, automotive shock absorbers are estimated at a global production of 50 to 100 million units per year. Growth on sales and the need for suspension system maintenance of these vehicles are reflected on the increasing number of companies specializing on remanufacture or refurbishing these parts. Nevertheless, until today, there is no standardization of these processes, unless product specification conformance. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to evaluate these refurbished shock absorbers to the applicable guidelines ABNT  NBR 13308, comparing its results against original similar parts. In this study, it has been prioritized the corrosion test according to ABNT NBR 8094, (corrosion test with salt spray) and hydraulic blocking tests. Four refurbished absorbers were evaluated against four original parts from a local Mercosul supplier, totaling eight sample parts. These tests evaluated the parts to weld quality, surface finish, paint quality and hydraulic block (which can cause leaks and rupture of the outer case). As a preliminary evaluation, it has been observed the external paint to be applied over the original finish, which has not yielded to an adequate metal surface protection.  After salt spray tests, it has been verified that both groups did not resisted exposure, and failed with more than ten red rust points, exposing base material, compromising more than 5% of total exposed area. Also, it has been observed hydraulic blocking on the four refurbished parts, with oil leaks thru rod base seal, while no signs of nonconformance nor physical damages have been observed on the original parts. Further studies involving a larger sample of dampers and complete implementation of ABNT NBR 13308 is needed to assess whether the dampers both original and remanufactured meet the stringent requirements of local legislation that made from January 2013 through decree No. 301 of INMETRO certification this item as a compulsory requirement for the production and / or import of shock absorbers sold in Brazil.

2013-36-0142 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Body Structure contribution for automotive energy efficiency improvement - INOVAR Auto Program
Resumo: The new Brazilian automotive regulation, INOVAR, states aggressive energy efficiency targets until 2016 to vehicles sold in Brazil. Many engineering solutions shall be done and implemented by OEM`s to adequate current and new vehicles to INOVAR requirements. The Body Structure represents a considerable portion of vehicle mass and it is fundamental portion of energy efficiency study. The biggest body structure engineers challenge is provide mass reduction changes without jeopardize legal requirements and structural vehicle performance such as:  Safety, Reparability, Torsional and Bending Stiffness, Durability, etc. Either OEM`s or Suppliers manufacturing have an important task supporting Product Engineers on new parts development with different materials, shapes and joining.

2013-36-0143 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Resumo: The development of the technology of rolling bearings, such as cylindrical or thrust bearings has as one of its objectives constitute a set of mechanical components that combine mechanical strength and stiffness, designed to support the loads, speeds and life specified for a particular application. This project aims to discuss the application of the finite element method in the analysis of fatigue failure in rolling bearings, evaluating the influence of some construction and operational parameters in the stress distribution, such as geometry of contact surfaces, applied load, rotation, and properties of materials in contact. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between the stress caused by cyclic loading in fatigue life of these bearings. The analysis of the life of rolling bearings was performed using the commercial software ANSYS, based on the finite element method in a virtual environment. Expected that the results obtained in this study will be useful in developing methods for predicting fatigue failure in rolling bearings subjected to cyclic loads.

2013-36-0145 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Test Procedure to Evaluate Engine Oil Treatment Additives for Otto and Diesel Application Based on Sequence IIIF (ASTM D 6984) using a GM 151S Engine
Resumo:   The commercialization of internal combustion engine oil treatment additives in Brazil was regulated by ANP Ordinance nº 131, from 30.7.1999 and revoked by ANP Resolution n° 10, from 07.03.2007, where requires the performance proof of the referred product by the ASTM Sequence IIIF bench test. The test PB/IMI-1109S3FGM151-2 establishes a procedure to evaluate internal combustion engine oils as well as additives against special performance conditions particularly operating at high temperature based on ASTM D 6984-09 Sequence IIIF procedure. This test measures oil thickening, sludge and varnish formation in engine components, piston deposits, oil consumption and camshaft wear. The ASTM procedure also suggests the use of any engine that proves the competence to accelerate thermochemical deterioration of lubricants under severe operating conditions and temperature, allowing in that way the development of this test procedure. This work is based on several tests and simulation and demonstrates the thermodynamic and combustion chamber geometry similarity between the Buick 3,8 L 231 CID serie II 1996/97 recommended for the Sequence IIIF and the GM 151S 2,5L engine used in this development. It demonstrates the possible adjustment of test parameters to simulate the same critic operating conditions to evaluate oil and additive performance on a bench engine test under the same specific measurements.  It allows the development and implementation of a local procedure according to recognized international standards, meeting the Brazilian legislation and the local Industry that does not have these facilities to meet the legal requirements.

2013-36-0146 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Computational simulation of a pickup truck rollover test: impact energy analysis
Resumo: One of the most common mechanisms of injuries and deaths in mining industries is the vehicle rollover, as these vehicles have to operate on sloping and uneven terrain. A typical example in this kind of environmental is the rollover of pickup trucks used to carry freight and workers through the mine. One way to prevent these fatalities is the use of rollover protective structures (ROPS) which are safety devices fitted internally or externally to vehicles in order to provide protection to driver and passengers during an accidental rollover. The design of these devices is quite complex since it must be account analytical and numerical analysis and finally experimental tests. This latest is destructive and expensive since it is necessary a specific apparatus mounted in a large test field. However, there are regulations and standards that conduct the rollover tests. The most widely used test for rollover in the automotive industry is the FMVSS-208 (U.S. Government) or SAE J2114-2011. In order to save time and reduce cost with prototypes the objective of this paper is to model and simulate a rollover dolly test of a pickup truck model according to the above cited regulation using the nonlinear finite element method (LS-DYNA). An energy analysis was accomplished in order to provide input information for use in virtual rollover tests with ROPS. This work is a first stage of major research study that aims to evaluate the performance of internal and external ROPS fitted in pickup trucks subject to rollover crash.

2013-36-0147 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Resumo: The concerns regarding the future of our planet are incessantly increasing, among which the environmental issue related to the impact of automotive engineering has been discussed more than ever lately. Studies show that the particulate materials and exhaust gases emitted by vehicles put them among the major polluters. Although several attempts have been made and backed by major private enterprises and government departments throughout the world on the development of hybrid electric vehicles, none has ever made it to series production. Hybrid electric vehicles are a very promising solution since they combine the qualities of both the internal combustion engine and the electric motor. Therefore, with a considerable decrease in fuel consumption and its consequent lower emission rate, the hybrid powertrain grants the vehicle a good performance as well as an acceptable driving autonomy. This paper aims at making a comparison on one of the longitudinal performance parameters, the acceleration time, for conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles. The Holmes’ Method is going to be used as a tool for the proposed simulation. The method consists of a graphical analysis on the available torque generated, which predicts the increment of time required for an increment in the engine rotation speed. This paper concludes that hybrid vehicles enjoy an advantage over the conventional ones regarding the acceleration time due to extra power generated by the addition of an electric branch to the powertrain.

2013-36-0151 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Transmissões
Resumo:   The objective of the study is to execute tests on chassis dynamometer, simulating the emissions cycles Federal Test Procedure – 75 (FTP-75) and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) for data acquisition, analysis and correlation between cycles and between vehicles. The main point is to anticipate the conditions which the vehicle is submitted during the test, therefore, possibly minimize the tests execution to detect the automatic transmission failures that can cause impact on pollutant emissions. The tests will be conduct on vehicles with Six Speed Automatic Transmission Hydra-Matic 6T30, front-wheel drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch. The study will be done acquiring the driving time in each gear, the total amount of upshifts and downshifts, driving time in engine speed range and driving time in accelerator pedal range. It will also contain an application of the concepts showing that is possible to reduce the time validation for automatic transmissions on emissions cycle.

2013-36-0152 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: An Investigation about failure in diesel engine connecting rods manufactured by fracture splitting process
Resumo: An Investigation about failure in diesel engine connecting rods manufactured by fracture splitting process For decades, automotive connecting rod were fabricated machining separately the cap from the body, with precision to maintain accurate alignment, being that the fixing was by the use of special screws, with grinded body to remain perfectly adjusted in passage holes, aiming this way prevent possible lateral displacements. From the end of the last century, due to new technologies in the production and use of special microalloyed steels such C7056BY, permitted to introduce in the market connecting rods made of a single part, using the method of fracture splitting process to separate the cap from the body of the connecting rod. This technique provided gains as weight reduction and consequently reducing noise and vibration due to the decrease of the oscillating mass from the system. By the literature is estimated cost savings of up to 25%, and better fatigue performance. After the massive introduction of these connecting rods, inexplicable failures have been reported in Brazil and Europe and therefore, several investigations have been conducted trying to discover the reason of this problem. The investigations are mainly concentrated on the fractured surface and its possible effect in reduction of shear load transfer capacity and relaxation of the bolts, under room and service temperature. All hypotheses assumed could not be confirmed. The purpose of this presentation is to show that the root cause comes from the relaxation of the internal thread due to the behavior of high carbon steel microalloyed, when it is subjected to high plastic deformation at the moment of rolling the internal thread. Stress-strain curves were constructed up to the limit of the plastic deformation from specimins machined, removed of connecting road, and the results were compared with the plastic deformation of the internal threads fillets of the connecting rods, leading to identify the origin of failures occurred in the engines, during field service.

2013-36-0153 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: Tooling Management system
Resumo:   Tooling Management System: managing companies’, customer’s and supplier’s Assets focusing budget planning and correct expenditure of resources. It is known that Managing Companies’ Proprieties outside the Company facilities is a challengeable task. It is not only the fact of knowing what is involved and with whom it is, but how is its condition, integrity and if the third part is keeping the assets in good maintenance. Also loosing the tracking of the lifetime and costs involved such as depreciation and amortization may cost to the Company a huge amount of money, it can cost intellectual propriety shared, product quality and flexibility to move from one critical supplier to another. In a global market having the control of these assets can be the difference among success and failure either thinking about costs or achieving better quality results. These situations can lead to a not necessary design change to avoid extraordinary costs which could turn to a poor design just to avoid building a new set of tools while the companies may have already the set or a very similar set built lying in a commercial partner forgotten due to the difficulty of managing all these assets. The purpose of this paper is to present the Tooling Management System, project which was implemented after 2 years of work. As resulted: in: Pricing & Tooling Cost Reduction; Quality Improvements – we can anticipate quality issues;  Managerial Efficiency – budget can be driven in the assets that really are urgent ; Capital Resources – expend the resources only when it is needed; Purchasing Timing Optimization – the system shows when it is necessary to launch the RFQ; Cost Recovery – we can address the lack of maintenance, or failures that may happen involving company’s assets making easier to recover the debts company considers unnecessary; Decision Making – this system can lead the steering committee to make tough decisions like make or buy, even if it is really necessary to perform an internal process if company has the assets necessary outside its plant lying in a partner facility; Avoid Waist – Companies can underestimate the resources they have, and working together with the supplier’s and customer’s base it is possible to reach the full success in managing them. Resource is the key word for achieving success in this global market of ours, every day growing exponentially, and fast. The TMS (Tooling management System) has a lot of advantages. Being an online database, integrated to the Company ERP, it can be remote accessed, and it automatically checks the tooling lifetime; equipment & gages usage, and updates the database as the parts are being delivered which triggers to advise when it is time to start planning the replacement; when it becomes critical and helps the company to prioritize which assets must come first. It monitors interventions such as corrective maintenance and design changes that may affect the total tooling lifetime. As results we have for the partners involved, the benefits of having this system also helped them to use the system to manage all assets that are involved in MWM production, even not propriety of MWM, in their management system helped them to work advanced, making sure that the PDCA circle will do happen and of course, spare a lot of money and resources.

2013-36-0154 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Transmissões
Título do Paper: Self-heating test to evaluate temperature stabilization in the rolling bearing
Resumo: Heating generation in rolling bearings is a critical point for development and application, specially for heavy trucks. Several problems can occur in the rolling bearing and in the system when the temperature increases. For example, at high temperature levels the rubber sealing can change its proprieties and volume, creating a high interference at the contact with the rings. The grease can also be affected and modify its viscosity, generating a possible leakage, which is not allowed during life. This papers aims to study the heat generation and evaluate, experimentally, the temperature stabilization in clutch release bearings for heavy duty application. With this purpose, several tests were performed and the results were analyzed to find the main factors that can be influenced.

2013-36-0155 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Effect of LUBRICANT viscosity and friction modifier on reciprocating tests
Resumo:   Five automotive oils, with different viscosity grades, were tested under different loads and speeds in a reciprocating test using piston rings and cylinder liners. Starved and fully flooded conditions were also considered in order to analyze the influence of lubricant supplier in the lubrication regimes, especially in boundary-mixed transition. The expected Stribeck curve behavior was observed, more interesting visualization appeared when the viscosity value was extracted from the Stribeck x axis. The higher viscosity oils showed lower friction coefficient at low speed/load ratios. Such behavior is usually neglected and may be significant to understand triblogical behaviour of engineering components. Computer simulation showed same results, including the "cross over" speed/load when the lower viscosity oils start to show lower friction.  

2013-36-0157 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Qualidade e Produtividade
Título do Paper: Tire/Wheel Assembly Manufacturer Production Process Analysis through Integration between Process Mapping and Discrete Event Simulation
Resumo: A company production system can be improved through the application of a range of management techniques, such as Just in Time, Self-Control, Total Quality Management (TQM), Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and others, aimed to meet its strategic needs (Slack et al. 2002; Ritzman & Krajewski, 2004; Correa & Correa, 2005). However, traditional methods of planning and mathematical modeling / analytics are not appropriate to implement continuous improvements in complex manufacturing systems, requiring more detailed analysis (O`KANE et al. 2000). Chwif & Medina (2006) defend that the more complex, dynamic and random a system is, the greater the applicability of Simulation is. Simulation is defined as an experiment process of a detailed system model to determine how it responds to changes in its structure, environments or boundary conditions (Harrell et al., 2002). Coupled with the simulation, aiming at analyzing complex manufacturing systems, Leal et al. (2003) argue that process understanding should also be considered, since it allows a better understanding of the business activities, providing a clearer understanding of the tasks performed in the production process. For this analysis, Hunt (1996) recommends the technique of Process Mapping, defined by Cheung & Bal (1998) as the technique of graphing a sector, department or organization process for guidance in the phases of assessment, design and development. Integrating Process Mapping with Discrete Event Simulation, using computational tools, the present research analyzes and proposes improvements in the use of funds in a Tire/Wheel assembly line from a company responsible for the supply of the wheel/tire assys to a commercial vehicle plant. Data and general information about the production process were collected, followed by process mapping, model construction and validation, process simulation and analysis. The results showed better resources and manpower utilization, productivity increase and cost reduction, resulting in production capacity increase above 38%. Implementation risks are also reduced, through various what-if simulation and testing. It can be inferred that the combination of the two techniques is useful for organizations that desire to implement improvements in their production processes, with the construction of models that represent reality. The experience can be replicated by several organizations aimed at maximizing the use, effectiveness and efficiency of its production system and the various processes involved.

2013-36-0159 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Resumo:             This paper presents a study conducted to simulate the energy balance of a commercial vehicle aimed  primarily on the specification of  the alternator and battery to ensure the functionality of the vehicle.             The energy balance test  performed practically generates greater demand  of  time and money  in a project, both  resources that could be better used  with a simulation provided the energy balance of the vehicle.             It was analyzed the consumers of  a vehicle 24V so that we can simulate virtual consumption  statically and dynamically. For this, a programming was developed in VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) ,a spreadsheet able to review and approve the major components of energy balance, alternator and battery.

2013-36-0161 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Resumo:   The electronic systems are increasing demand in commercial systems, bringing facilities in development, design, manufacturing, usability and maintenance. Aiming to detect, earlier, the possible critical designs in automotive electric systems, we proposal to use bench simulations in preliminary phase of the project, reducing the rework in prototype test phase. This process brings OEM benefits in quality and reliability of their products; reducing tests in prototype phase and the probability of affect cost. This paper presents a bench simulation test of body computer in order to demonstrate how efficient this process can be when integrated in a commercial vehicle development.

2013-36-0162 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Trends in Advanced Assistance Driver System
Resumo: It can be detected an increase demand of safety requirements in automotive area. One of the recently technologies applied in commercial vehicles to this purpose is called Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS). ADAS has the objective to assist the driver in critical situation. However this system is development today for high content vehicle, which has several different information available in network. This paper discusses the integration of an Advanced Driver Assistance System in a low content commercial vehicle that represents the major volume in emerging markets.  

2013-36-0164 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Preliminary design of a brake drum to light vehicles considering mechanical static analysis
Resumo:   This work presents a mechanical static analysis of sub-set drum and shoe brake lining of a braking system in rear drum brake to light weight passengers’ vehicle with engines up to 1,000 cc, aiming to future application in hybrid powertrain. The strong dependence of the automotive industry on fossil fuel and a future perspective of an exhaustion of them promote the study and development of alternative means of propulsion for different vehicles. In academic databases, as well as free research database, it is difficult to obtain papers and even technical works which show the complete cycle of the design of an automotive braking system. This restriction often occurs due to the confidentiality of industries and industrial parts suppliers, once it is a product with high added value. In this job, it was used an analytical procedure to obtain the reactions forces in the join element of the shoes, then it is developed a computational structural analysis of the brake shoe lining considering their geometry and the mechanical properties of the lining from data provided by the manufacturer. For the numerical analysis a linear orthotropic model was used to represent the lining behavior. Numerical results showed the distribution of strain-stress in the lining varying the applied force in the shoe during the braking process. Considering a force of 4000 N were obtained displacement and stress values of 0.034 mm and 11.9 MPa, respectively. Key-words: automotive drum brake; finite elements; mechanical static analysis; light vehicles; mechanical design.

2013-36-0169 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: Numerical Study on Injection Timing for Reduced Emissions from an Engine Operating with Diesel Oil and Hydrogen
Resumo: The present study uses the AVL BOOST software to simulate a compression ignition engine fuelled by diesel oil and hydrogen and verify the influence of diesel oil injection variation on exhaust emissions. The combustion model requires input data which characterize the injection process, such as number and injector hole diameter, injection pressure in fuel line and flow coefficients. The model was validated against experiments carried out in a naturally-aspirated, four-stroke, four-cylinder diesel engine made, of 50 kW maximum power. The engine was operated with varying load from 0 kW to 40 kW, at the speed of 1800 rpm, and using hydrogen as a replacement to diesel oil at mass-based concentrations of 5%, 10% 15% and 20%. Hydrogen was injected in the intake manifold, while diesel oil was directly injected in the combustion chamber. The results show that advancing diesel oil injection timing over 4 crankshaft degrees leads to a slowly increase of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions. Nearly the same behavior is presented by carbon monoxide (CO) emission with variation of injection timing. For soot emission there is a slight reduction for an advance of injection timing up to 10 crankshaft degrees.

2013-36-0170 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: A Review on the Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Electric Grid
Resumo: Electric vehicles can present as advantages higher efficiency of electric motor in comparison with internal combustion engines, reduced pollutant emissions during operation an minimized noise emission. The disadvantages lie mainly on the high costs of vehicle and battery, long charging period and short battery lifetime, and the need to increase electric power generation. In a period when it is considered the introduction of smart grids in the country, including the possibility of future introduction of electric vehicles at large or moderate scale, careful studies must be conducted mainly due to the need to increase electric power generation to attend existing and imminent demands. Previous studies point out to different impact level by introduction of electric vehicles in the national electric grid, varying from small impacts for the hypothesis of substituting 100% of the fleet to impractical use if more than 20% of the fleet is replaced. This work makes a comprehensive literature review, showing as a result a summary of the expected real impacts by introduction of electric vehicles in the electric grid.

2013-36-0171 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Instructions for New Projects and Validation Guidelines of Tonneau Covers for Pickup Truck Bed
Resumo: The purpose of this paper is to suggest guidelines for new projects of tonneau cover for pickup truck beds made up  of aluminum framework and soft vinyl (PVC) coverage. The objective of it is to make an overall about new accessories projects focusing on each one of the main components of the assembly. The target is to obtain a tonneau cover with a great performance regarding functionality, water accumulation, sealing, noise, robustness, vibration and compatibility with another pick up box’s accessories. This article also explores procedures for testing and validation of soft tonneau covers.

2013-36-0173 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Numerical Evaluation of Automotive Cooling System Pipe Geometry Impact on Thermal and Fluid Flow Characteristics
Resumo: This work evaluates the impacts on the temperature and flow fields caused by alteration on the geometry of an automotive engine cooling water pipe section. The pipe section studied is located after the water pump. The straight pipe section was altered to a curved section and it was located closer to the exhaust pipe, to attend engine downsizing demands. The analysis was carried out though the finite volume method, considering steady-state bidimensional flow. The results point out that pressure drop in the conduit is little altered with geometric variations, but the temperature conditions are affected by the proximity of the duct to the heat source.

2013-36-0177 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: Analysis of Fretting Fatigue Processes in a Sphere-Plan Contact via FEM
Resumo: Authors: Patrícia Rocha Maia¹, Luiz Carlos Rolim Lopes² Fretting fatigue problems occur in contact regions of two components submitted to contact loading and external cyclic loading. Under these conditions, the contact region is submitted to micro-displacement, severe tri-axial stress state and local plastic strain. The result of this is accelerated cyclic damage accumulation and premature crack nucleation. Under fretting conditions, the fatigue strength can be reduced by 50 to 70%, relative to conventional fatigue. The prediction of failure of components subjected to conditions of fretting fatigue is a difficult task, due to the complexity of the phenomena of contact and the various factors that control the process of damage accumulation. It therefore requires experiments and models of physical phenomena much more complex than those used in conventional fatigue. Moreover, the measurement of the parameters that cause damage in the region of contact is performed indirectly, due to the difficulty of access to the site. The use of analytical solutions, employing mechanical linear elastic does not allow a study of the real state of stress in the contact region, since the physical contact and plasticity at the interface between the components produce nonlinearities which modify the stress distribution and deformation sites. Furthermore, analytical solutions considering nonlinearities may become complex. Thus, the use of a numerical tool in the study of phenomena associated with fretting fatigue can make a significant contribution to the understanding of the stress state in the region of contact and complement the results obtained from physical models and allows for greater reliability in predicting the performance of components subject to fretting fatigue. In this work, using ABAQUS application, a numerical model was built to study the fatigue fretting process in a sphere-plane contact for a RQC 100 steel. The model has considered an application of the normal force from a spherical base pin in contact with a specimen simulating a cyclic testing under fretting conditions. The model enabled the analysis of fretting cycles for different combinations of contact load and cyclic stress amplitudes. It was imposed normal forces of 0.5N, 1N, 2N e 4N, combined with cyclic stresses of 360 MPa, 430 MPa e 500MPa. The model allows the analysis of the relationship of different parameters of the fretting fatigue and the interpretation of the hole of each parameter on the mechanical behavior of the contact region. It was analyzed the effect of normal force and cyclic stress on slip amplitude, tangential force, plastic strain, and dissipated energy in the contact. This study can be applied in the design of different parts found in mobility systems such as bolted and riveted joints; interference fit connections; flanged joints; turbine blades. ¹Mechanical Engineer, Graduate Student at Mechanical Engineering Post-Graduation Program, EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense; ²Metallurgical Engineer, D.Sc., SAE-Brasil Member, Associate Professor at Mechanical Engineering Department, EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense. Address: Avenida dos Trabalhadores,420, Vila Santa Cecília,Volta Redonda, CEP 27255-125 - RJ

2013-36-0179 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: TI - Tecnologia da Informação
Título do Paper: Telematics in diagnostic tools: An assistance to the management.
Resumo:   With the advance of the on-board electronics, the development of new diagnostic equipments is increasing, many of them with great resources of ECM’s parameterization.  These resources are also important to acquire the data of the sensors and actuators which  will assist the professional in the field of technical services at identifying anomalies in some points of the vehicle’s electronic system, therefore, acting as an important and indispensable work tool. As fast as the embedded systems’ advance, manage systems are becoming powerful tools when handled by managers and administrators that concern about the after sales of their vehicles. The competitiveness of the market forces such systems to provide instantaneous information, enabling quick decision-making and changes in the definition of projects. The present work aims to use the resources and the technologic innovations of the telematics area in order to allow a better integration among professionals in the field of services and administrators, using the on-board electronics and the data obtained from diagnostic to generate information, taking the paradigm of the automotive diagnosic into a managerial level. 

2013-36-0180 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Presentation of the development of a downsized, turbocharged prototype engine and the optimization of the layout of its PFI mixture preparation system.
Resumo: The approach of combining highly boosted port fuel injection engines with extreme downsizing represents an attractive potential to reduce CO2 emission at reduced production costs. This approach makes it possible to replace high-displacement engines running with bio-fuels as for example in Brazil gasohol (E22) or in North America and Europe (E85) by small-displacement counterparts. To get an impression of such an engine was realized a 4-cylinder 1.4 liter prototype version, which was fuelled with hydrated E100 widely used in the Brazilian market. During experimental data gathering with the engine it was discovered that the originally mounted fuel injectors were non-optimized an unable to produce an expected low fuel consumption performance at low speed, low load engine working conditions. To resolve this problem by finding an optimized alternative solution for the mixture preparation process the only possible approach, as the overall time frame for project was very limited, was to use of a high-performance numerical simulation tool. The paper presents the overall layout of the prototype engine as well as the structure of the 3-D dynamic optimization tool, the virtual engine model (VEM). The paper continues with a detailed description of the different steps used to reach the complete optimization of the mixture preparation system (both the fuel injectors and the intake manifold). The paper concludes presenting a series of experimental verification data obtained on prototype engine both at the engine test rig as well as preliminary data from measurements carried out with the engine mounted in a passenger car.   Authors Prof. Dr. J. G. Baeta FTP PUCMINAS, Brasil Dr. M. Pontoppidan , Numidis SARL, France  

2013-36-0181 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: An Investigation on Aldehyde and Ammonia Emissions from a 4-Stroke Gasoline-Fueled Motorcycle. Ammonia emission reduction by using a scr catalyst.
Resumo: Due to world environmental constrains the control of vehicle emissions becomes increasingly stringent. Regulated emissions limits have been reduced and the role of unregulated vehicle emissions is becoming more important. Ammonia and aldehydes such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have received special attention recently. Regarding two wheels vehicles, the production and sales in the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) have consistently increased in the last decade, mainly due to the economic growth. In China, the motorcycle industry produced 27 million units in 2010. In India, the two wheelers production in 2010 was 12 million units. In Brazil more them 2 million motorcycles have been sold in 2011 and part of it are equipped with flexfuel engines which can be fueled with gasoline, ethanol or a gasoline/ethanol blend in any proportion.   Because of the introduction of new emission limits, motorcycles have been equipped with electronic injection systems and three-way catalytic converters for emissions abatement. However, these converters produce unwanted reactions such as the formation of ammonia.   Results regarding ammonia formation in motorcycles were presented in Detroit, April 2012, in The 2012 SAE World Congress by Penteado, Daemme and Melo (An Experimental Investigation on Regulated and Unregulated Emissions from Four 4-Stroke Gasoline-Powered Motorcycle – paper 2012-01-1098). The paper presented results on ammonia emissions for four gasoline fueled motorcycles. The conclusion was that motorcycles equipped with three-way catalytic converters presented a significant increase in ammonia emissions at the tailpipe exhaust gases. The authors recommended that further studies should be carried on covering other gasoline fuels, different after-treatment exhaust gases devices, and new motorcycle models. The authors suggested further research regarding the ammonia and aldehyde formation mechanism and emissions reduction catalytic converters.   Focused on the 2012 paper recommendations, the same authors (Penteado et al)   continued their investigation, as following:   A set of tests were made in a motorcycle equipped with a SCR catalytic converter designed and provided by a catalyst manufacturer. The investigation was mainly focused on the reduction of ammonia emissions. Besides ammonia emissions, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, HC, CO, NOx and CO2, were measured as well. The motorcycle was tested with and without the catalytic converter in order to determine the catalyst efficiency.   Investigations have been carried out in order to explain the ammonia and aldehyde formation mechanism and their impact on gas emissions.   In the Introduction the paper presents the importance of the research. In the Methodology, the test procedures are described in details, including the statistical treatment. The results are deeply discussed. Conclusions as well as suggestions for future works are, finally, presented.

2013-36-0182 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: Presentation of a software-based sensing approach, which enables a full diesel-bio-diesel flex fuel capability by use of an integral key-parameter technique
Resumo: It is a permanent objective for engine developers to decrease amongst others the amount of permanently stored CO2 in the atmosphere. This can be obtained by either a general decrease in specific fuel consumption or by use of bio-fuel blends. As it is possible for a diesel application to mix current diesel fuel with a fraction of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) vegetal-based oil it has become of interest to push the percentage of blended FAME-oil to high levels (between 20% and 100%). The higher the percentage the more important will be the decrease of permanently added CO2 to the atmosphere. A mixture containing “x” % of FAME oil and (100-x)% of fossil oil can be referred to as a “Bx” mixture. For current commercial diesel engines equipped with a Common Rail (CR) based high-pressure injection system a FAME-oil fraction between 20 and 100 % alters the engine’s combustion process, which becomes in most cases uncontrollable with combustion patterns that gradually features extreme detonation conditions. To deal with this problem was last year developed a purely software-based sensing technique, which creates an image of the temporal combustion behavior and uses only sensors already in service for current CR-mixture preparation systems. The working principle requires no auxiliary sensor to be added for the Bx-recognition (such as for example a lambda sensor not present on most of today’s commercialized diesel vehicles). The paper presents a new software-based sensing approach that through the introduction of several integral or Upper Level (UL) key-parameters relates the instantaneous fraction of bio-diesel, Bx, in the fuel to the developed engine torque, which enables a full diesel-bio-diesel flex fuel capability. The UL-key-parameters are used to enhance the precision of the Bx-detection in the Software-model or to completely replace in this model the original lower level differential primary combustion key-parameter set. The paper continues with the description of the structure of the new developed UL-key parameters, which are the engine torque target, as for example computed by the Engine Control Unit (ECU), the combustion noise as measured by for example a low cost automotive accelerometer mounted on the engine block and the stoichiometric ratio measured for example by an oxygen sensor in the exhaust system in conjunction with the instantaneous fuel consumption computed by the ECU. The paper concludes presenting a series of experimental verification data obtained on a large-scale series produced 1.3 liter Turbo CR-rail passenger car engine. The data show the physical relationship between each of the suggested UL-key parameters and the Bx-detection approach for which they were introduced.  

2013-36-0184 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Challenges and Trends for the Emissions Monitoring Systems (OBD) of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines in Brazil: Comparative Case Study EURO VI x PROCONVE P7
Resumo: As the emissions standards are becoming more stringent, at the same time the standards for the On-Board Diagnostic System (OBD) are also continuously   enhancing to ensure a more efficient and robust engine emissions monitoring system during the whole vehicle useful life and to improve the quality of the information delivered to the user. In the case of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, the Brazilian standards are developed according to the existing European standards (EURO), for example the current standard in Brazil (so called PROCONVE P7) follows the same requirements of the EURO V. As a consequence, the applied technologies for exhaust gas aftertreatment and sensing systems to meet the requirements are the same already used in European applications like the Selective Catalytic Reduction System (SCR), the Exhaust Gas Recirculation System (EGR), the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), as well as the temperature, NOx and differential pressure sensors. Considering that a possible future standard PROCONVE P8 will be based on the current European EURO VI, this paper is a case study of the OBD System, to compare its features in an engine certified as EURO VI and in an engine certified as PROCONVE P7 (EURO V), in order to identify the new challenges for a future Brazilian standard. The comparison of the requirements was performed and the behavior of the involved technologies was analysed in real applications according to the homologation cycles specified in each standard.  

2013-36-0189 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: System monitoring and data acquisition using telemetry through Arduino and LabVIEW for Mini Baja.
Resumo: Abstract: The monitoring system vehicle was developed through  telemetry, which is a form of wireless communication that has the purpose of providing data in real-time of several variables arranged in the vehicle for further analysis and adjustments. Among these variables we can quote engine temperature, speed, engine speed and vehicle inclination. The project was carried out using a micro controller as central processing, that is programmed using the Arduino language. Data were acquired by means of sensors arranged on the vehicle transmitted via radio frequency by a pair of devices XbeePro to a computer present in pit-stop also been developed a software, via platform the LabVIEW, for real time analysis and also a data`s bank was prepared (Datalog). This software has three different interfaces, the first one simulates an instruments panel of automobile where the data are displayed in real time, and is also present a graphical where is possible, in real time, to do a comparison in order to perform all adjustments quickly, the third has the datalog interface, where data is stored and you can still do a preview for subsequent analysis and compare what were the situations where the minibaja had behaved in his best way. The assembly has an instrument panel to inform the pilot about the main data, acquired a pair of radio communicators too, in order to instruct the pilot during the competition.   Keywords: Telemetry; Vehicle; Analysis; Software.

2013-36-0191 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Metrics for Correlation between Subjective and Objective Evaluations for Steering Wheel Vibration due Tires Non-Uniformity
Resumo: The main idea from this paper is show a method to correlate the driver’s subjective vibrational perception to numeric values of acceleration measured in the steering wheel. These studies came from a task realized during the development of a vehicle current in production. During the development period of this vehicle, a specific vibration was verified by subjective evaluations in the steering wheel, presenting a rotational movement. The intensity of this vibration is considered not acceptable considering the final consumer perception. From this assumption, a simplified method was used to measure this vibration and after this correlate it to the drivers’ perception. The method consists in measuring the acceleration in the Y axis, tangent to the steering wheel, with the accelerometer at 12:00h position. This point was elected to install the accelerometer because shows basically the vibration to be studied and the steering wheel is the main interface between vehicle and driver for this issue (based on ISO 2631). So the acceleration values were correlated to the subjective evaluation rates (based on SAE J 1060). As additional consideration, the correlation between the values measured and perceived was studied and verified using some concepts of the psychophysics. As a result, a correlation curve was generated and with the information, ranges of vibrational acceleration were set to guide the studies with correct human perception limits to avoid any drivers complains. With these data and conclusions, the limits for tires non-uniformity were reset to assure the driver does not face the vibration and be complained.   

2013-36-0192 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Qualidade e Produtividade
Título do Paper: Quality tools application into product development: DFMEA and key characteristics analysis for the manufacturing process control
Resumo: The quality tools focused on product development and its manufacturing process have been in place in the automotive industry for decades, to prevent and mitigate potential failure modes. Its application has occurred with effectiveness and success, mainly when adopted from DFMEA to key characteristics analysis for the manufacturing process control, and extended through drawings, PFMEA, control plan and, then, work instructions to production activities. They shall not be treated as isolated and random activities, and to achieve first time quality product and customer satisfaction they have to be performed correctly and at the right time. The subject of this study is to propose a sequential and interdependent use of tools to develop flawless product and its manufacturing processes, so the process parameters keep close to the project center values. That includes the product failure modes analysis and the tolerances designation into product drawings, in which will both be a relevant basis to develop the process failure modes analysis, the control plan and the key characteristics designation for the production operations.

2013-36-0193 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Resumo:   The automotive industry has been using incandescent bulbs for lighting and signaling for decades. Even though they are efficient and have a good cost-benefit, they still have a high rates of burn, due specially to: the intense vibration of cargo transport vehicles and the high temperature that the filaments are exposed to. The usage of incandescent bulbs in this sector may be replaced by light emitting diodes, commonly known as LEDs, which it in spite of being a more expensive technology,  presents some characteristics such as durability and low maintenance cost, which makes it advantageous towards the technology that is being used currently. This paper will present some analyzes and studies, which shows how advantageous the usage of LED on lighting in the cargo transport vehicles is when comparing to the usage of incandescent bulbs on the same application. These analyzes will be conducted based on bibliographic research as articles of great importance in the area, in conjunction with the current literature related to the topic discussed, considering respected institutions such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), or Institute of Electrical Engineers Electronics and others and in tests performed by major companies in the lighting industry (PHILIPS and OSRAM) and in automotive industry.   

2013-36-0194 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Manufatura
Título do Paper: Automotive skin panels quality improvement by means of Finite Element Method
Resumo: In the middle of the toughest competition never seen before, inside global automotive sector, the computational simulation has been one of the most powerful used weapons to survive in this war. The manufacturing process has been one of the most important battlefields where industries have concentrating a lot of efforts. Inside this vast and multidisciplinary field, the stamping process has been one of the main actors, and usually is one to blame for any possible problems which appear along the new vehicle launching process. Currently, the perceived quality of costumers, related to the beauty and harmony of the outer panels’ surfaces of motor vehicles, has become one of the main determinant factors in the purchase process decision. As the Skin panels of the vehicles are manufactured by means of stamping process, all the distortions that arise on the surfaces are from this process, so that it is vital to improve the skill and knowledge in the use of adequated Finite Element simulation resources in order to be able to predict and correct in advance phase of car development such problems. This article aims to present a simulation methodology and analysis to detect this type of defects by means of FE simulation

2013-36-0195 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: Effect of induction heating in microstructure and hardness material after upsetting process
Resumo: The objective of this paper is to evaluate microstructure and hardness in conic profile generated by the upsetting process followed by electromagnetic induction heating in steel according to DIN 2391 St52 NBK. The cold-deformed material retains the effects of deformation on the structure and mechanical properties and are considered hardrawn. The hardness of the steel increases during cold work, the ductility decreases. The electromagnetic induction heating can be used only in the portion of the part that requires treatment and cycle time of operation can occur on the order of seconds. We observed the results obtained with heating temperatures between 300 and 600 ° C. The heating under controlled conditions of temperature and process variables electromagnetic induction can result in recovery of hardness and ductility required, being favorable to the expected characteristics of the product in sealing and leak-tightness function. It is observed that as the variation of heating temperature as a controlled variable to the effects obtained on the microstructure and hardness, and can have different results in function of desired hardness,  establishing the required temperature experimentally. The benefits have been proven in the application of electromagnetic induction heating components connections between high pressure pump, rail and injectors flow nozzle pressure up to 2200 bar fuel generation diesel engines Euro IV and Euro V

2013-36-0196 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: Product development: when is the best moment to file a patent application
Resumo: The process of product development (PPD), nowadays, is considered of fundamental importance to ensure competitive advantage in a market that increasingly, press for innovation. The PPD, in most cases, is a process that involves considerable costs, significant efforts, besides being a high-risk process. To prevent competitors from benefiting from the development of a product led and financed by a certain company, it is necessary that this company owns the means of appropriating the results of the PPD. The most obvious and immediate way to ensure the ownership is the patent.             The determination of the time when a new product or new technology should be patented has a great importance to the product development. A patent application filed in very early stages of the PPD may suffer from inadequate description or even failing to protect key aspects of the new product, because these aspects may not be defined at the time of patenting. On the other hand, the later patenting, i.e., in the latter stages of the PPD, carries risks such as leakage of sensitive information, or even legitimate patenting the product by another company, as a result of their PPD. This article aims to determine which steps or activities of the PPD is more appropriate to file a patent application. This determination occurs through a adversarial analysis of the characteristics of the PPD against the requirements, criteria and specifications for the patenting of new products.

2013-36-0197 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: Engineering Technological Information Center and Knowledge Manage: Challenges and Opportunities in the Automotive Industry
Resumo: We live in an age of information society, an important moment where companies besides searching to preserve their intellectual property and deliver their document production wisely, ensuring access, also came to realize the economic value contained in their industrial and technology information. With this broad view of the value of information, companies have identified the strategic importance of organizing the content of documents to meet the demand for information in the process of product development. In this context, this paper presents a case of implementing an Information Technology Center at a company in the automotive business that when identified the characteristics and opportunities to provide information, made ​​significant results in the process of product development, reducing the search time and increasing the reliability of the information.  

2013-36-0198 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Investigating GSM Interference in Automotive Sound Systems Using State of the Art Electromagnetic Simulation
Resumo:   EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) is one of the major concerns today in the automotive industry. The main reason is that vehicles are using and depending more on electronic technology. The causes of electromagnetic interference problems are not only related to the ever-increasing number of embedded electronics systems in vehicles, but also to external electronic devices that are brought in to automobiles by drivers and passengers (e.g. cell phone, MP3 players, Bluetooth devices, portable video games). Even though these problems can cause serious issues on safety systems like the airbag, their symptoms are often noticed in a less harm way in the sound system. A very common EMI problem in automotive sound systems is a particular noise caused by devices that uses GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) technology. Most of the cell phones and vehicle locators rely on GSM technology. In Brazil there is a national normative known as Contran 245, which when issued, will enforce the use of locators on all vehicles commercialized in Brazil. Hence, EMI problems caused by GSM technology will likely to be noticed more often in Brazil. GSM devices emit short duration RF (Radio Frequency) pulses at a rate of 217 Hz. The interference pulses contain the fundamental frequency plus a large number of harmonics that overlaps the frequency range of listening, which goes up to 20kHz. This work presents a detailed study of the EMI of GSM devices in automotive sound systems using state of the art numerical simulation technology provided by ANSYS HFSS and ANSYS Designer tools.  A system model comprising a vehicle with a complete sound system, wiring harness and GSM devices communicating to a base station GSM tower is used for this analysis. Measurement data is also presented showing a good match to the simulated results. Options to decrease the GSM interference and overcome this issue are also presented. 

2013-36-0199 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: Prototypes Assembling Management Supported by Key Performance Indicators
Resumo: A methodology for planning, assembling follow-up and reporting performance indicators is discussed for the case of prototypes management in the Bus Development Department of Mercedes-Benz Brazil. In the planning module of this tool, the resources allocation task is supported by lessons learned from similar projects done previously and a given priority ranking in order to achieve the project timeline. Additionally, an assembling follow-up module can be used to manually update each project status and employed resources. The planned schedule and the assembling status are automatically compared generating some performance indicators in a weekly or monthly report. Based on these results, contingency mechanisms, resources relocations and/or a new ranking of projects priorities can be supported by reliable data, avoiding financial losses or delivering delays. The prototype assembling management tool runs totally integrated with the shop floor management and together these systems can monitor resources like operators, machines or bench tests in a consistent database. Some of the benefits which are derived from this implementation are: easy management of several resources, better control of the manufacturing process, reduction of down time, reliable statistical information to assist supervisors in their decisions and a low demand of work for the system operation, conducting to a lean process. In order to systematically implement this process, two Excel worksheets integrates the whole system with data inputs and outputs processing supported by VBA automation with a robust efficiency and very low cost of investment.

2013-36-0201 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Resumo: Several injection and ignition systems have been developed and tested since the invention of the internal combustion engine. As environmental regulations have become more stringent over the years, an electronic injection and ignition systems of the mixture air/fuel was implemented in the vehicles. Since then these systems have constantly been improved with the inclusion of devices, sensors and actuators that help them work more efficiently, both to gain power and for the enforcement of environmental laws in force in each country. For the correct operation of the engine electronic management it is extremely important to develop a software that can perfectly control the inputs (sensors) and outputs (actuators) information. The task of adjustment and calibration of the software requires a programmable module, which is connected to the vehicle and tested with various settings until an ideal fit between performance and emissions can be reached. This paper proposes the implementation of a programmable electronic management system that can replace the original system of the vehicle and provide a slight power gain without exceeding the limits of pollutant emissions described in the Brazilian legislation. To achieve this goal, it will be necessary to analyze the behavior of the vehicle with its original management system and with the use of specific equipment such as the dynamometer (power and torque), the gas analyzer (emission pollutants) and the automotive scanner (parameters of the management system). Therefore this work presents the methodology, testing, advantages, disadvantages and limitations of implementing a programmable electronic management system for an internal combustion engine.

2013-36-0202 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: performance analysis of a spark ignition engine running on various water-in-ethanol mixtures
Resumo: The current quest for clean and renewable fuels has prompted the appearance of several bio-mass fuel alternatives. Ethanol is a renewable biofuel obtained from different agricultural crops. The main production process to obtain anhydrous ethanol consists of crop production, mashing and cooking, fermentation, distillation and chemical dehydration. Some attractive characteristics of ethanol as a clean energy source is the CO2 absorption through photosynthesis during the crop plantation phase and positive ethanol life cycle energy balance. Even though, ethanol production cost is still relatively higher when compared to fossil fuels. Knowing that a large energy amount is spent in the distillation phase, the use of hydrous ethanol as fuel, with high water content, can be economically attractive. This paper compares the use of high water-in-ethanol volumetric content fuel, varying from 5% to 40%, in a naturally aspirated 0.668-L single-cylinder port-injected spark-ignited engine. Computer simulation was used coupled with experimental tests to assess the implications of using such a high water content fuel. Tests were carried at various operating conditions. A thorough heat release analysis was performed in order to understand the benefits and challenges of using such a fuel. It was found that efficiency remains nearly unchanged for up to 30% v/v of water mixtures. Combustion duration was nearly unaffected with only an increase on ignition delay for up to this percentage of water.

2013-36-0203 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Resumo: Several injection and ignition systems have been developed and tested since the invention of the internal combustion engine. As environmental regulations have become more stringent over the years, an electronic injection and ignition systems of the mixture air/fuel was implemented in the vehicles. Since then these systems have constantly been improved with the inclusion of devices, sensors and actuators that help them work more efficiently, both to gain power and for the enforcement of environmental laws in force in each country. For the correct operation of the engine electronic management it is extremely important to develop a software that can perfectly control the inputs (sensors) and outputs (actuators) information. The task of adjustment and calibration of the software requires a programmable module, which is connected to the vehicle and tested with various settings until an ideal fit between performance and emissions can be reached. This paper proposes the implementation of a programmable electronic management system that can replace the original system of the vehicle and provide a slight power gain without exceeding the limits of pollutant emissions described in the Brazilian legislation. To achieve this goal, it will be necessary to analyze the behavior of the vehicle with its original management system and with the use of specific equipment such as the dynamometer (power and torque), the gas analyzer (emission pollutants) and the automotive scanner (parameters of the management system). Therefore this work presents the methodology, testing, advantages, disadvantages and limitations of implementing a programmable electronic management system for an internal combustion engine.

2013-36-0204 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: blanks Physical parameters optimization for automotive panels deep drawing
Resumo:   This study focused in the dimensional comparison of two automotive hood outer panels which were cold pressed with different initial sheet metal sizes. The experimental procedure was executed through observations in the superficial aspect of the parts, which were pressed in a tooling currently in use in the automotive industry, but with a reduction in the initial sheet metal size for the suggested part. The results showed a great opportunity for cost reduction in the cold pressing process.

2013-36-0206 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: On-board Diagnostics: Possible evolutions of the OBDBr-2
Resumo: On-board Diagnostics: Possible evolutions of the OBDBr-2 The present work is not intended to induce the competent governmental agencies to tighten OBDBr-2 standards, but will show that is possible and opportune to redefine some limits and introduce new requirements in the existing norms.  A reduction of OBDBr-2 thresholds, following the tendency of reduction of those for exhaust emissions and taking into account possible changes in the deterioration factors (Durability of 80000 km to 120000 km or 160000 km); The introduction of NOx-OBD threshold for catalyst diagnosis, where only a limit for Hydrocarbons is considered; The requirement to keep active catalyst and upstream sensor diagnosis for any air/fuel ratios and not only for those corresponding to Ethanol (E100) and Gasoline (E22); The implementation of new diagnosis, as well as the creation of an index that evaluates and publishes information about the performance of each diagnosis, declaring if they are started and concluded in the present driving cycle, are possible measures to be implemented in a further evolution of the OBD Standards in Brazil. The most modern systems are already prepared for these changes, as will be shown in this paper, remaining only the dedicated calibration of the parameters and functions for working properly  

2013-36-0207 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Resumo: The analysis and numeric optimization of response in vibroacoustic systems is a topic of current interest in various fields of engineering, since it can be applied in situations like the cabin of automobiles, trucks, tractors, etc... The use of the most appropriate algorithm to optimize the response of such systems is a numerical problem to be solved because it enables a reduction in the cost and time of project development, avoiding the construction of physical models for testing and analysis. Considering a simplified vehicle cabin being applied a excitatory force on structure and evaluating the response of the sound pressure in some points in the fluid, the study evaluates algorithms for analysis and optimization of sound pressure developed for coupled vibroacoustic systems, checking the performance and suitability of algorithms Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) and Genetic for response optimization. For the coupled cases which were studied SQP algorithm shows a reduction of sound pressure lower than the initial genetic algorithm, for uncoupled coupled SQP method can further reductions. The results were validated through analytical formulations available and in some cases compared with commercial software solutions.

2013-36-0208 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Emission and performance evaluation of a PROCONVE P7 (Euro5) engine working with 5% up to 100% of biodiesel blends.
Resumo: The use of biodiesel as an alternative to fossil fuels, in special for buses that runs at the big Brazilian urban centers has been even higher and with the introduction of the new legislation for diesel engines in 2012, CONAMA PROCONVE P7, that in order to attempt to its requirements uses different kinds of exhaust gases aftertreatment  systems, the necessity of knowing the behavior of those “P7 engines” operating with different biodiesel contents on blends with regular fossil fuel or even pure biodiesel has been an important issue to ensure the benefits of using such alternative fuel. On this evaluation, blends of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 75% and 100% of biodiesel content in ANP65/2011 A_S50 Diesel Fuel (50ppm Sulfur content) was experimented in a Mercedes-Benz OM926LA E5 engine with SCR (Selective Catalyst Reaction) exhaust gases aftertreatment system. This paper presents the tests performed in engines test benches (dynamometers) equipped with gaseous test benches that can measure not only the influence of biodiesel on the engine gaseous emissions but also on its performance in terms of power, torque, specific fuel consumption and fuel injection pressure increase. With the obtained tests results it’s possible to evaluate what biodiesel content in fossil diesel blends presents better benefits balance in terms of Nitrogen Oxides increase (NOx), Particulate Matter reduction (PM), mechanical stress over the engine and its exhaust gaseous aftertreatment system, still presenting a lower impact over the urban big center air quality.

2013-36-0209 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: The use of diesel produced from sugar cane at CONOMA PROCONVE P7 engines, its environmental benefits and influence over the engine performance and exhaust gases aftertreatment system.
Resumo: With the purpose of minimizing the gaseous emissions impacts on the big urban centers, many alternative fuel resources has been performed as an alternative to fossil fuels. An environmentally and economical interesting alternative for the Brazilian market is the diesel made from sugar cane (Farnesene - C15H32).             The Farnesene, made by sugar cane juice fermentation in presence of a genetically modified yeast is basically a saturated hydrocarbon molecule (C15H32) with more than 98% purity and that presents properties comparables to fossil diesel and when used in regular diesel cycle engines can bring significantly reductions not only in soot levels (Particulate Matter – PM) but also on the Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), unlike the biodiesel, that is well known that it brings increases  on this gas emission level due its physic-chemical properties. Reduction on CO2 levels on life cycle is another important benefit of using such fuel since it’s made by renewable feedstock.             With the purpose of evaluate the farnesene use benefits, several tests were conducted at Mercedes-Benz do Brazil engine development labs using an OM926LA E5 engine that fulfill CONAMA PROCONVE P7 legislation in effect in Brazil since January 2012.  Blends of 10, 20, 30, 50, 75 and 100% of Farnesene content with ANP65/2011 B_S50 (50ppm Sulfur content) regular diesel fuel were tested. The 5% of biodiesel content, according current legislation, was respected in all blends with the exception of pure Farnesene (100% C15H32). The obtained results brings many advantages of using Farnesene with reductions of 35% on Particle Matter, 37% in NOx levels and also decrease of Hydrocarbon (HC) and Carbon Monoxides (CO) levels, showing itself as an excellent alternative to fossil diesel fuel.

2013-36-0211 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Durability methodology for evaluation of aeronautical engines operating with different fuels
Resumo: Presently there´s a world concern for the development of aviation gasolines that are more environmental friendly as, differently to the majority of the automotive gasolines, these fuels still utilizes lead components in order to achieve the anti-knock levels required for this operation. Aviation gasolines must follow very strict specifications with a huge limitation on the kind and dosage of additives that can be mixed with theirs formulated hydrocarbons. Thus, for the development and approval of a distinct fuel to the present, it’s need to perform tests that guarantee that the new formulation doesn’t  worsens the output nor causes any harm to the engine throughout it’s life spam. A test methodology was developed for endurance, with an accelerated aging cycle, in order to speed up the wear process of the engine’s components and allow an expedited evaluation of the specifications changes when using different fuels. This paper covers the technical details of the methodology developed for engine test bench.

2013-36-0212 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Electric/Electronic Integration in Dual Fuel Engine – Diesel/Gas
Resumo: The growing necessity for less carbon emission vehicles due to environmental issues and more rigid legislation rules encourages many automotive companies to develop low CO2 emission engines. This motivation leads Mercedes-Benz do Brazil to the development of a “Dual-Fuel” diesel engine for buses that works with diesel and CNG (compressed natural gas) fuel. One of the challenges for the development of this kind of engine is the electric/electronic integration between the diesel engine ECU(Electronic Control Unit) and the CNG system ECU that coordinates the engine gas injectors. With the combination of different CAN protocols, the creation of a specific communication matrix between the two ECUs and the OBD premises fulfilled, the Dual-Fuel engine electronic integration is prepared to ensure the correct work of the fuel injection necessary to achieve great potential emission reduction The work presented focuses on detailing the efforts and all the steps made in order to accomplish a successful electronic integration between two different architectures inside an already developed diesel engine.

2013-36-0216 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Development of a Methodology Focused on the Improvement of both: Ergonomics and Comfort of Commercial Vehicle Seats.
Resumo: Safety, ergonomics and comfort are inseparable concepts and have a great relevance to commercial vehicles drivers, being the seat, one of the most important components to be considered, when designing the work environment of these professionals. This work presents actions taken by "Mercedes-Benz do Brasil Ltda." in partnership with "Grammer do Brasil Ltda." and "Oficio Ergonomia e Design Ltda." concerning the improvement of a seat to be applied in two lines of vehicles. Proposals involving: driver positioning, the enhancement of specific characteristics of both: foam and seat`s frame, the fabric coating, the adjustments of its moving parts and the introduction of damping vibrations devices, are assessed. Because ergonomics and comfort are heavily dependent of psychological and anthropomorphic aspects, this development was based on successive steps of static and dynamic evaluations, involving fifty individuals of various percentiles, most of them professional drivers, plus fifteen different models of seats, among other material, logistics and professional resources. Concurrent to the presentation of the many experimental results, the impacts of different factors, such as the aggressiveness of the road, the morphological characteristics of the evaluators and the importance of applying high standards of planning and control of the many variables involved are discussed. As a result of this joint and multidisciplinary development , emerged a more comfortable and ergonomic component, enabling gains relevant to: driver, vehicle and pay-load.  

2013-36-0218 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Transmissões
Título do Paper: Study of correlation between vibration tests and finite element simulations by means of impulse excitation technique applied to components of an automatized transmission system
Resumo: Components of an automatized transmission system were improved by using techniques of finite element numerical simulation and topology optimization, in order to achieve product costs saving and higher performance. Numerical simulations have being applied more frequently during the components design, once the models become more sophisticated, higher computational capacity is available and more precise material properties can be determined. In this paper, a good correlation between the simulation models and the experimental tests was achieved through the material properties determination by means of the impulse excitation technique. This impulse excitation technique consists of a non-destructive test for the dynamic elasticity modulus and material damping through the vibration natural frequencies. The test specimens are evaluated by an impulsive mechanical excitation and the response acoustic signal is collected by a microphone and after processed in a conventional computer. Besides the mentioned parameters, it is also possible to measure the shear modulus and the Poisson ratio, which are used to feed the simulation numerical models. Impulse excitation tests were performed using standardized specimens and components of the automatized transmission in order to calibrate the results obtained from simulations. Thereafter, using the calibrated finite element models well correlated with the experiments, topology optimization technique could be applied to achieve the mass saving of some transmission components, reaching up to 25% of mass reduction keeping the same system performance.

2013-36-0221 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Comparison of the potential to reduce fuel consumption by engine energy losses mapping
Resumo: Motivated by the demand for reducing fuel consumption, this paper presents a method for the identification of engine regimes where the potential for fuel reduction is higher. Three examples of SI engines from the Brazilian market are presented. Theoretically, the energy flow in the engine starts with the power contained in the fuel and ends with the effective power produced by the engine. Within the tested engines, in the complete regime envelope it is observed a global average efficiency of 28.8%, considering this as useful energy divided by fuel energy. For the mapping, the losses are divided into: heat losses, pumping losses (PMEP) and mechanical losses (FMEP). The proposed method consist in a mapping in a fired engine test with acquisition of the speed, load, gIMEP, useful torque observed and fuel consumption. Based on these data and the basic formulation that describes the energy flow, it is identified for each regime (speed x load) their respective losses. Finally, the data are grouped into 12 major regimes, allowing the identification of regimes with lower efficiency. It also allows the comparison of the different engines. The three tested engines were SI and 4 cylinders in line. The baseline has 1.6l, naturally aspirated, indirect fuel injection and was tested with E100 fuel. The engine #2 is very similar to the baseline, but with use of reduction friction components. The engine #3 may be characterized as a benchmark in the category. It is a turbo aspirated 1.6L, has direct fuel injection, variable valve train and piloted pumps. In terms of thermal efficiency the baseline had higher losses. In the urban conditions (low load and low speed) it is possible to see that its thermal efficiencies might be improved more than 15%. Regarding the mechanical losses, it was observed that even with the engine #3 having higher overall efficiency (33.7% vs. 24.8% of the baseline), their mechanical losses in percentage of fuel energy do not differ appreciably from the others (7.8% vs. 7.6% of the baseline). Optimized components applied to this engine may be considered an evidence of the higher efficiency, since its loads are much higher than the others (18.3 bar of BMEP max. vs. 10.9 bar in the baseline). The proposed method was indirectly validated with the literature and it may serve as tool to diagnosis components to be optimized in a given engine.

2013-36-0222 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: The contribution of the local product engineering in the search for innovative modular solutions: a case study of the front seat structure
Resumo: A frequent situation in the national automobile industry is the each time bigger rapidity that just-launched models are evolved (the so called face-lifts). Within this highly dynamic context, the solutions and technical proposals developed by the local product engineering have two main guidelines. The first one is to work on product evolutions which goal is to make the vehicles far more attractive and differentiated with respect to the competition and also to the previous model. The second one is to constantly search the standardization or the modularization of parts between the different models and versions of vehicles, thus reducing the costs of investments and providing scale profits. This article aims to present, through a case study of the front seat structures, a practical and innovative example of the application of a modular solution developed by the local product engineering that allowed the conciliation of these two apparently antagonistic objectives, the one of obtaining scale economies and, at the same time, the other of preserving the style and the identity of each one of the final products. Through this study, it can be confirmed the importance of the modular strategy and its applications in different families of vehicles, including those manufactured in distinct production sites.

2013-36-0227 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Manufatura
Título do Paper: Sheet metal performance: Hot stamping and hydroforming process contributions for INOVAR auto program
Resumo: INOVAR-AUTO program is a Brazilian government program to encourage innovation and improvement of the productive chain which aims stimulating investments in domestic auto industry providing tax benefits. However, to qualify for the incentive applicants the OEM’s must meet several requirements and attend some vehicle performance targets. The body in white is an item that’s directly linked to performance in terms of energy efficiency, so it’s necessary lighter and stiffer bodies development comparing with the current ones. There is a lot of manufacturing process which may be applied in BIW construction, however some are more competitive considering present Brazilian automotive scenario. Considering this point, this paper will address two important forming processes that will be crucial to mass reduction and stiffness improvement in BIW: hydroforming and hot stamping. These process has a substantial utilization in USA and Europe, although are poorly used and exploited in Brazil.  It will be done an exploration in both process, advantages, limitations and contributions to INOVAR-AUTO program demands. Keywords: Hydroforming;Hot Stamping; Sheet Metal; INOVAR-AUTO 

2013-36-0228 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Chassis e Cabine
Título do Paper: New Articulated Safety Bar Project for Cab-over Trucks
Resumo: On cab-over trucks to access the engine and others components it is necessary to tilt the cab. This is a regular procedure done several times during the vehicle life cycle. In order to make it easier and safer for mechanical tilting system, it was developed an articulated safety bar to sustain and maintain the cab on the open position. On the current bars available in the market, to close the cab it is necessary that the operator get under the cab to disengage the safety bar. This procedure puts the operator under risk because an accident can happen while the disengagement and the cab can close over him. Thinking on that and looking for a better ergonomic and safety situation,  the objective of this work is to present a new articulated safety bar that the engagement and disengagement is done automatically with the natural tilting movement of the cab. This solution was developed at Iveco LA for adoption on the new Vertis HD and is under patent process.  

2013-36-0229 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Resumo: Commercial gasoline is composed of hundreds of hydrocarbon components. Surrogate fuels that decrease the chemical and physical complexity of gasoline are being used to allow a better understanding of the processes involved in the interaction between fuels and internal combustion engines (ICEs). Based on previous published works about methodologies for fuel development using surrogate fuels, the aim of this paper is to present further results on the effect of individual components and fuel fractions on the combustion and performance parameters of spark ignition engines. SI engine dynamometer tests were conducted using ten mixtures of iso-octane, toluene, n-heptane and ethanol. Response surface models were statistically developed to analyze the interactions between fuel components, fuel properties and engine performance. For the operating conditions susceptible to knocking, favored by engines with higher compression ratios, toluene and iso-octane are important components, mainly due to their higher octane ratings. This paper discusses the potential advantages of using toluene or iso-octane and their corresponding chemical groups for different engine performance parameters. The results and technical information presented can help fuel formulation in general and can be of particular interest for special applications involving higher compression ratio engines.

2013-36-0232 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Suspensão
Título do Paper: Design of a Torsion Beam Suspension with an Optimized Elastokinematic Behavior
Resumo:   The modern vehicle suspensions are developed considering several structural and elastokinematics requirements. The elastokinematic behavior and how the suspension responds and transmits the forces and moments from the tires to the chassis have great influence on vehicle dynamics. In a torsion beam suspension, parameters such as roll center height, roll stiffness, toe-in and camber variation can be optimized by altering the shape of the torsion beam. The development of a torsion beam that provides an optimal behavior specific to a particular vehicle for these parameters is a challenge that demands a great deal of time and costs, being developed mainly by the trial and error method. To assist the development process of this study, DOE studies and optimization algorithms, using Altair Hyperworks software, are applied. The combination of these methods allow to identify which are the torsion beam shape parameters that most influence the elastokinematic behavior. Then, knowing the effects of each variable, optimize the torsion beam, focusing on the requirements proposed by the vehicle suspension project. Moreover, the application of this combination helps to systematize the process and accelerates the convergence of the suspension design, and enable a greater system efficiency. The main objective of this work is, through the use of a combination of finite element software, DOE analyses and optimization algorithms, to find the best designs for a torsion beam, starting from simple profiles (“C” and “U”), respecting predefined values of suspension elastokinematics parameters.         

2013-36-0233 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Lightweight Connecting Rod Design for Flex Fueled Engines
Resumo: ABSTRACT The increasing demand for engines with higher efficiency, reduced fuel consumption and high power density, is driving the future engine technologies in the direction of downsizing and reduction of number of cylinders, especially for Otto engines. Specifically the Power Cell Unit (PCU) components are of extreme interest due to its potential for weight and friction reduction. To cope with these demands a new lightweight connecting rod design for flex fueled engines was developed. The combination of thinner web thickness and bushingless small end (coated and profiled), through the optimization by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation, enabled on the new lightweight design a weight reduction of 25% maintaining safe connecting rod fatigue limits in a studied flex fueled engine. The connecting rod bearings were evaluated using Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) simulation, and demonstrated suitable results. The connecting rod material selected was the global 46MnVS6 forged steel. The material fatigue strength is 20% higher than the typical C70 forged steel and allows a weight reduction of up to 30% maintaining the connecting rod structural resistance. Such design also brings benefits for the manufacturing process. To ensure the component integrity, specific bench and engine durability tests were carried out. Detailed description and test results will be available at this paper to support the conclusions.

2013-36-0236 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: Calculation of Uncertainty of Measurement for Diesel Engine ESC Test Emissions
Resumo: Heavy duty diesel engines are homologated for emissions using engine test dynamometers according to predefined emission cycles. In 2012, it was released in the Brazilian market the first diesel heavy duty vehicles with CONAMA P7 technology. The homologation tests include emission measurement according to stationary cycles (ESC) and also in transient tests. For the ESC emission measurement is possible to use a passive dynamometer, while the transient test requires an active dynamometer. Uncertainty of measurement is an important matter to get accurate emission data, but there are not many published papers about a method for its calculation for diesel engines. According to this scenario, this paper presents a method to calculate the uncertainty of measurement of legislated pollutants for diesel engines (CO, NOx, NMHC and particulate matter). The experiments were done using an ESC cycle and a gaseous emission measurement Bench. ESC tests were repeated using a low sulfur diesel on a passive dynamometer and an  EURO III engine to allow type A uncertainty calculation, also type B uncertainty (due to equipments) were calculated. This paper will report the calculation method applied, some results of uncertainties and will present discussion about the most important variables that contributes for the final uncertainty values of the emission gases.  

2013-36-0245 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: abs development on a vehicle with air over hydraulic brake system
Resumo: The anti-lock brake system, known as ABS, whose the main function is to ensure directional stability and, consequently, the handling of the vehicle in an emergency brake application. Acting on the brakes, prevents the wheels are locked in extreme situations as well as in various applications on low friction floors. The most common applications found in our market are vehicles whose brakes are fully hydraulic or pneumatic. The purpose of this paper is to present all ABS development phases on an "air over hydraulic" Iveco vehicle, in other words, the front brake is actioned by a hydraulic system and the rear by a pneumatic.

2013-36-0246 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: Thermal Management Solutions to Reduce Fuel Consumption
Resumo: Thermal Management Solutions to Reduce Fuel Consumption Paulo Aguiar, Edison Miyauchi, Luis Baumgartner Behr Brasil Ltda.   Fuel economy has become of major interest due to increasingly stringent emissions and fuel consumption regulations and its impacts on vehicle taxation. In addition to that, end-user awareness of the fuel-efficiency increases market pressure for the application of fuel-efficient technologies. It represents lower lifetime operation costs combined with the maintenance of performance, safety and driving comfort.   Supporting Internal Combustion Engines downsizing technologies like charge air cooling (direct, indirect or integrated indirect) and cooled exhaust gas recirculation are of main importance to reduce fuel enrichment and to protect the engine components and peripherals (valves, exhaust manifold and turbine) from high temperatures, as well as avoiding abnormal engine operation (knocking). Also, to reduce the fuel consumption and consequent emissions under engine warm-up phase, an enthalpy storage device would be of great contribution.    On the driving experience side, inefficient air conditioning systems could be of great negative impact to fuel consumption. Lower fuel consumption could be reached by some measures that gives a positive impact on COP (coefficient of performance), resulting on the need for lower input energy to cool down the vehicle cabin. Examples are applications of high efficiency heat exchangers (condenser and evaporator); appropriate system setting and control; reduced heat pick-up configuration; optimized air distribution; utilization of internal heat exchanger; and optimization of system circulating oil.   Another ongoing evaluation is regarding electrification of the powertrain, considering Start-Stop as a first step. However, under stop condition (when the AC compressor is off), cabin comfort becomes a main concern which can be overcome through the application an HVAC unit equipped with a properly dimensioned Storage Evaporator.   Data on vehicle bench measurements will be presented to show potential of each individual technology as contributor to fuel consumption reduction. 

2013-36-0248 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Communication Protocols Analysis for Automotive Diagnostic: KWP2000, J1939 and UDS
Resumo: The diagnostic determines, verifies and classifies symptoms in order to get an overall picture finding the root cause of a problem. The detection, mitigation and communication strategies are applied to abnormal operation of systems monitored by electrical and electronic devices. Therefore, the purpose of Diagnostic is to determine the root cause of abnormal operation so a repair can be performed. Diagnostic requirements for OEM and supplier are defined by a common database where the functional diagnostic requirements, implementation, development specific data and features are. Everyone needs to have a straight interface with product engineering, manufacturing, aftersales and supplier. The usual cases of diagnostic can be classified for the following fields as OEM: Development – During the development process, the correct functionality of the vehicle’s components must be validated. Production – The assembly plant uses the diagnostic system for transferring calibration data and software updates to the non-volatile memory of the ECUs, including the EOL programming and tests. Aftersales – While operating the vehicle, diagnostics are mainly used for error detection. Detected errors are stored to a persistent fault memory. The traditional V-Cycle needs to meet extended for diagnostic that satisfy all steps since requirements phase. In the development cycle of an automotive system, the diagnostic features can be employed in the development stages, manufacturing and services. Firstly, diagnostic specifications need to be performed based a common database as ODX, where change and data management and diagnostic development tools need to be defined. The diagnostic systems require a communication protocol that computer tools can access and perform all diagnostic systems based on the diagnostic connector. There will be investigated the main characteristics of diagnostic protocols and most known services and used by OEM and suppliers at the market: KWP2000 - Keyword Protocol 2000; SAE J1939 – Based on the J1587/1708 Specification; UDS - Unified Diagnostic Services. A description of their characteristics and properties will be presented and a comparative analysis performed. In order to assist OEMs and suppliers for an overall view, there will be presented some diagnostic tools used for development, test, validation and services. The aim of this paper is to present the overview of diagnostic communication protocols and services with their specific tools and application.

2013-36-0249 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: Correlation between apparent activation energy and NOx from renewable diesel from sugar cane, biodiesel, fossil diesel and their blends.
Resumo: Biofuels and their blends with fossil fuel are important energy resources, which production and application have been largely increased internationally. This study focus on activation energy of the thermal decomposition of three pure fuels: farnasane (renewable diesel from sugar cane), biodiesel and fossil diesel and their blends determined from thermogravimetry and Model-Free Kinetics and the correlation with NOx, was determined in European Stationary Cycle (ESC) with OM 926LA Euro 5 engine with thirteen different fuels pure and ours blends. Results showed a correlation with R² 0,9667 indicates that a regression line fits the data well. The value of NOx to validate the developed correlation obtained to mixture with 20% of farnesane, 70 % fossil diesel and 10% biodiesel (20F70D10B) in ESC test and determined also with use this correlation showed respectively 102,09% and 99,10% compared with diesel fossil, these results show an error of 2.98% below the value determined experimentally.

2013-36-0250 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Resumo:   This work is to make the development of a (VNG) vehicular-natural-gas-driven motorcycle by applying the technology for a programmable electronic injection aiming at therefore discussing the issue of alternative fuels and their real advantages. To this end, a partnership between Fatec Santo André and Instituto Mauá de Tecnologia (Maua Institute of Technology) was established. Emissions and Performance tests will be held at the institute`s laboratory of motorcycles for which emission limits be kept with satisfactory performance for this category of vehicle. The methodology to be applied is as follows: performance and emissions tests with the vehicle running with the original fuel (ethanol and gasoline in Brazil), and the next step leads to the conversion of the motorcycle with the help of a programmable electronic injection for running with vehicle natural gas; after converting and calibrating of the motorcycle we will hold emission tests and performance in order to compare the effectiveness of the use of this fuel in question.   At the end of this work, we hope to have collaborated with the studies about natural gas in view of its great productive potential and allow consumers to choose an alternative type of fuel with fewer spoils to the environment and providing financial savings too.

2013-36-0252 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Methodology to evaluate the performance of Diesel engine cold starts using engine speed profile analysis
Resumo: The development of new fuels involves several areas of an oil company and several tests, including vehicle emissions tests on chassis dynamometers and engine tests on bench. Particularly for diesel fuel case, an important test is to evaluate the profile of rotation upon cold start. In this work, for engine speed profile analysis, it was developed a system to acquire data using the engine’s flywheel ring gear information and the audio input of a standard notebook. It was, also, developed a specific software to analyze the acquired signals. The system is able to point out several important features of the engine start such as the time of action of the starter motor, the maximum engine speed during starting, the settling time and the engine idling speed. All of this information can be collected at a low cost of instrumentation devices. This system is also able to extract, for a single revolution of the engine, small variations in engine speed. Thus, this paper proposes a simple and low cost procedure, which can be performed by any laboratory, for engine speed analysis of different vehicles and engines.

2013-36-0255 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Functional test bench and signal simulation to evaluate automated gearbox systems
Resumo:   Part of development and validation of automotive powertrain systems and components, it is necessary to conduct simulation of the assembly bench working in different load situations. This paper aims to present the concept of a test bench and simulation system for the Volkswagen automated gearbox (I-Motion), which enables the simulated operation of electrical and electronic components in the Product Development phase (validation) and then in quality control, research and support of field problems. The proposal consists of the assembly of a compact structure, consisting of an electric motor that drives the clutch assembly with all components mounted (sensors and actuators), simulating the conditions of a running vehicle. An automation system based on hardware / software National Instruments, makes the control and monitoring of test parameters from a program developed in LabView programming language.

2013-36-0256 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: Reliability Analysis in Rear Axles for Truck
Resumo: This paper is to for determine, using a simulation model (equation) and graphic, each of the faults that may occur in a systems, mechanical / electrical / hydraulic / pneumatic.  In this case I have taken the rear axle of a truck as a component to analyze. Was sampled over 34,000 units in warranty, from 2004 to 2012 The next steps for the project are: Search specific data (manufacturers, companies, dealers) on the different types of failures and their respective analysis, in order to model and interpret correctly my analysis and simulation. Take a drive current park representative to mount the rear axle and are within one standard warranty period for a truck plant (1 to 2 years or 100,000 km. 200,000 km. respectively). Analyze data obtained in point 2 (number of faults, fractures) to have a database, with respect to reliability, unreliability and hazard rate. After concluding point 3 An equation developed (based on data and concepts obtained in point 1) to the rear axle, which allows me to get a simulation of the product. The graph obtained is the hazard rate (experimental) with which analyze real cases. Interpretation of the resulting data.   This paper is to for determine, using a simulation model (equation) and graphic, each of the faults that may occur in a systems, mechanical / electrical / hydraulic / pneumatic.  In this case I have taken the rear axle of a truck as a component to analyze. Was sampled over 34,000 units in warranty, from 2004 to 2012 The purpose of this paper is generate a graph and a simulation model using an empirical equation that responds to failures typical on rear axles, which can be grouped into five main groups. Failures Typical • Vehicle Application • Overload • Operation of the vehicle / Mission • Maintenance / Lubrication • First series of manufacturing and / or assembly To make the graph and an equation that considers typical faults, analyze two aspects. An actual curve of the rear axle, based on fatigue tests performed by the supplier and failure statistics on trucks. The characteristics of the graphic must correspond to a hazard rate curve (bathtub curve for a mechanical component) The other hand generate an empirical formula which will be placed on different variables typical fault, this equation is conceptually similar to that used in the calculation of bearing fatigue. With all this data is generated a query graphic.

2013-36-0261 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: methane emission ratios from light duty vehicles in Brazil
Resumo: It is common the development of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories, by private and public organizations. They are used as starting point for policy makers in their efforts on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. It has already been established that vehicle emissions contain methane (CH4), whose formation is strongly dependent on the type of emission control system used. In the transportation sector, methane emission can contribute significantly to the total GHG emissions, considering the lifecycle of the fuel used. Although there are plenty of data about the regulated emission from vehicles, for greenhouse gases such data tend to be scarce. For this reason it is usual to try to establish ratios between the regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases so that the latter can be estimated from the available data of the former. The most usual way to do that is to make such estimation based on a relation between CH4 and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds). In 2006 the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change) published a new version of the guidelines for GHG inventories. The emission ratios between CH4 and THC indicated in that document are in use nowadays to help the inventories development. The aim of this study is to make an update of that ratios, for the Brazilian scenario, based on the data available from new vehicles dynamometers tests, made for the purpose of the type approval processes and also for the production control made by the vehicles manufacturers. 

2013-36-0262 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Suspensão
Resumo:   The development in the mining sector reached its peak sales in 2011. This fact influenced the truck companies to offer the 8x4 vehicle. A high mobility and load capacity machine. In order words, the ratio of payload carried by travel is higher than most machines for this application. The scope of this paper is the validation of the design of front and rear suspension of a vehicle 8X4 off-road for mining. The main subject of this paper is the increase of load capacity, from 50 tons to 55 tons, in order to meet the market needs. For this, some improvements were made in suspension to increase its rate value and reduce the stresses in the spring. Thereby increasing its load capacity. First we conducted a investigation on a client to characterize its application. Then a study was done in conjunction with the supplier to develop a new suspension that supports new load capacity. With the data collected from tests conducted on the field, virtual assembly analysis and structural analysis it was possible to prove that there are improvements in the project.

2013-36-0263 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: TI - Tecnologia da Informação
Título do Paper: Cooperative Start and Stop at Traffic Lights: An Application of Inter-vehicle Networks
Resumo: Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present a preliminary study of the inter-vehicle communication advent. At the beginning we show a short introduction about inter-vehicle communication, as well as where it may be applied and which benefits could it bring to local traffic. It is also presented a survey with the main technologies used in vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication and their requirements. Following, we propose a model of a specific application for vehicular networks, involving traffic lights. In this model vehicles and traffic lights communicate with each other, under vehicular networks infrastrucutre, in order to perform faster and more efficient start and stop at semaphores. Both cases were simulated by software in order to study the dynamics of the vehicles motion and this paper presents their results and analysis. At the end we wrote some final considerations about the work and suggestions for future efforts.

2013-36-0264 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Transmissões
Título do Paper: Manual transmission helical gear scoring issue - case study
Resumo: Manual transmissions are used in a wide range of automotive applications such as commercial vehicles like trucks, buses and pick-ups as well on passenger car market. On manual transmissions is very common to use helical gears to transmit torque. Some of typical failure modes of these gears are tooth bending, pitting and scoring or scuffing. The objective of this paper is to present a case study of helical gear scoring issue on manual transmission and the design changes implemented in order to solve it. This material also shows the ultimate consequence of scoring problem on gear life and the co-relation of the part heat treatment specification on this failure mode.    

2013-36-0265 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Timing characteristics and message schedule techniques of FlexRay protocol
Resumo: FlexRay network protocol was developed to supply the demands of future automotive embedded systems. Its main premise is to offer high data transfer rates, combined with the required reliability in hard real time systems, which do not tolerate unexpected delays in the transmission of its messages. However, FlexRay requires a complex process of configuration and allocation of its message frames which, if not attended, may compromise the integrity of the systems relied on it. This article has as its goal to identify the main timing characteristics of FlexRay protocol, and present the techniques developed by different researchers to ensure the expected efficiency in the transmission of its messages, both in static and dynamic segments.

2013-36-0266 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: Using THE (MATH) Richards MODEL IN HIGH STRESS BOLTS
Resumo:   With the data collected by lifting of behavior `Force depending on Angular Displacement (Elastic and Plastic Deformation)`, it was possible to determine the mechanical properties such as Yield Strength, Maximum Strength, Strength Tension to a particular stretch in the elastic-plastic, the ductility, tensile strength gradient and resilience bolt in question.   With these same collected data and using the model of Richards also be determined the "parameters Richards` sigmoidal that define the behavior of the experimental values​​, so that those" parameters "can be used in evaluations / dynamic simulations, by Finite Element.  

2013-36-0267 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Resumo: A SOFTWARE PROPOSAL BASED ON DESIGN AXIOMATIC APPLIED INTO AUTOMOBILE ADVANCED ENGINEERING ABSTRACT The largest automobile companies have several corporate, regulatory and customer requirements to integrate into engineering of development. These information need to be split in technical team called disciplines as electrical, chassis, powertrain, etc. The main goal of this splitting process is to facilitate the managing and tracking of the creation and execution of the total vehicle/system. However, the interrelation, complexity and lack of engineer’s know-how of these systems have been creating innumerous issues into development, launch, manufactory and quality. Insufficient dedicated tools, requirement definitions and poor initial programs formulation are some reasons of these issues. It means that the ability applied basic engineering principles and analytical techniques in an automotive engineering context have to be improved.   The design axiomatic is a powerful theory applied into vehicle system and component level to understand the engineering design process, at both, the conceptual and detail levels and to reduce the gap among information systems   This paper shows an example of the simple software based on design axiomatic where it shows the critical gaps among the technical teams (disciplines) that must be tracked into a development more robust and reliable.

2013-36-0270 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: Hydrogen Fuel Cell Transit Bus Technology into a Technical-Economical Perspective
Resumo: Intensive use of fossil fuels in densely populated areas has caused adverse environmental effects in cities all over the world. This has fostered the evaluation of alternative technologies for transit applications, like hydrogen fuel cells - electrochemical energy conversion devices that  operate with zero emission, quieter and with higher efficiencies than internal combustion engines, specially at part load regimes. Transit bus market is particularly well suited to technology innovations because they are i) centrally fueled and maintained, ii) professionally operated on fixed routes and schedules, iii) tolerate weight and volume requirement of new technologies and, finally, whenever necessary, iv) can be subsidized by government. In this scenario, considerable research, development and testing effort has been dedicated to hydrogen fuel cell bus technology, with the engagement of governments and transit authorities, bus industry and operators. Early non hybrid fuel cell transit bus designs were focused in reliability rather than fuel economy, with efficiency penalties and reduced fuel cell lifetime, due to the impossibility of regeneration of kinetic energy and dynamic requirement on the power plant. Moreover, this design required larger fuel cells to supply all the power requirements of the vehicles, with direct effects into life cycle costs. In the light of these problems, fuel cell bus designs have evolved to hybridized concept, with fuel cell operating associated with energy storage devices/buffers (batteries, supercapacitors or both), with the possibility of recovery of part of kinetic energy and, hence, improvement of efficiency and fuel cell lifetime. Some state of art hybrid fuel cell drivetrains use a low power fuel cell working in steady state condition, recharging traction batteries, also recharged by the grid, in the so called plug-in configuration. This enables smaller fuel cells, working in a controlled regime, which means lower capital expenditures, higher efficiency and, hence, lower lifetime costs. However, when compared to non hybridized architecture, hybrid systems still present low availability, related to problems in power electronics and energy storage systems, as opposed to the fuel cell itself. Fortunately, ongoing industry effort to optimization of hybrid diesel electric concept, which uses the same electric hybrid architecture, will help to address this hurdle. To reach commercialization of Fuel Cell Transit Buses, few barriers need to be surpassed, with the optimization of  i) fuel cell durability, ii) initial purchase cost, and iii) hydrogen production and delivery technology. On a Total Cost of Ownership – TCO perspective, current fuel cell buses are three to four times more costly than modern diesel buses. This additional cost is not acceptable to bus operators, unless with heavy public subsidies. This means that much has to be done in terms of technological improvement and increased volume production scale, to achieve, in the medium term, a reasonable TCO that would make fuel cell buses competitive with well established technologies on environmentally sensitive areas. This work is supposed to present an analysis of technical and economical features and performance of fuel cell bus technology, with a survey of the main barriers that need to be surpassed, and an overview of some ongoing fuel cell bus projects.

2013-36-0271 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: TI - Tecnologia da Informação
Título do Paper: Framework for the development of automotive embedded systems based on a unified platform of hardware and software
Resumo:   In recent years the proportion of electronic technology present in automotive systems is increasing, representing something about 20 to 30% of the total production cost of a vehicle. The reason for this growth is the constant need to find optimal solutions to improve vehicle´s performance in terms of driveability, safety, environmental impact, operational reliability, among others. In particular, the role of embedded systems (dedicated control modules) is becoming fundamental to achieve these goals. Moreover, the amount of effort required (man-hours) for the design and implementation of software for automotive applications is growing exponentially, while the development cycles are becoming each time shorter. This paper presents a study about a development framework for automotive embedded systems, which include the following objectives:  1) Propose a unified platform of hardware and software on which work will be performed for the development of embedded automotive applications;  2) Define a systematic development process, based on test management;   3) Evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, through a case study of the development of a vehicle tracking module. The proposed development framework is grounded on the concept of reusability and modularity, being based on the following strategies: Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE); multiplatform coding environment; Integration and Validation tests policy, based in the Pairwise Testing technique.  It is also studied the use of the proposed framework in hardware reuse among several applications, since the software is componentized from the base layer up to the final application.

2013-36-0272 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Some considerations about longitudinal “slip” on car tires
Resumo: Traditionally, the relationship between the wheel angular velocity and the translational velocity of its center is defined by an empirical “slip factor”, obtained from experiments. This text tries to understand what in fact occurs to the tire in regular ride conditions, and suggests a theoretical expression for the calculation of that “slip factor”, exclusively from the tire basic characteristics.

2013-36-0276 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: STUDY ON CORROSION RESISTANCE OF organometallic coating used in automotive fuel tanks
Resumo:     In the last years, the automotive industries have sought alternatives to minimize environmental impacts and to suit the demands of the new market that values ​​sustainability of industrial processes. Among the proposed alternatives appeared automotive fuel tank with coating organometallic that associates with the advantage of not being permeable to hydrocarbons (minimizing the losses by evaporation during its life), not using heavy metals, they do not need to be painted after stamping and they are 100% recyclable. This study aims to compare the corrosion resistance of automotive metal tanks coated with organometallic and automotive metal tanks coated with tin in contact with hydrated ethanol fuel and gasoline. The technique chosen was the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) that provides resistance to polarization of the tanks in contact with these fuels indicating the efficiency of the coatings. To complement the work will be analyzed some physico-chemical parameters most suitable for evaluating the corrosive power of fuels: pH, electrical conductivity and corrosiveness to copper.

2013-36-0277 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Transporting children in motor vehicles: dimensional variation of Child restraint systems and installation difficulties compromise security.
Resumo: The main role that seats retention play is to protect the lives of children. Studies show that the correct use of child safety seat decreases between 50% and 90% the risk of serious injury. Use the equipment only became an obligation for children under 10 years in Brazil in 2010. Inmetro created in 2001 a program of voluntary certification for the product. The child seat must be installed properly, otherwise it can not provide adequate protection when the vehicle suddenly braking or suffer a collision. It was found that there is a large dimensional variation between the chairs of various manufacturers such variation becomes even more significant when comparing normalized by ECE16 feedback. We performed the assembly seats for children from various manufacturers on a vehicle whose popular features of seat belts this vehicle meets the parameters of ECE 16. It will ableto to see through this study what impact this change in dimensional relationship with the installation of seats and the module of this variation compared with the template provided in the European standard ECE 16. This study was necessary since the Inmetro not perform the installation of the chairs on which the vehicle may leave consumers dissatisfied because the dimensional outside the specified can result in improper installation of the harness on the vehicle. We will also work in the evaluation of the use of Isofix is setting a new standard for the installation of child restraint devices, which is being adopted by vehicle manufacturers in several countries.

2013-36-0280 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Suspensão
Título do Paper: Fuzzy Model for Semi-Active Suspension Vehicle
Resumo:   The vehicle suspension system, besides being responsible for sustaining the vehicle contributes to passenger comfort and vehicle stability. The suspension is basically composed of a set of spring and damper and acts as a filter that minimizes the impacts of contact of the wheels with the ground imperfections. This study aims to analyze technical suspension passive and semi-active, through a computer simulation that emulates the behavior of a real suspension model ¼ of the vehicle. In ¼ vehicle model is considered only the suspension system of one of the wheels and a quarter of the mass applied on it. For the suspensions active and semi-active strategies were applied respectively on /off and fuzzy logic. The model of semi-active suspension based on fuzzy logic used has a small number of six rules. The input excitations applied in the model of the suspension approaches represent actual imperfections soil like rocks and holes. For computer simulation were two types of excitation input signal amplitude step with the type of 0,02 m and a slight boost of 0,1 m with duration of 0,1 s. The techniques were compared and analyzed by computer simulation. The on/off active suspensions and fuzzy semi-active showed better results when compared to the result of the suspension under passive-excitation step and impulse at the input. Simulation results show the improved performance of semi-active suspension with fuzzy logic in relation to others. This result means that the chassis of the vehicle will experience less vibration with fuzzy semi-active suspension, so there is no need to add more rules for smoothing their response. The mathematical tool used for simulation and analysis of the suspensions is made ​​using the software MATLAB ®.

2013-36-0282 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: ELVA- Innovative Architectures for Next Generation Electric Vehicles
Resumo: The ELVA project (Advanced Electric Vehicle Architectures), funded by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme and formed by a European consortium of seven partners, has developed architectures specifically designed for electric vehicles over the past two and a half years. It is coordinated by the Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika) of RWTH Aachen University. Applus+ IDIADA is part of this consortium, working along with Volkswagen, Renault, Centro Richerche Fiat (CRF), Continental and the Swedish Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre (SAFER).   The main objectives of the ELVA project are: To generate, investigate and analyse innovative design concepts for EVs To deliver a wide range of advanced modular architectures that enable the same level of safety as today’s best known practices To minimize weight, maximize energy efficiency, optimize ergonomics and space at affordable costs with good levels of comfort and performance To deliver best practices and evidence based design rules for modular lightweight and safe architectures specifically for EVs The project was characterized by a strong interaction between all partners to achieve the design objectives. Three concepts were developed in parallel and in iterative design loops, considering all the time that these vehicles must be created from zero, i.e. no modification of existing platforms is used. The full process was then documented and summarized for designers to have information in the form of experience based best practices, profiting the new liberties in design that fully electric vehicles provide. A special interactive design tool was defined, where the main attributes of an electric vehicle are associated providing valuable tips on what are the cause and effect of modifying each variable. During the first phase of the project the requirements for electric vehicles in the year 2020 and beyond were created. This information was obtained via customer surveys and expert opinions. Immediately afterwards, a design contest was setup to obtain three winner ideas of how a vehicle in 2020 should look like. These three winner concepts were then used by each of the participating OEMs (VW, Renault and CRF) to start with the development of the cars. Once each partner selected a concept, an intensive collaborative and interactive work began. The chassis, the powertrain and the body were designed with the support of IDIADA, Continental and IKA respectively. All the work was carried out within two design loops, where the different results were matched together and evaluated and if necessary re-worked to achieve a successful final result.   The interactive design tool was created using the association of variables that were the result of the previous work. The content of the tool can be accessed by engineers and designers, where the user can modify or request different values for the most important elements of an electric vehicle and learn about the effects in other aspects they impose and receive the best or advised practice. The results are given in graphical form, so that the user has a complete overview of how all elements of the vehicle interact with each other.

2013-36-0296 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Resumo: Regarding fuels research and development, some preliminary studies – low cost and short time – can be conducted before the traditional engine tests - more expensive and time consuming. Therefore, experimental apparatus, such as a rapid compression machine (RCM) and specific methodologies, such as imaging techniques, are very useful in order to simulate engine combustion with simplicity, agility and flexibility, reducing development time and costs. Imaging techniques allow flame front propagation and ignition delay analysis, which are important parameters to understand fuel performance in engines and also to improve fuel modeling in engine simulation softwares. A RCM was adapted to operate in a spark ignition engine mode. It was used to obtain high-speed photos of flame propagation and ignition delay. Contour plots of the flame front profiles were obtained in successive frames to analyze the flame development with gasoline-ethanol blends. Based on a software code, it was determined the flame size in each frame. The flame area, in squared centimeters and the frame ratio, in frames per second, were previously established. Then, it was possible to calculate the propagation speeds, in centimeters per second.  The results were compared to published propagation speed data.

2013-36-0297 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Optimization flow on innovation project using statistical tools in conjunction with theoretical formulation
Resumo: The waste related to trial & error strategy in innovation projects can have negative effect on the competitiveness, due to launch delay and quality loss. In this scenario, the application of statistical tools proposed by six-sigma methodology, in conjunction with theoretical formulation, may represent a competitive advantage on the development of innovative solutions. This paper aims to show the optimization flow used on the innovation project related to the electrical terminal region developed for cable attachment by resistance welding, as well as the knowledge and quality gains obtained during the process.

2013-36-0298 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: - Comparative CFD study of outside rearview mirror removal and outside rearview cameras proposals on a current production car
Resumo: This study refers to the Computational Fluid Dynamics, demonstrating a comparative between the drag coefficient and the frontal area of a current production car with the same values obtained from a conceptual proposal of removing the outside rearview mirrors of this same vehicle. Both cases were simulated in a virtual wind tunnel with moving ground and rotating wheels condition at speed of 100 kph, aiming to represent the best way a car moving on a highway. The main objective of this paper is improving the efficiency of automotive vehicles by replacing the current outside rearview mirror for cameras placed in smaller structures. The first simulation showed that by removing the outside rearview mirrors both the frontal area of the car and the drag coefficient, which has direct influence on fuel economy calculation, are smaller compared to current solution. As a complement for the study, two additional cases presenting alternatives on the camera positioning were simulated in similar condition of the study presented first and the drag coefficient, velocity path lines, pressure and wake were compared, demonstrating the performance of each case.

2013-36-0300 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Shock Tube for Combustion Analysis of Biofuels
Resumo: A burning process in a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is very important to know the maximum temperature of the gases, the speed of combustion, the ignition delay time of fuel and air mixture exact moment at which ignition will occur. The auto industry has invested considerable amounts of resources in numerical modeling and simulations in order to obtain relevant information about the processes in the combustion chamber and then extract the maximum engine performance, control the emission of pollutants and formulate new fuels. This study aimed to general construction and instrumentation of a shock tube for measuring shock wave. As specific objective was determined reaction rate and ignition delay time of ethanol doped with different levels of additive enhancer cetane number. The results are compared with the delays measured for the ignition diesel and biodiesel. A shock tube is a metal tube in which a gas at low pressure and a high pressure gas are separated by a diaphragm. This diaphragm when it breaks in predetermined conditions, produces shock waves moving the high pressure chamber known as a compression chamber or driver chamber to the low pressure chamber known as expansion or Driven. Were obtained in testing the ignition delay times Ethanol additive, diesel and biodiesel, and also measured the propagation velocity of the shock wave direct and reflected.

2013-36-0301 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Transmissões
Título do Paper: Test procedure for estimation of internal loads in a sequential gear shift system
Resumo: In a transmission, the gear shift system is a part of extremely importance, being the responsible for controlling how and when the gear shifts occur. In sequential gear shifting systems, there are many design options that can be used for the development of such systems, but one of the most commonly used, due its simple implementation, is through a shift drum. However, due to the constant pursuit for optimization required by the market, even highly reliable systems must always be studied in order to obtain more efficient solutions, either by reducing costs, improving performance or making the system better adapted for the application. In order to do so, it is necessary to know the loads that are acting on the components in order to properly design the system for the application. This paper presents a simple test procedure in order to determine the loads acting on a sequential gear shift system applied to small motorcycles. With the results of such tests, it is possible to obtain parameters which, with the appropriate calculation tools, can help in designing new gear shift systems.

2013-36-0302 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: The Inovar-Auto Program and its influences on the dual fuel engines concepts based in diesel cycle
Resumo: Brazilian government has started an incentive program for innovation and consolidation of the vehicles productive chain called INOVAR-AUTO. Many companies in the automobile industry are engaged in meeting the program targets that has a main scope in supporting the OEM’s technology development, innovation, safety, environmental protection, energy efficiency and quality by providing taxes benefits for industrialized products. Considering this scenario, this paper will address the technological innovations applied in commercial vehicles segment focusing on dual fuel engines, a system operated by the injection of gas and diesel. Keywords: INOVAR-AUTO, Technology, Diesel Engine

2013-36-0309 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: Finite Element Method Limitation for Natural Frequencies Determination of Automotive Components
Resumo: Engine downsizing is the use of a smaller engine in a vehicle that provides the power of a larger one. It is the result of car manufactures attempting to provide more efficient vehicles by adding modern technologies, for instance, turbochargers, direct injection and variable camshaft. The smaller engine is also lighter and provides torque and power with similar performance to a much larger engine. However, the downsizing technique may lead to undesirable vibration effects on the driveline, such as structural damaging, vibration fatigue failure and extra noise. All these issues are related to natural frequencies investigation and they are often determinated through the finite element method together with experimental tests during the product development phase. This work presents the finite element method limitation for natural frequencies determination of automotive components and a possible solution for the issue.

2013-36-0310 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Experimental study for the virtual and physical behavior of external trim component in frontal impact test caused by the water in a street partly flooded.
Resumo: Abstract: The rainy season in Brazil brings a significant increase in the incidence of failures and repairs on automotive components of external trim. The objective of this work is to establish a correlation between the results obtained through experimental tests and those obtained through virtual calculations, analyzing the behavior of components made of plastic in a vehicle when exposed to efforts from frontal impact, at a given speed, in a partially flooded transit route. In the methodology used, the variables collected in test track and the data of the physico-chemical properties of the materials involved obtained in the laboratory, were used as parameter to virtual simulation of the event. The final correlation aims at a better understanding of the efforts associated with the phenomenon, to do better design future projects, whose the main focus is the performance of the component.   Key words: Dynamic Tests, polymers and materials.

2013-36-0312 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: Air Intake Cushioned Anchoring Design Optimization
Resumo: The internal combustion engine air intake manifold is subject to continuous dynamic excitation due to unbalanced firing sequence and alternated movement of the pistons. An elastic anchoring for the intake manifold of Iveco’s new bus was developed based on two criteria: 1. increase the natural frequency of the system to avoid coupling with engine’s NEF 6 idle input and 2. minimize the vibration transmitted to the chassis. In order to solve this duality an optimization algorithm was used to fit cushion stiffness to both requirements. The system behavior is evaluated virtually in frequency domain through FRFs and its modal mode shapes and natural frequencies (eigenvectors and eigenvalues) extracted with Lanczos method.

2013-36-0313 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Ethanol-Powered Combustion Experimental Study in a Rapid Compression Machine
Resumo:   Nowadays, many researches are being carried out to replace the diesel by alternative fuels. The biodiesel and the ethanol are strong candidates for this purpose. The experimental study of the combustion of biofuels in engines, however, is not an easy task, because due to the large differences between the properties of the new fuels and the conventional diesel, radical changes may be needed in current engines, developed specifically for the fossil fuel. So, the experimental study of ethanol compression ignition (CI) combustion is not easy to be obtained in conventional engines. Therefore, some experimental apparatus, such as a rapid compression machine (RCM), are useful to conduct this kind of study. This paper describes the RCM adaptations made in order to run CI combustion tests using Ethanol-Powered (ED95) and Diesel (S50) for different compression ratios and injection timing. The RCM was equipped with a high pressure common-rail diesel injection system, a piezoelectric sensor, its amplifier and a high speed camera. The idea is to use the results obtained with this system in the future to adapt engines and make correlations with engine tests. The main objective is to develop new technologies to guide the design of new engines and new fuel formulation, quickly, reducing the time and costs in the development process. The results show the behavior of combustion with varying the compression ratio and the injection timing. The moment of injection associated with higher compression ratios allows the optimization of the combustion process, increasing thermal efficiency, thus reducing emissions of exhaust gases.

2013-36-0314 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: Ignition timing as a strategy to reduce spark-ignition engine emissions in the cold phase
Resumo: The controled emissions limits defined to passenger cars are becoming very stringent. So, the first minutes of the emissions test cycles gained importance. This work deals with an strategy to reduce the emissions of HC, CO and NOx in the cold phase of the test cycle, while the engine and catalizator are cold. Leaving the engine, the exhaust gases pass through a tree way catalyst to reduce controlled pollutant gases, but the catalyst is effective only above 300 oC (the so-called light-off temperature). When the catalyst is not hot enough, the gases pass through the catalyst without any beneficial effect. In modern engines, most of the HC emissions occurs in the cold phase; then, reduce this pollutant in the cold phase is the main objective of the adopted strategy. But also significant amounts of CO e NOx are formed during this phase and this must also be considered. The strategy adopted in this work is to retard the ignition timing, so the exhaust gases leave the engine hotter, reducing the time to increase the catalyst temperature and, as a consequence, reducing the time to attain the light-off temperature. This strategy was implemented in a passenger car engine, which was tested according to Brazilian Code ABNT NBR 6601. The obtained results proved this strategy is viable and can reduce the cold phase emissions

2013-36-0315 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Meio-Ambiente
Título do Paper: Environmental Qualification management in Productive and Non-Productive.
Resumo: Environmental Qualification management in Productive and Non-Productive.   Development Suppliers of environmental tool as concept VDA 6.1/6.3 (quality), for qualifying Environmental management activity in Productive and non-productive Suppliers, to minimize potential environmental risks for the company, protecting it from the following threats:   Loss of image as sustainable and environmentally responsible company, due to the link with the environmental scandal in the supplier being co-responsible; Fines of $ 50,000 .00 to .00 50,000,000, as Federal law 9605/98 given to the company responsible for the environmental deviation, this includes who hired the bypass generator (co-responsible); Supplier be embargoed by the environmental agency, resulting in the direct impact of stop in the production line.   The gains for the Organization are:   Standardization of information, generating faster results and reliable; Better database to the senior management in the decision making; Optimization of the process of environmental audit in suppliers; The reports go on to add more value for both the supplier and the company: Management result aligned with VDA 6.1/6.3 methodology, facilitates the understanding of those involved; Ensuring greater control at the source of potential deviations; 100% mapping of environmental hazards.

2013-36-0318 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Variable valve timing and its effects on performance of a spark-ignition engine
Resumo: Engine efficiency is directly related with CO2 emissions (GHG) and is increasing nowadays. This  growing concern with environment and efficient use of fuels induces the automotive industry to seek the increase the efficiency of all engine systems. Recently, Brazilian Government instituted new Automotive rules (the so-called Inovar Auto), which will demand the accomplishment of reduction of fuel consumption goals. Valve timing system is directly linked to all principal performance parameters, like power, torque and fuel consumption and its study can bring benefits to overall engine performance. Ths work presents the study of the effects of some valve timing parameters on engine performance, seeking the best timings for different engine operation conditions. A thermodynamic simulation model was applied to an engine cylinder in order to explore optimization possibilities for valve timing for two extreme engine speeds, under full load. The effects of valve timing on residual gas fraction, volumetric efficiency, pumping work and mean indicated pressure were  analysed. The use of a thermodynamic simulation model enables exploratory studies to be conduced with low cost and time, with the identification of interesting valve timing strategies. This can direct efforts and reduce experimental work needs and costs.

2013-36-0319 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Resumo: The use of biodiesel as alternative to fossil fuel for light duty CI engines to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was widely investigated. However, poor stability of biodiesel – diesel mixture limits the use of biodiesel to low volume concentrations. This paper presents the results concerning the use of a novel fuel additive package containing antioxidant (AS), pour-point depressant (D) and biocide (Bi) with the aim to increase the quality and amount of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blends. Some of the goals are linked to the degradative effects due to free radicals oxidation, contamination by water and microorganisms. The interaction between two different additive packages and two biodiesel (soybean and rapeseed) - diesel blends at 20% in volume was investigated. Optical studies have been performed to characterize the spatial and temporal spray evolution both in a high pressure quiescent vessel and in an optically-accessible single-cylinder 2-stroke CI engine. Soot and NOx emissions were measured at the exhaust. Physicochemical tests showed that the stability of diesel-biodiesel blends was strongly influenced by the use of the two packages of additives. The mixture containing the biocide "P" (B20SMEASDP) was approximately 87.33% more stable than the same sample containing the biocide "C" (B20SMEASDC). Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in term of engine efficiency, fuel injection rate and spray penetration. Hence, it was demonstrated that use of additive package increased the durability of the blends without exhaust emission and performance penalties.

2013-36-0324 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Resumo: Brazil has been a leader for the past 30 years in the development and commercialization of vehicles powered by ethanol, which contributes significantly to maintain the basic Brazilian energy less dependent on fossil fuels, but its usage was restricted to small vehicles with focus on gasoline replacement. Whereas the use of diesel fuel has significant impact on emission of greenhouse gases when it is compared to the whole production cycle of the alternative fuels (“well to wheel” analysis), these fuels have been the focus of studies, applications, federal government programs, and also the private sector, such as bio-diesel, sugar cane diesel, ethanol with additive for diesel cycle and diesel-gas Dual-Fuel. This paper will detail the development a high efficient engine fueled with 100% hydrated ethanol capable to achieve up to 42% of break efficiency, similar to a diesel efficiency running on Otto cycle. The engine was developed based on 12 liters of displacement diesel longblock and achieved peak power of 350 kW @ 1800 rpm. This development was base on computational numeric simulation, materials and specific components development, turbo matching and engine control calibration. The project main focus was durability, performance and efficiency, as a result it was achieved the same level of diesel engines.

2013-36-0325 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Suspensão
Título do Paper: Vehicle drift analysis using functional simulation and statistical tools
Resumo: Lateral drift of a vehicle while driving straight ahead it has been one major concern of the OEMs in the South America market. Due to its natural way to evaluate and due to different types of roads in the market (roads with different type of bank angle), a vehicle with small tendency to drift certainly will be seen an improvement in  (certain to show) customer complain. Since such a vehicle dynamics property is very sensible to small variation of some parameters, like road bank angle, alignment setting, etc,  sometimes the subjective evaluation tends to become worthless due to the parameters control. In this scenario, simulation becomes important. As it is a quite difficult subject, since has big influence of small parameters variation, the usage of statistical approach allow to obtain better understanding of the phenomenon.   This work presents a statistical approach for simulation based on DOE analysis and Monte Carlo method. As an exercise of the method a functional CAE vehicle dynamics model was specific created to evaluate the likelihood to meet a given target under variation of certain parameters. The DOE was firstly carried out in order to rank the major impacting parameters and, finally, the Monte Carlo analysis was carried out with the main five parameters identified. The method has proven to be a powerful design tool. One verified advantage of the method is itsoutcome, not normally obtained from conventional deterministic CAE simulations: the likelihood of achieving a specific target and the design robustness to inputs variation.

2013-36-0326 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Resumo: The purpose of this study was to develop a body of a competition vehicle, the sports prototype category. This category has the aerodynamics as one of its main features, so much of their good performance depends on your body. The project proposal was generating an initial 3D CAD geometry, based on studies and existing vehicles. After analysis of the initial model, modifications were proposed in order to achieve better results for a competition vehicle. The simulation of the airflow over the 3D model of the body was performed in three steps: generation of geometry in SolidWorks CAD program, discretization of the model and the limited domain around it, using mesh generation program ICEM, and resolution of the flow in program of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), ANSYS (FLUENT). The turbulence model used in this work has two equations, which models the turbulent kinetic energy k and dissipation ε. The studies allowed the observation that modification brought improvements in aerodynamic performance (high negative lift, without significant increase in drag coefficient), and also some proposals which showed no gain or even hurt the features of the model.

2013-36-0329 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: The impacts of Electric/Electronic evolution on vehicles batteries capacity dimension.
Resumo:   The use of batteries in automotive vehicles is a topic discussed since the twenties of the last century, and it is an interest subject in several studies aiming to increase its efficiency and to attend the test parameters that are currently defined by the ABNT NBR 15940 standard technique. Even nowadays it is difficult to reach a single opinion on the best battery capacity to be used in a particular class of vehicles, which have each one its own characteristics of electrical consumption. This choice is mostly done in a generalist way and is based on experience with previous vehicles and durability tests. However, an increase use of Electrical/Electronic systems in commercial vehicles, make the criteria for choosing the optimal capacity of the batteries a point to be reassessed. The goal of this paper is to present the new factors and parameters that influence and complicate the definition of the ideal batteries capacity for commercial vehicles.

2013-36-0330 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Study of the Correlation between analytical and empirical tests for the design of electrical cables for automotive vehicles.
Resumo:   The correct dimensioning of an electrical vehicular system is a clear challenge and it is in constant discussion in industry as new materials for insulation, mechanical protection and thermal dissipation are developed and applied in an increasingly dynamic. To overcome these challenges, it is an evident fact the increasing need of the implementation of support tools that are based on analytical methods, making the design more secure, agile and with lower costs. The development of methods bases on different nominal characteristics of cables and thermal transfer data supplied by manufacturers. Likewise, the need for practical tests to see how these models have become reliable and correlate are needed, to make the deviations between the measured and calculated values, the smallest possible. This paper shows the results of thermal conductivity tests involving different cables and their correlation with numerical methods proposed.

2013-36-0333 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: Heater and defroster vehicle system performance improvements using auxiliary devices
Resumo: The main target of this article is presenting, through vehicle level wind tunnel tests, performance improvements on the heater and defrost systems using auxiliary devices applied on the automotive industry, as rear floor ducts and auxiliary heater, which will be the focus of this paper. Nowadays, as the air-conditioning is no longer just seen as an optional feature, but really needed for warm countries, heating system also becomes necessary for those countries which present low ambient temperatures and even, in most of cases, sub-zero temperatures. There are also some regions around the world at certain times of the year, the driver will need to use defroster system because of snow and ice accumulated or built it up at the windshield and side windows in those critical days. Therefore, the automotive companies have invested on the climate control systems, mainly due to product development increasingly global. For those regions that require better heater and defroster performance due to more aggressive weather conditions and/or homologation requirements, such as China, it can be applied auxiliary devices in order to accelerate and increase the performance. A device used for engine that present low heat rejection is the so-called "PTC heater" – Positive Temperature Coefficient – which is basically an electric resistance installed on the heater core within the ventilation system (HVAC) in order to increase the discharge air temperatures on the outlets and ducts and, consequently, an average interior temperature increase as well, providing a defrost system performance improvement and also the overall vehicle comfort through the heating system. Another device largely used in cold areas, in order to provide this overall vehicle comfort, in particular to the 2nd and 3rd rows, are the additional rear ducts installed on the floor further helping to provide air flow behind the vehicle, since the hot air is less dense and does not easily come up to the rear foot level without these auxiliary ducts. There are a lot of complaints about discomfort on the passenger`s feet over cold countries. In addition to the concepts and test results, it will be also subject of this study, the advantages (performance) and disadvantages (cost, technical and package limitations) of the usage of these auxiliary devices.

2013-36-0335 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: Vehicle Dynamics: a new way of understanding and optimizing vehicle performance.
Resumo: Vehicle performance evaluation is one of the most important phases of a new vehicle development. Factors like start ability, grade ability and top speed are noticed and desired by drivers, therefore, they are very important for the final product. Evaluations of vehicle performance have been largely benefited by the use of numerical simulation programs. MAN Latin America (ML) uses those tools to evaluate the performance of its vehicles (trucks and buses) having very good results. However, as those programs are normally “closed code”, it is difficult to understand the physical behavior behind results. For this reason, this paper presents an excel macro, developed by ML engineering team, for automatically calculation of parameters like start ability, grade ability, top speed as well as generation of saw tooth graphs, among others. This macro, named Vehicle Dynamics, is based on classical concepts from statics and vehicle dynamics, which makes it plain to be understood by engineers. Additionally, since Vehicle Dynamics is an “open macro”, it is easy to modify parameters like clutch engagement rpm or maximum rpm to the purpose of fully understanding vehicle behavior.  In order to make Vehicle Dynamics faster as well as more friendly, its interface was created in Visual Basics. As a consequence, it was possible to include forms as well as commands in order to make it faster data insertion, and in this way, it was possible to include all gear box models that are used in ML vehicles as well as tires, rear axle ratios, among others. It is important to point out that ML portfolio contains more than 80 vehicles, each one with a different combination of tire/gear box/rear axle, and, the tendency is enlarging this portfolio more and more. In this way, the development of Vehicle Dynamics macro makes immediate and confident the evaluation of those new products, in order to achieve the best powertrain match, to optimize vehicle performance and reduce the vehicle tests activities which saved costs and timing regarding vehicles trials. 

2013-36-0336 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: The use of simulations tools for choosing an automated manual transmission for a MAN heavy truck.
Resumo: Evaluations of fuel consumption and vehicle performance have been largely benefited by the use of simulation programs. MAN Latin America (ML) uses those tools to evaluate the performance of its vehicles (trucks and buses) having very good results. This paper presents the use simulation programs to compare the behavior of a heavy duty truck equipped with automated manual transmissions in two configurations: the original, similar to European configuration with 12 gears, and a proposal with 16 gears. The main advantages of automated manual transmissions, compared to manual ones are: easier truck driving, allowing the driver to focus on driving, and reduced fuel consumption, because it is possible to adjust gear changes for an optimal range of the engine. Additionally, it is important to point out that the original configuration is world-wide used and in this way, the present study was fundamental to decide whether choosing the new proposal would bring the Brazilian option any advantages. The comparative study was divided into two phases: fuel consumption evaluation, in which fuel consumption is simulated in a standard route, and vehicle performance evaluation in which parameters like star ability, grade ability, maximum velocity and acceleration were evaluated. In each phase, two similar trucks were evaluated: one of them equipped with a 12 gears transmission and another one equipped with a 16 one. In order to evaluate fuel consumption and acceleration, it was used AVL Cruise, a commercial simulation program. On the other hand, Vehicle Dynamics, a macro elaborated by ML engineering team, was used to evaluate star ability and grade ability. A comparison between numerical and experimental results showed good correlation, as a result, the simulation was validated. From the present study, it was showed that the 16 gears transmission was the best alternative for the Brazilian application. Finally, it was verified that simulations tools helped ML to improve the heavy duty truck driveline matching towards to performance and fuel efficiency, reducing the vehicle tests activities which saved costs and timing regarding vehicles trials.  

2013-36-0341 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: Behavior of batteries according the energy flow in electric vehicle
Resumo: The technological evolution of electric and hybrid vehicles is significant, which are considered the future for the automobile industry to mobility sector. Batteries are the main constituent part of these vehicle technology, thus, knowledge of their functioning is a prerequisite for anyone who develops, builds and tests electric and hybrid vehicles. This article reports a study with commercial electric and hybrid vehicles about the behavior of batteries according the energy flow demanded to vehicle propulsion system and refueling batteries by an external source (off board) of electricity or internal (on board - electrical system moto generator and regenerative braking system). A commercial data acquisition equipment was used to monitor parameters like battery’s voltage and current. The laboratory tests were made in chassis dynamometer in accordance with procedures adopted by Brazilian and International standards. Study the batteries’ electrochemical behavior according the energy flow is important to better understanding the system power management in electric and hybrid vehicles, with a view to assessing the batteries state of charge, state of health, efficiency and costs involved, among others, allowing a better understanding about the operation of vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion.

2013-36-0343 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Transmissões
Resumo: Shift Fork design projects have several factors, as material used, fatigue load, peak load, maximum bending, bending symmetry, etc. The bending symmetry is related to fork tips wear, and sleeve tilting. The aim of this paper is to present a case study, for what were generated ​​several models, to obtain a greater bending symmetry. This study was for changing the current shift fork, for a new fork obtained from powder metal technology. CAD models were generated based on the current fork, and submitted to fine elements analysis. Some vehicular tests were also made, to test the initial fork model, and the optimized model, and has shown the positive outcome of the study. 

2013-36-0348 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: Lighting and signaling development for the Brazilian automotive market
Resumo: This article will discuss some aspects related to the development of lighting (headlamps) and signaling (lanterns) serve for the Brazilian market within the framework of normative and legal issue. Having as background a moment of greater concern for quality and safety in auto parts, as attest the INMETRO publication numbers 301 and 361, which among other things include the automotive line filament lamps in the national program of conformity (whose validity date started this year, January 01), then highlight the role that standards have in the development of products that are safe and complementary, we highlight the consequences relating to the trade of products designed and manufactured without the technical support of normative references, consequently, without the necessary legitimacy. So, our approach will be the scope of the Brazilian standards (ABNT- Brazilian Association of technical standards) and laws (CONTRAN- “national traffic Council” resolutions), by integrating mechanisms that both areas provide for the follow-up, since in the case of headlamps and tail lamps the CONTRAN resolutions include automotive performance requirements (photometric and colorimetric), as do the ABNT standards. The main issue outlined by these factors, which this article seeks to encompass and explore, is the possibility of developing with quality and safety in the wake of the national automotive lighting. What the strength offered by these legal and regulatory mechanisms for product development? What are the difficulties correlated to this context? What`s the impact from the current lack of headlamps and lanterns automotive certification (for Brazilian mechanisms)? The methodology to be employed if run through by a verbal confrontation of Brazilian regulations and laws, in the context of product development, extracting from this analysis some of the typical consequences to think about the of engineering project routine of the Brazilian autoparts: develop new technologies not yet covered by the abovementioned textual basis, export or import products, develop products for different markets and face competition from counterfeit goods.  

2013-36-0349 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Computational Modeling of Internal Combustion Engines: Influence of compression ratio in the indicated performance curves
Resumo:              This paper describes the development of a computational simulation model for internal combustion engines, with spark ignition, powered by ethanol which include the combustion with finite duration, the instantaneous heat transfer and the intake and exhaust processes. The simulation model calculates the thermodynamic properties of each element involved in the process at every discretized instant of the motor cycle using as input the data related to the engine and to its desired operating regime which are fed by the user.                           The simulation model has as a result the temperature and the instantaneous pressure profiles inside of the combustion chamber as a function of the crankshaft angle  in the range of one cycle. Besides that, the algorithm includes some variation fields of certain parameters of the engine project to evaluate the influence of each one of these parameters in its performance.

2013-36-0353 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Título do Paper: Study of Unmanned Supersonic Aircraft Configuration
Resumo: This work presents a comparative study of aerodynamic and performance characteristics of relevant examples of low wing-loading aircraft that have been built and flown between 1890 and 1990. As wing-loading is related to speed, all the configurations analyzed are low speed aircraft. Considering the years before 1910, it is possible to find some good examples of these designs: the first glider to perform controllable flights, the first manned airplane to perform self-launched powered flights, and the first vehicles to perform practical flights. With the development of the aviation from 1910 on, the aerial vehicles have turned to be progressively heavier and faster. After 1970, the interest for low wing-loading aircraft seemed to have been reborn. Many examples of this type of aircraft have been designed and flown with the boom of the so-called ultralight sport aviation. Another return to the low wing-loading aircraft has occurred few years later:  the solar-powered aircraft and human-powered aircraft, new designs with a very high level of technology. More recently, a third group has appeared, comprised by the low-speed UAV’s (unmanned air vehicles). Regarding the rebirth of low speed, low wing-loading aircraft, through the new applications such as solar-powered airplanes and low speed UAVs, an overall picture of the reduction of required flight power since the first successful aircraft designs is a point of interest. This is the main motivation of this work. To generate this study a set of analysis tools have been developed, which are specifically aimed to low wing-loading aircraft configurations and propulsion. One additional goal of the study is to obtain a consistent reference data basis - by using the developed tools to analyze existing aircraft - prior to use these tools in new, “not built and flown yet”, low wing-loading designs. Two processes of analysis are developed in this work: a metrics to allow fast overall comparison of the different aircraft types and a method to analyze each aircraft in a more detailed way, through three steps which are drag, propulsion and performance. This work, by evaluating several representatives through the same perspective, allows quantifying the improvement attained during one century of the low wing-loading aircraft development. That improvement allowed the human-powered flight and the solar-powered flights after 1970.

2013-36-0355 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Título do Paper: Paragliders Stability Characteristics
Resumo: In this paper it is presented an analysis of the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics of paragliders. Paragliding has become popular in the last three decades and the development of modern paragliders has shown considerable improvements on performance and safety. Such achievements are mostly originated from industry by the many manufactures with years of experience designing paragliders. However, due to the sportive purpose of paragliders, scientific studies on this subject coming from the aeronautical engineering academy are still rare. Therefore, taking in account the lack of specific information about paragliders engineering in the available literature, a dedicate work applying the concepts from classical aeronautical engineering adapted to the specificity of these aircrafts has been developed with the purpose of explain paragliders flight, and specially the relations between flight characteristics and design parameters. One of the most important flight characteristics for paragliders is stability. The stability is, of course, directly related to safety because paragliders are constantly subjected to gusts, thermals and other atmospheric phenomenon disturbing the steady glide. Because paragliders operate at low altitudes they are more susceptible to local atmospheric disturbances, which become more significant due to the low speed range of operation. In this paper it is presented some motion simulations illustrating paragliders response to longitudinal and lateral disturbances; and a deep analysis of the vibration modes observed. It can be shown that paragliders dynamic modes are considerable different from those observed in conventional airplanes stability analysis. Among the many insights to be presented, the following observations should be highlighted: 1-) It can be shown that any flyable paraglider will present positive static longitudinal stability, but it may present poor dynamic stability characteristics, mainly due to the low level of damping in pitching oscillations. 2-) It can be shown that the longitudinal dynamics of paragliders is characterized by the existence of two modes: the short-period and the phugoid, just as conventional airplanes. However, the short-period acts as a quickly damped transient which induces a continuous slowly damped attitude oscillation known as the dominant phugoid. 3-) It can be shown that paragliders presents good lateral-directional stability characteristics due to the efficient roll damping capability. 4-) It can be shown that, due to the occurrence of a roll-spiral coupling phenomenon, the lateral-directional dynamics of common paragliders is characterized by the existence of two modes, the short-period and the lateral phugoid. This last mode substitutes the roll subsidence and the slow spiral movements, usually found in common airplanes, by another oscillatory mode. 5-) It can be shown that the Dutch-roll acts as a quickly damped transient and the lateral phugoid acts as a dominant continuous rolling-yawing oscillation with good handling characteristics.

2013-36-0356 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Intake Manifold Tuning: A methodology to calibration the experimental bench.
Resumo: With the continuous search for more efficient engines and its downsizing, the development of new tools to get it faster and on the targets established by the law, became of high importance to the market competition. As it is known, the intake manifold plays an essential task on an engine`s volumetric efficiency and this significant function has made emerge countless new technologies to improve the air supply thru it. Like Variable Length Intake Manifold for example, among others that are able to contribute with a better efficiency using the dynamic effect which happen inside it. So, this work shows an experimental bench able to characterize intake manifolds under its dynamic flow influence on the engine admission process. The dynamic admission is similar to the acoustic wave phenomena and its efficiency can be measured using a well known parameter called Transmission Loss, which is no more than the power transfer coefficient. In these kinds of measurements there are many source errors and interference which could mess up the results quality. Whereas a good way to measure correctly, like all measurement systems, is to compose a calibration, supported by references that in this work, are the published papers with well known cases, which can be proven analytical or numerically.

2013-36-0358 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Project and experimental validation of a Wrap spring Clutch
Resumo:    Some products require a system that can be able to transmit torque in one direction and decoupling this transmission in the opposite one. These systems are known as free-wheel systems and normally are used to protect electrical and mechanical systems against overload situations. There are many concepts  that can perform this task, including systems that use rollers, sprags, pawls and  friction discs. With the increasing search for solutions to reduce cost and aggregate value to the product, it is necessary to find new options for old functions. One of this, with limited literature available is the Wrap Spring Clutch. This paper will discuss the dimensioning, modeling and simulation by the finite element method and experimental validation of this transmission torque system, showing failure modes that are involved and the correlation between the simulation and the experimental tests carried on test benches.

2013-36-0359 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Chassis e Cabine
Título do Paper: Development of a Fatigue Analysis Methodology Using the Software FEMFAT strain®
Resumo: The aim of this paper is to present a methodology for approval of component that is applied when the first version is tested on a durability track with closed circuit and fails without meeting the approval criteria previously established. This approach was applied in a front stabilizer bar support on commercial vehicles. The full commercial vehicle was modeled in finite element for stress analysis in frame torsional loading. By presenting stress regions near the material`s limit, tests were made on durability track with deformation measurement at the main critical spots. The component has failed in one of the measured spot without reaching the established number of laps for component approval on track. With the deformation measurement signal for one lap at the failure spot, a fatigue analysis using the software FEMFAT strain ® has been made, correlating the obtained damage with the number of laps on track until component failure. An improving proposal for the front stabilizer bar support was modeled in Finite Elements and again torsional loading in the frame was analyzed. With these two stress results, (the one with failure and the new version) it was possible to create a proportionality factor between the stresses verified in the two versions. To exclude the second round of testing in the component design, it was proposed a fatigue analysis with the measurement signal of the failed version corrected by the proportionality factor between the two versions. It is believed that, because of the similarities between geometries, and using the same vehicle for testing, strains found in the second round of testing would be proportional smaller. The fatigue analysis was performed with the one lap deformation signal (corrected by the proportionality factor) and the damage obtained was correlated with the number of laps on the track until new version failure. As the number of laps meets the criteria previously established, the new version was approved. In summary, this paper proposes a component approval methodology using FEMFAT strain ® that requires less testing time on durability track, providing reduction of time and cost in the commercial vehicles development.

2013-36-0367 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: driving cycles characterization for vehicle emissions estimations in urban buses
Resumo:   Driving cycles are essential for vehicle homologation and certification in pollutant emissions and fuel consumption tests. Developing driving cycles which rightly represent real buses operation is fundamental to develop reliable vehicle pollutant emissions estimations. Emissions estimations, as a transport engineering problem, is an important factor to evaluate the contribution of different buses operations conditions to the pollution of a specific region and support the development of public transportation strategies. The main goal of this research is to develop urban buses driving cycles from data collected from an experiment, aiming their application on emissions estimations methodologies. For the driving cycles construction, some different methodologies are presented, focusing on one specific method which uses the VSP concept (Vehicle Specific Power), a variable with strong correlation with vehicle emissions. There were collected data from speed-time variation from buses under urban durability tests, which are running daily on several types of roads within a specific route. Finally, smaller sectors from this whole route were selected to represent different operations conditions to urban buses and then were proposed driving cycles for these segments. 

2013-36-0369 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Resumo: ADVANCES IN NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF IMMERSION QUENCHING AT DIFFERENT POOL TEMPERATURES   R.Kopun1, D.Greif1, D. Zhang2, W.Edelbauer2, R. Tatschl2, L. Škerget3 1 AVL - Advance Simulation Technology d.o.o., Maribor, Slovenia 2AVL List GmBH, Graz, Austria 3 Faculty of Mechanical engineering, University of Maribor, Slovenia   This paper outlines an improved computational methodology to simulate the immersion quenching heat transfer characteristics. Main applicability of the presented method is heat treatment of cast aluminum parts, above all cylinder heads of internal combustion engines. The boiling phase change process between the heated part and a sub-cooled liquid domain is handled by using the Eulerian multi-fluid modeling approach, which is implemented within the commercial computational fluid dynamics code AVL FIRE. While for fluid domain mass, momentum and energy equations are solved in the content of multi-fluid modeling approach, only the energy equation is solved to predict the thermal field in the solid region. For the presented quenching simulation the solid and fluid parts are contained in a single domain. This approach is known as AVL FIRE Multi-material approach, where the surface temperature and local heat transfer coefficients are exchanged after each iteration and no longer after each time step as in AVL ACCI coupling method. Heat transfer model utilizes an empirically correlated heat transfer coefficient, which is changing within different boiling regimes (from film to transition boiling), controlled by the Leidenfrost temperature. Preliminary results of variable Leidenfrost temperature are presented, with additional interfacial forces such as lift and wall lubrication force, which were added in the context of momentum interfacial exchange terms. In the present research, the objective was to compare the simulation results with experimental data for different pool temperatures and different solid part orientations. Temperature measurements along the height of the so-called step plate test piece, featuring different thicknesses along its length, were performed at three different positions. The temperature gradient predicted by the presented model correlate very well with the provided experimental data.   KEYWORDS: Multiphase, CFD, immersion, direct quenching, interfacial forces, Leidenfrost temperature, transition boiling

2013-36-0370 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: Development of production techniques for aerospace titanium alloys
Resumo: Titanium alloys parts are ideally suited for advanced aerospace systems because of their unique combination of high specific strength and superior resistance to many corrosive environments, in addition to excellent composite compatibility. Despite these features, use of titanium alloys in engines and airframes is limited by cost. Therefore, the improvement of processing techniques for titanium alloys production became a trend of the modern metallurgic technology. This work presents results of the microstructural development of Ti-6-Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo alloys produced by arc melting and powder metallurgy processes. These alloys have important applications in aerospace area, in sections exposed to high temperatures. Samples of these alloys were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), Vickers microhardness measurements and density. The results indicate that it is necessary the complete dissolution of beta-stabilizers elements (V and Mo) for total homogenization of the alloys produced by powder metallurgy. In addition, these elements can promote segregation in the ingots produced by arc melting processing.

2013-36-0371 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Autoria: ELOI BOIX
Resumo: Concrete barriers offer significant advantages over other road restraint systems, such as easy installation, lower cost, the possibility of being built in situ avoiding high transport costs, use of recycled materials and delimitation of traffic lanes ensuring no invasion of the vehicles travelling in opposite directions. However, the accidents against rigid concrete elements on the road are common and statistics show that its consequences are often severe, especially for vulnerable users such as motorcyclists and occupants of light vehicles. The BAHORIS project aims to solve the identified gaps and deficiencies in the current technical barriers, developing a universal barrier that offers high protection for all road users with low production and installation costs and environmental friendly, both in its manufacture, as in composition, using elements from recycled materials or use of others with environmental benefits. The simulation of the vehicle impact against deformable barriers has been commonly used for the design of vehicle bodies for years. However, the use of similar procedures to study impacts against road barriers is innovative and presents new different challenges from deformable barriers. The main technological challenge of simulating vehicle impacts against road barriers is based on an accurate characterization of barrier elements and materials such as the locking of the barrier with the ground, the deformation of the materials at high impact speeds, fracture modelling, correct definition of parameters such as friction between the elements that impact with the barrier, or characterization of elements embedded in the concrete as the fibres. On the other hand, vehicle crashes against barriers can last several seconds of real time unlike the frontal crashes last (milliseconds). This requires new calculation settings in order to optimize the use of computing resources to model such long time scales. An essential part of the work is the realization of both the characterization tests as real scale tests, in order to validate the results obtained in the simulations. This paper shows IDIADA’s adaptation of the software commonly used in crash calculations to impacts against concrete barriers to be able to design and develop an innovative barrier design in much faster and with a much lower cost than using traditional design methods. To simulate the barrier in all kind of crash severity conditions, three vehicles (car, truck and coach) were characterized. Analysing the light car (900 kg) behaviour helped to check that the vehicle occupant did not suffer life-threatening injuries while the aim of the simulations performed with heavy vehicles (car (1300 kg and 1500 kg), truck and coach) was to verify the barrier did not allow them to invade the opposite lane. Another essential issue, especially for high containment impacts, was the characterization of the barrier materials used in the simulation. A new kind of tests based on a particular kind of impact tool designed by IDIADA was carried out in order to correlate the material model of the barrier. The testing methodology developed, that substantially reduces the cost of developing a concrete barrier, is also described. This methodology was used to validate the simulations of a vehicle impacting a concrete road restraint system. The results showed a good correlation between the simulations and the experimental results.  

2013-36-0372 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Automated Speed Management of Train Wagons Braking System
Resumo: The mineral wagon discharge system consists of one car dumper, a retarder, where speed is electrical and pneumatically attenuated, and after braking the wagons are directed to the parking lot softly. The wagon retarder has two braking stages, controlled by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), which generates braking pulses, according to the operator selection for appropriate level of braking minimum, average or maximum. The parking railways of empty wagons are formed for seven railways and change keys of railways line or AMV`s. The selection between the railway lines are done by operator through the Digital Control System (DCS) that monitors and interlocks the wagons movement. The tuning of the braking level from retarder sometimes is failed, because there are case where wagons are braking hard, taking to occur "stop short", or little brake, taking strong impact with other wagons already parked. The consequences range from disorders operating expenses faults in wagons and even accident risk with trains. It takes to make a appropriate brake management the carriages leaving the retarder to the speed Ideally, removing the hands of the operator of the responsibility braking. This work aims to propose a new functioning manner, automatically, or treat such information as wagon type, line to be targeted, the amount of wagons already parked features and railway lines in DCS, generating a correct set-point of braking. The speed control is intended to calculate the optimum amount retardants in acting, based on the measured instantaneous velocity of the car through the laser sensor and also in the calculation of the speed reference; ideal for the wagon comes with ultimate speed against other wagons. The determination of braking levels are based on difference between the real time wagon speed and set-point speed, namely, the brake is proportional to this difference and if these values being equal to or is less than the actual speed, no brake is applied. The automation of the parking lines of wagons empty is to manage, without operator action through the DCS, the maximum predetermined wagons each of seven rows of keys and automatic switchover shift means. It has been made simulation on Matlab/Simulink tool with the management strategy implemented with description of components and actions as measurement and calculation of speed, feedback, encoder and brake reference speed, representing the system braking of wagons. The simulation results was accord project specification being possible to validate the management strategy. The search results led to a higher level knowledge of the system to deploy, as well as greater reliability technical/functional deployment since the importance of equipment does not permit errors that may take a break from the production process, until losses Materials with equipment.

2013-36-0373 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: Project Prioritization in Automotive Company applying AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) methodology
Resumo: The aim of this paper is defining a project prioritization method in automotive company by using the AHP methodology (Analytic Hierarchy Process) aligned to the organizational strategic objectives. Currently there is no method of prioritizing engineering projects, indicating that they are prioritized over individual interests or analyzes of individual criteria. There is no interdependency among assessed criteria and neither if those criteria are directly aligned with business goals. An alternative to solve this typical problem is the application of a mathematical model for project prioritization, such as AHP. The AHP was developed in the 70’s by Professor Thomas Saaty at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. The method helps individuals and organizations in making complex decisions, provides a comprehensive and rational procedure for structuring a problem, quantify and represent its elements, relates these elements to the overall goals and identify alternative solutions. For application, first of all, the problem which needs a decision must be decomposed into a hierarchy of criteria, or sub-problems, in order to be easily understandable. The elements of this hierarchy can relate to any aspect of the decision, whether tangible or intangible criteria, measures with good or poor accuracy, easy or difficult understanding, or any other criteria that could be applied for decision. By pairwise comparison, AHP transforms these analysis, empirical sometimes, into measurable values. The decision makers assign weights to each criteria allowing an individual assessment within the defined hierarchy. This conversion capacity of empirical data into mathematical model is the main feature of AHP over other models for comparative analyzes. Next step calculates the chance of each hierarchy element meets the main goal. The higher the probability, the greater the contribution of specific alternative for the main portfolio goal. For this calculation, values ​​are assigned on a scale of 1 to 9, where these figures define the relevance of an alternative over other. After this analysis, it is necessary to check the logical consistency of comparisons. The aim is guarantee that decision makers were consistent in their views. It´s consistent to say that "A" is greater than "B" and "B" is greater than "C", but would be inconsistent saying that "C" is greater than "A". With the hierarchy of criteria and relative weights set, all candidate projects to portfolio is evaluated comparing them by pairwise, across each single criteria and ensuring the consistency rate. After evaluation, it is possible to define the relative weight of each project in each criteria. The final priority is determined by multiplying the relative weights of each criteria with the weight of each alternative, and then, sum up all products of each project and it has the overall ranking of projects prioritization. This ranking determines which projects are more aligned to the goals and can bring greater return to the organization. It is also possible to balance the human resources utilization, reduce development costs and maximize company results.

2013-36-0374 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Improvements on ring pack performance by using PVD coating
Resumo: Technologies focusing fuel consumption and CO2 reduction are being discussed for all car makers worldwide. For the South America it is not different and government initiatives like INOVAR-AUTO are being released in order to enable these solutions for the Brazilian engines. After the introduction of the flex fuel technology, Brazilian passenger car engines are starting to be exposed to other technical challenges, as the increasing of the specific power output (downsizing trend) in order to attend the legislation requirements. The consequence of that is the miniaturization of the components, followed by a more aggressive thermal-mechanical working condition, as well as the reduction of the mechanical losses.   Within this environment, it is expected from the piston ring pack to cope with its functionality, to have a stable performance during its service life and extended durability. CrN-PVD is a coating largely applied to European and Japanese applications, due to its excellent tribological properties, i.e. reduced friction, higher scuffing resistance and higher wear resistance. However, regarding the Brazilian flex fuel engines, which present some special characteristics, CrN-PVD needs to have a special tuning on its recipe in order to provide suitable toughness. This paper will show the current scenario of this technology in the South American market and comparative results among CrN-PVD against the usual ring materials technologies. Attention is required on flex fuel engines and the ring pack performance regarding scuffing, wear and spalling. Particularly for oil control rings it will be presented the friction reduction potential through the application of PVD coating and the design improvements that it enables. This way, the reduction on mechanical losses would come from both material and design in order to contribute on CO2 reduction. Different engine and rig tests are presented to support the conclusions of this paper.

2013-36-0375 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: The influence of application usage conditions in the turbine inlet temperature
Resumo: Turbochargers are used in a wide range of applications, duty cycles and different vehicle usage rates in whole world. As known, the exhaust gas temperature is still a challenge to the turbochargers manufactures once it has a considerable impact in the turbocharger durability and reliability. High temperatures can lead to thermal mechanical stress, which can cause material fatigue. A lot of work has being done by product and combustion engineers to guarantee that temperature limits are under acceptable values. However, there are other factors that are related to the application usage in the field that can contribute to the exhaust gas temperature increase. The objective of this work is to analyze the factors which have the greatest impact on increasing the turbine inlet temperature due to the application conditions. A design of experiment was done in order to evaluate the influence of some common factors found in the field as the potential causes of engine overheating, which are vehicle load, air filter restriction and the incorrect turbocharger wastegate setting. During vehicle tests was possible to observe in which condition the engine presented the highest temperatures and identify what was the parameter that most influence the results.

2013-36-0376 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Resumo: The composites reinforced with natural fibers may be an alternative, technically and economically feasible, compared to use synthetic fibers. So replacing these fibers by natural fibers is a very important opportunity, because this fiber is renewable, biodegradable, inexpensive and cause less environmental impact. The curauá fiber, a bromeliad (Ananas erectifolius LB Smith), is considered large in the Amazon region, its mechanical properties of high strength, low density - capable of giving lightness to the final product - and potential for recycling, is listed for replace the fiberglass used as reinforcement to the plastic in the manufacture of parts with reduced features and detailed, produced by injection molding process, such as cars panel buttons, knobs and hinges. The materials used for manufacturing the polymer composites were curauá fibers acquired commercially from Belém in nature form, and a matrix of polyester resin tereftálica unsaturated and pre-accelerated chosen from one of the proportions of 0.33% (v / v), 1.66% (v / v), 3.33% (v / v) and 5% (v / v) which was initially studied. In the manufacture of composite resin was used in combination with curauá fibers with lengths of 10 mm and a mass fraction of 3.87%, 4.87% and 5.87%. The specimens were manufactured by hand molding using silicone molds, no release and no pressure. The results will be compared with other polymer composites that used natural fibers as reinforcements. Obtained results of tensile strength and density, the fibers curauá respectively 1003 MPa and 1.30 g/cm3. The pure matrix with less curing agent, 0.33% (v / v) showed the best performance among the compositions tested, based on this, this proportion will be used to manufacture composites and the other as a standard for comparison among all series manufactured. The tensile strength of the curauá composites of 10 mm with mass fraction of 3.87% was 23:22 MPa, for composites with mass fraction of 4.87% was 25.12 MPa, and for composites of mass fraction of 5.87% was 29.21 MPa. The mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile test and the surfaces generated were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy in order to correlate aspects of fracture with its mechanical properties. In which the fracture surfaces showed some dominant failure mechanisms such as pull out (tearing of the fibers) and detachment of the fiber matrix.

2013-36-0378 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Development of a Automotive Telemetry System via Mobile Internet
Resumo: The CAN bus (Controller Area Network) is a technology based on signal transmission and information used in automotive, marine and aerospace. Adoption of this technology is due to the security and integrity of the system, speed of communication between sensors, actuators and reduced cost of wiring. The present work aims at studying the implementation of an embedded system for a car telemetry via mobile internet. Raised are technologies available for monitoring and diagnosis in a car, as the standard OBD (On-board Diagnostics) and the protocols used for communication over the various electronic control units (ECUs) present in the car, such as CAN (Controller Area Network ) and J1850. They also studied the technologies of mobile internet connection that are available today and should be used by embedded system. It also addressed the environment where the system is implemented, the software available for support and development of programs necessary for implementing telemetry. Tests are done to determine the system`s behavior.

2013-36-0379 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Characterization and Detection of Detonation Phenomenon
Resumo: This work studies the signals generated from the detonarion phenomenon, which is an instance of abnormal combustion.  The detonation, also known as knock, occurs due to the shock between the flame generated by regular ignition and that generated by an autoignition, the latter caused by extreme temperature and pressure conditions within the combustion chamber, far beyond regular operation. Such a phenomenon limits the engine torque, increases polutants emission and decreases engine’s lifetime. Its detection makes it possible to identify the thresholding conditions under which detonation takes place, which allows for the control system to act upon the engine in order to compensate for, or to avoid it in the subsequent cycles. Besides, there is a particular case that is the flex engines’, in which identifying detonation allows for optimization of the delivered torque. Indirectly, once detonation is detected it may also indicate the kind of fuel in use, without the need for expensive fuel sensors. Initially, inspired by actual detonation signals, a simple mathematical parametric model is adopted for caracterization and emulation of the phenomenon. By doing so, it becomes possible to test several algorithms under controlled conditions. In the sequel, the use of adaptive filters operating as predictors is proposed as a new method to automatic detect the detonation phenomenon. The proposed adaptive detectors are computationally simple, as compared to those in the literature. A possible extension might also lead to a qualitative caracterization of the sensors employed in the signals’ capture. The predictors are trained by the well known LMS and NLMS algorithms, which are robust with respect to finite precision, thus endowing the use of simple and inexpensive processors in practical implementations. Employing adaptive predictors also minimizes the impact of background noise as a byproduct, if it is wide band (e.g., white noise). A detailed  study compares the adaptive detectors allied with power estimators to  other techniques from the literature, in order to validate the advantages and assess the limitations of the new method. Using the aforementioned mathematical model to generate detonation signals, several algorithms are tested under controlled conditions with respect to detection ability, varying the intrinsec parameters of the signals model adopted: amplitude, damping, duration and background noise variance.

2013-36-0380 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Resumo: Um dos grandes desafios da Engenharia Mecânica atualmente é desenvolver ferramentas e métodos que possibilitem o cálculo, cada vez mais apurado, da vida útil de um componente. Hoje muitos métodos existem onde o componente é dimensionado levando em consideração o estado de tensões médio ao qual o mesmo estará submetido durante a maior parte de sua vida em serviço. Contudo, a imensa maioria dos equipamentos não funciona sob um rígido regime de tensões, e sim sob um estado que pode alternar várias situações de solicitações, variando da tração à compressão, amplitudes flutuantes de deformação e carga, modos de carregamento, entre outros. Assim, um método de predição de vida útil que deseje ser preciso deve no mínimo, considerar a variação ou aleatoriedade dos fenômenos envolvidos. Porém, como todo modelo que tenta transcrever os efeitos do mundo real, uma análise em fadiga é susceptível ao problema da transferência de valores: em uma análise bem executada os resultados obtidos em campo (normalmente o estado de tensões atuante) são transferidos corretamente para o nosso modelo. Efeitos como amplitudes de baixo ou alto ciclo devem ser interpretadas de forma correta, a reprodução das solicitações reais bem estudada, entre outros fatores. No caso específico aqui estudado, a qualidade aplicada na transferência dos sinais coletados em campo apresenta um grande impacto na predição final de vida útil.

2013-36-0383 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: dIESEL pARTICULATE FILTER application WITH CONAMA PROCONVE P5 engines (EURO III), Mercedes-Benz experience
Resumo: In order to reduce particulate matter levels produced by heavy duty vehicles diesel in large urban centers, retrofit programs are requested to vehicles that meet emissions levels EURO3, example of Santiago, Chile, from September 2012. The Retrofit is based on the installation of particulate filters with passive regeneration process and periodic cleaning. The application of particulate filter over engines EURO3 brings a lot of consequences to the vehicle/ engine, which will be presented and discussed in this paper, and as an alternative we propose the fleet renewal.

2013-36-0384 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Flowbench automation system
Resumo: The flowbench is usually a laboratory or shop tool used to develop and test different configuration of engine heads (different valves, intake and exhaust channels). Most flowbench in use nowadays have analogical instruments, that demand operator knowledge and accuracy to have proper reading of the test pressure and temperature. This research brings to light a simple and yet inexpensive way to have an automated test bench. In this design  we employed automotive sensors like the OEM MAP and MAF, associated with a radial fan (similar to that used in vacuum cleaners) to promote the flow inlet and outlet of gases in the head under test. Through the use of an acquisition card with digital inputs / outputs and analogic inputs, you can do the lifting of load losses quickly, practical and accurate, without requiring the skill of the operator`s flow bench. This system allows the reporting and in a much shorter time to make a comparison of several variables such as angles valve seat in a cylinder head and its relationship with the effectiveness thereof. It will also allow the development of more efficient engines and cylinder heads in a much shorter time, facilitating the development of researchers and teachers in finding the best engineering solutions in the assembly of valves and pipelines settings on different systems.

2013-36-0386 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Technological adaptation in Power evaluation system in a large natural gAs engine
Resumo: The purpose of this project is to develop and test a technological adaptation in an internal combustion engine to increase it´s efficiency and reliability of its system of monitoring and measurement of power. Such engines are used as propellants in reciprocating compressor of natural gas (NG) in compression stations installed in the company TBG S/A (owner and operator of the Bolivia Brazil Pipeline). These compression stations receive NG at a pressure of up 58kgf/cm ² and compress natural gas at a pressure of up 75kgf/cm ². Currently the measurement of power expended by the compressors that compress the GN does not happen precisely, this measurement is an important parameter for the operation of equipment. After studies, it was found that lack of imprecision is one of the factors that sometimes cause the operation of compressors off the power range recommended by the engine manufacturer. When these deviations occur, the compressors are subject to detonation and other malfunctions causing any stops, decreased engine life and consequential damages. To solve this problem, there was a technological adaptation in the engine, whit the installation of new sensors for pressure, oxygen, temperature and speed measurements, in conjunction with data acquisition system. These data were subsequently used in an equation to calculate the power being, this equation applied by the technique documentation of the engine manufacturer. Thus, it was possible to provide to the operator of a compressor, operating parameters that allows the engine to work closest to the maximum power without reaching the critical point of detonation.

2013-36-0388 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: production of Ti-zr alloy by powder metallurgy
Resumo: The powder metallurgy allows titanium alloys production with savings of energy and time with higher microstructural homogeneity than those obtained by conventional processes. The processing of titanium alloys is increasing in industry, since these alloys presenting superior mechanical properties than commercially pure titanium. Ti-Zr alloys with zirconium contents ranging from 10 to 40 wt% have been investigated by melting process along the last years. In these alloys were reported characteristics as excellent corrosion resistance and high biocompatibility. In this work Ti-40Zr was produced by powder metallurgy in order to produce parts with complex geometry, with high microstructural homogeneity for future application in surgical implants and aerospace industry. Samples were produced by mixing of initial hydrided powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering between 800-1600 °C, in vacuum. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. Density was measured by Archimedes method. It was shown that the samples sintered to high temperatures presented high densification and homogeneous microstructure with the obtainment of a fully biphasic (α+β) microstructure from the complete dissolution of zirconium particles in the titanium matrix.

2013-36-0389 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Air Cleaner Performance Improvement through Multicyclone
Resumo: Air cleaners are used in a wide range of automotive applications. From passenger cars to heavy duty trucks, there is always an air cleaner to keep inlet air free of impurities and air flow passage obstruction in low levels. In this way, engines keep their performance during its entire life. In Brazil, some applications require air cleaner outstanding performance. One of them is at harvester application. This boundary condition is critical due to extreme environment conditions and low maintenance levels required. In this case, vehicles are exposed to thin soil particles in high quantities due to their movements at plantation tasks. Air cleaner elements are replaced every other day. Water from rain or irrigation are brought to air inlet system due to high flow rates requested by engine. At same time, engine performance needs to be kept during long journeys. Re-fuelling and components changes are done direct at field. Any stop means low productivity and more costs to final customer. This paper studies the influence of multicyclones application at a harvester air cleaner system. Its compact size summed to high contaminant retention capacity improves usual air cleaner systems to longer service intervals with reduced pressure drop. Technology performance gains were demonstrated in numerical simulations and laboratories tests to confirm system expected gains.

2013-36-0391 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Comparative study of influence of the PV factor in the wear rate in self-lubricating polymers
Resumo: The high competitive world has made organizations develop products more efficient, more durable and mostly inexpensive. The use of new materials is an alternative in the solution to this problem. The study of tribological materials has been taken much into consideration in the selection of new materials, especially wear. The use of polymers or polymer matrix composites has replaced metals in bearings, bushes, gears, and other components that slip. The polymer has some advantages over the use of metals, from it to the injection process has a cheap value of manufacture. However, the behavior of polymers differs regarding the wear of the metals. The factors in the wear process beyond the materials involved are: the lubricant, temperature, load, type of movement, the relative velocity, roughness and more important: the environment. A low coefficient of friction is usually a relative measure of wear resistance of a polymeric material. However in polymers only the coefficient of friction does not guarantee that the material resists the wear, we have still the wear rate and factor PV (Pressure and velocity). This article aims to do an analysis of the wear rate, coefficient of friction and PV factor in called self-lubricating polymers, polymers that have low coefficient of friction.

2013-36-0392 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: Development of techniques for Gamma Ti-Al production
Resumo: Gamma TiAl has excellent mechanical properties and oxidation/corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures (above 700°C), which makes it a possible replacement for traditional Ni based superalloy components in aircraft turbine engines and in orbital platform vehicles. The alloy design and efficient routes of TiAl processing are important technological challenges. In this work, samples of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%) were produced by arc melting and powder metallurgy processes. Samples were produced from an arc furnace with argon atmosphere by arc melting process. Using powder metallurgy, samples were prepared from elemental and pre-alloyed powders mixed for 2 h, followed by cold uniaxial and isostatic pressing and sintered between 800 up to 1400ºC, for 1 h, under vacuum. After metallographic preparation, samples were characterized by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), density analyses and Vickers microhardness measurements. Samples prepared by arc melting process presented high densification and a full lamella α2 + γ microstructure. The results of powder metallurgy process indicated the presence of Kirkendall porosity in samples prepared from blended elemental technique and the tendency of a full lamellar microstructure in samples sintered high temperatures using pre-alloyed powders.

2013-36-0396 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Optimization of a hydrogen-fueled internal coMbustion engine
Resumo: Modelos termodinâmicos zero-dimensionais de motores de combustão interna operando no ciclo Otto são bem conhecidos pela comunidade científica. O presente trabalho adotou a modelagem que considera a troca de calor entre os gases e as paredes do cilindro e que a razão entre os calores específicos é constante. Considera-se que se trata de uma sucessão de estados de equilíbrio e, onde a cada giro discreto do virabrequim um balanço de energia é realizado para equilibrar o calor da combustão (calculada com a equação da taxa de queima de Wiebe), as perdas térmicas para as paredes do cilindro (equacionadas por Annand), a variação de entalpia da admissão e da descarga e a consequente variação da energia interna da mistura ar-combustível dentro do cilindro (considerada gás ideal). O modelo considera as perdas de carga e os fluxos mássicos e entálpicos nas válvulas de admissão e descarga. Para validação/acreditação do modelo foram utilizados dados da literatura medidos em dinamômetros. Cientes da limitação da modelagem adotada, o objetivo desse trabalho é analisar os resultados da otimização em termos de eficiência térmica e torque de um motor de combustão interna a hidrogênio operando em um ciclo Otto. Entre as variáveis estudadas, temos: rotação, diâmetro do cilindro, curso do pistão, comprimento da biela, taxa de compressão, ângulo de avanço da ignição, diâmetro e ângulos de abertura e fechamento das válvulas de admissão e descarga. O objetivo, portanto, é auxiliar o entendimento desses motores e avaliar a sensibilidade de cada variável quando se busca melhora de eficiência ou aumento de torque.

2013-36-0399 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Design of aN Aluminium Truck Body mounted on chassis For dry cargo
Resumo: The truck body on chassis for dry freight applies to several types  of goods (including packagings, broken or unitized cargoes) such as : bulk cargoes, bags, bales, boxes (cardboard, wood, plastic), crates, building materials (bricks, blocks, porcelain), mechanical parts (components and assemblies), drums, plates, tubes, coils, pallets, containers and small machines. In Brazil, this equipment is traditionally made of wood and recently of steel. Moreover, in overseas  countries the manufacturing of aluminium bodies is quite common (mainly in Europe and the United States), for economic, operational and environmental reasons, such as: weight reduction and resulting increase in payload capacity of the vehicle; easy manufacturing and repair; recyclability of the material used. This paper presents the main features and technical requirements from the Design of a Aluminium Truck Body mounted on a 3-axle truck , with 23 tons of deadweight (Gross Weight) and 5.4m of distance between axes. In developing of the design, computational tools were used, e.g. 3D modeling (CAD) Finite Element Method Modeling (FEM) and Structural Optimization (Parametric and Topological), in order to meet the following requirements: - Specification of the regulations and standards as well as technical recommendations of the manufacturers of commercial vehicles; - Ease of manufacturing, maintenance and repair of the body; - Operational functionality for the  transport of several goods; - The correct mechanical strength of the structure, when  subjected to different load cases; - Minimizing the total weight of the equipment. The technical data for the project are provided by means of  tables and figures, which describe the payload capacity of the truck, its external and internal dimensions, arrangement of removable covers and accessories for loads securing.

2013-36-0400 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Resumo:   Historically, the means of propulsion, the source of mechanical work for vehicles are Otto and Diesel engines. Power train arrangements gain whole new possibilities with electric engine. The demands of work regime and specific performance on automotive applications are now imposed to the electric engine power train. That effect, the electric energy storage has been of interest in science and technology by the multiplicity of solutions that function can brings. The theoretical principles have been advanced, as well as the technological resources and materials knowledge. This paper discusses batteries with the objective of focusing on automotive propulsion application for UFEV, Urban Family Electric Vehicle. There are several alternative technologies for batteries for vehicle propulsion. The solutions proposed bring several trade off when considered vehicle application and users demands. This paper brings the currently developing battery types and their characteristics. In the study are considered the most used battery solutions on UFEV. This research identifies factors in the use and application of electric vehicle propulsion batteries. In this exploratory and qualitative research, primary data were obtained through interviews with experts in batteries and electric vehicle. Secondary data were obtained through product brochures, companies’ website on the internet and references from literature. As a result, it has been verified as the main critical factors: the battery charging time, the battery and vehicle weight ratio, the rating of power delivery, and the packaging in the vehicle. These factors impact under the user’s point of view, in energy performance, in the masses that are added to the vehicle and their distribution and the environmental safety, are considered. Taking the contents of the related theoretical analysis as a base, the critical factors are identified, as proposed.

2013-36-0402 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: LEAN BURN ENGINES
Resumo:   LEAN BURN ENGINES Natural gas internal combustion engines are currently worthy of attention due to the growing interest in energy generation equipments that are both efficient and environmentally friendly. As an answer to this interest, natural gas engine utilizing lean burn combustion technology have been introduced instead of traditional stoichiometric engines with two positive effects. First, excess air in the mixture reduces combustion process temperature, which reduces the formation of NOx with respect to conventional stoichiometric engines. Second, duo to excess Oxygen, the combustion process is more efficient and more energy is generated from the same amount of fuel. Another relevant characteristic of mixture leaning is keeping the engine away from the knocking zone. Since, the ideal working of a lean burn engine occurs within a narrow window, it requires a more accurate fuel flow, ignition time, air-fuel ratio controls as well as a higher level of external variable monitoring to avoid engine knocking, combustion fault (misfire) and resulting damage to the equipment. Duos to the aforementioned requirements, those engines are equipped with electronic controls of the type “Full Authority”, which are essential to assure the combustion will occur within those limits. The objective of this study is to discuss, with empirical data, mixture leaning of lean burn technology engines and Full Authority controls types as well as the effects of greenhouse gas emissions, exhaust gas temperatures and keeping the engine away from knocking zone.

2013-36-0404 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: Evaluation of available energy for regenerative breaking at the Brazilian driving cycle
Resumo:   The purpose of this paper is evaluating the amount of kinetic energy available to be regenerated by a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) undergoing the Brazilian standardized driving cycle. Improvements on energy efficiency of the cars has become an urgent target of the Brazilian industry since Brazil launched a new automotive regulation imposing the reduction of 12% on the fuel consumption of the vehicles to be sold in this country by 2017 in comparison to 2011. The HEVs are a possible solution for this situation. They are widely known by the high efficiency, mainly the ones capable to make the regenerative breaking, rescuing an already paid energy. Before the launch of HEVs in Brazil, the feasibility of these vehicles has to be accurately studied and one aspect to be evaluated is how much energy is possible to be rescued at the Brazilian standardized driving cycle. In this paper, a longitudinal vehicle dynamic model is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink® in order to demonstrate the full energy balance of a popular Brazilian car subject to the told driving cycle, highlighting the energy available for regeneration.

2013-36-0409 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: application of anthropometric data in conception and design of cab of vehicle competition
Resumo: Anthropometry is defined by some scholars as a science related to the measure of body size, which aims to study the data on measurements of the human body. The present study aims to present the collection of anthropometric measurements of the pilots of a Formule SAE team and apply this data in human simulations and virtual design. Anthropometric measurements and simulations in DELMIA software contributed to check the necessary adjustments in the structure of a competition vehicle type formule.

2013-36-0410 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Título do Paper: development of a computational platform for evaluation of the data obtained from the dynamics of different modes of flight in an aircraft simulator
Resumo: The Aeronautical Laboratory at the University of León, León, Spain, recently installed three flight simulators for students in the Mechanical of Flight discipline to give experience in practice of the theoretical aspects related to the movement of an aircraft in the aerospace environment. Are simulated a Cessna 172 and a Beech 58 Baron, from the software X-Plane 9 and a Boeing 737 through the Flight Simulator software. To analyze the maneuvers performed by the pilot with pre-established standards in various modes of flight, was performed initially studies of the principles of mechanics of flight, and an investigation of potential software that can be used for desired simulations that resulted in the developed a computing platform that integrates the X-Plane 9 software with a program developed in MatLab/Simulink. This program acquires the variables of a simulated flight of the X-Plane 9 and stores them enabling later the elaboration of graphics that evaluate the performance of the pilot. Thus, this paper presents the development of this computational platform that provide variables of the flight of an aircraft Beech Baron 58 for analysis of the dynamics surrounding the behavior of the aircraft in cruise flight modes, rise and fall, slip, coordinated spins , entries loss (stall), so fugóide, spiral and glide mode. Accordingly, the architecture of the computing platform, consisted basically of two computers connected by a local area network, who run simultaneously the program developed in Matlab/Simulink and the flight simulator X-Plane 9. The communication between the two computers and thus the data transfer is performed by the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). As a result of the work concluded that the computing platform performed the required function. Were realized fifty simulated flights and with the data acquired, were constructed graphs showing the response of the pilot according of the pre-set flight mode. It was observed that for pilot actuation on the controls of an aircraft, it is difficult to maintain the conditions proposed. Thus, to optimize the flight conditions, the need arises for research, development and validation of autopilots that can be achieved with the versatility of computing platform. Aircraft that have crew and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be modeled in the Plane Maker extension of the X-Plane 9 Software and control loops is inserted in the program developed in Matlab/Simulink. So, this program works directly on control surfaces and in the variables of flight of the aircraft simulated in X-Plane 9. Consequently allows the validation of the mathematical model of the aircraft.

2013-36-0415 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Disc brake with temperature electronic control
Resumo: The modern vehicles disk brakes not evoluted in the same dimension as the engine technology for example and due that some typical investments are only for brake rotors and new pad materials but not on electronically controlled systems for dynamic management. This study proposal is to bring new applications for electronically controlled disk brakes to obtain an performance improvement on high temperatures and during the rain driven. The methodology consists to force an air flow using electronically controlled fans reacting when the temperature grows by NTC or thermocouple sensors monitoring. High temperature directly affects the brake friction coefficient that after certain level of temperature starts to decrease up to generate the fading effect, typical brake failure that can not stop the vehicle during the movement. The brake efficiency during the rain also will be improved via infrared rain sensor signal that is flowing on the CAN (Controller Area Network) communication bus to switch on and off the windshield wipers. As the rain sensor split on the network its digital water volume information, the same air flow used to reduce the brake temperature also may be activated and applied to remove the water film during the rain. A prototype was made and the results reached confirm the same characteristics on math model turning this idea on very applicable experiment in not high costs.

2013-36-0418 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: International Project Brazil/Germany with high-level teamwork: Development of a new cab suspension for an European Medium Duty Truck
Resumo: New demands for the European Market claimed a new medium duty truck. Aim was not only to comply with new legislations, but also achieve better driving comfort and dynamic characteristics. The development of a new cab suspension was the answer given by means of an international project executed by the Technology Development Center of Mercedes-Benz do Brasil (CDT) with support of other technical divisions of our Development Center in Germany. High-level Teamwork Brazil/Germany at all levels from project coordination down to the plant assembly line was the key to reach an outstanding result with an extra achievement of weight reduction. Complete integration of all involved collaborators in Brazil and in Germany proved to be the main reason to get at the high efficiency shown during the development tasks. This article presents a brief overview of the undertaken development steps together with the challenges and the solutions given to assure the success of the international teamwork.

2013-36-0420 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Transmissões
Título do Paper: Surface Study applied in ball bearing with different step process
Resumo: : Finishing surface has an enormous influence on many important physical phenomena such as contact mechanics, sealing, adhesion and friction. In this paper we will present a brief review of contact mechanics and the influence of different process in the finishing surface as the roundness and roughness. For each process step for ball bearing will be explain and different surface parameter will be measure, also the results will  be analyze the influence of the process in the finishing surface. A DOE experimental methodology will be use to reach more accurate results with fewer trails and faster response. Also will present new results and a few comments related to a fabrication process.

2013-36-0425 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Modern Techniques for Controlling a Full Vehicle on a Road Simulator
Resumo: In a close past, it was assumed that a good control of a full vehicle on a road simulator could be achieved only controlling the loads acting in the suspension, using a squared-control matrix in the simulation system. Recently, with the improvement of the computers that bring inside them faster processor, improvements in the control softwares that opened the possibility of use of a non-square matrixes for controlling as well the usage of a changeable system characterization matrixes, it could be observed a sensible development of the physical simulation process. This is especially important when the intention is to control a small car on the simulator. In this case, it is not rare to observe the jouncing bumpers hitting the body and then inducing non-linear inputs to the vehicle. This situation often cannot be controlled using only the suspension sensors. This paper intends to present the techniques used nowadays in order to achieve the correct loads acting onto the vehicle and keep most of its parts with the correct response compared to tests on the road.

2013-36-0436 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Transmissões
Resumo: The main objective of this paper is to present a mathematical model in order to simulate the shifting force curve at manual transmission, the main idea to analysis the interface between the internal shift rod and the detent pin. This model will be simulate by "Matlab". By this simulation "Matlab" is possible verify different conditions of geometry and verify the results. In order to development this mathematical model, we were following components: External shift, axis internal shifter, detent pin, shape of guide’s rod, interlock pin and grove of sleeve. The output  this simulation showed benefits on development new product regarding the time and cost decrease, in order the shift confort.

2013-36-0438 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Technology Features and Development Methods for Spark Ignited Powertrain to meet 2020 CO2 Emission Targets
Autoria: FRIEDL
Resumo:  Technology Features and Development Methods for Spark Ignited Powertrain to meet 2020 CO2 Emission Targets Author’s Name:                                             Hubert FRIEDL  Marco CERTIC   Alois FUERHAPTER  Paul KAPUS   Karl KOECK Matthias NEUBAUER Company, Zip, City, Country:      AVL List GmbH - Hans-List Platz 1 - A-8020 GRAZ, Austria Abstract: For achieving the forthcoming CO2 emission targets of 95g/km by 2020 and for the years beyond, comprehensive activities for powertrain technology as well as development methodology has to be utilized. By far it will not be enough by adding a few single technology features to achieve the result, but more and more the success will come out from comprehensive combining of synergetic utilisation of complementary effects. This will be the powertrain perfectly matched to the vehicle, including the energy source, and all together integrated by means of advanced development tools and methodology.The content of this paper will address the following topics Combustion system: Outline of highly efficient SI engines, featuring advanced charging systems, utilisation of Miller cycle and very high EGR rates Powertrain: combination of combustion system and transmission including affordable extent of hybridisation Vehicle: impact of weight and vehicle drag, taking forthcoming test procedures (WLTP, RDE) into account Fuel: potential for increased efficiency with gaseous and ethanol fuels Tools and methodology for highly efficient development processes (highly accurate fuel consumption measurement, particulate number, optical instrumentation, transparent engine, calibration) Exemplary, AVL describes how to handle and combine the listed topics in utilisation for build up a prototype demonstrator vehicle for achieving the requested CO2 target.  

2013-36-0441 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Comparative Analysis of Side Impact Tests, Tendencies and Challenges for Brazilian Market
Resumo:  A considerable number of victims in the traffic are originated by some kind of side collisions. Around 30% of the fatalities occur due to these kind of accidents. Due to this fact, the development of the occupant protection for this kind of load cases becomes indispensable. For this, different kinds of crash tests were and are being developed around the world according to the characteristics inherent of each market. Barrier weight, impact angle, barrier type (pole or movable deformable barrier) and dummy types are some of the variations observed. The severity of injuries caused by side crashes is very high as the occupant is very close to the impacting object and the crush space is almost nothing when compared to frontal impact. To decrease these injuries the following features of the vehicle must be developed: structure (high strength materials, reinforcements, etc), restraint system (side airbags, curtain airbags, pre-tensioners, seats, etc), design and package (distances between occupant and interior parts, flat surfaces, etc), high speed sensing systems (accelerometers, pressure sensors, etc). This paper will present a comparative analysis between these different types of tests and demonstrate future tendencies and the challenges for the Brazilian market and the technologies available during the vehicle development capable of making the products safer when it comes to side impact collisions.

2013-36-0451 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Natural Gas 12M Bus, Driving Change in People Transport in Brazil
Resumo: Natural gas is considered today a real alternative to diesel for the use in commercial vehicles in Europe, China, India and United States. While in Brazil natural gas is often the energy source for industrial processes and passenger’s cars, opportunities to extend its utilization in light, medium commercial vehicles and buses could become realty in Brazil and Latin America. At the date, most of 12.000 IVECO CNG vehicles are running in different European countries and different customers’ applications mainly refuse collection, urban logistics and urban people transport. Urban buses running with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) represent today an opportunity to improve quality of life for communities, reducing the pollutant and noise emissions and allow, for the fleets operators, a cost saving directly related to fuel. In the 2011 IVECO Latin America started a CNG program to introduce CNG technology into Brazilian market. This program is involving light and medium trucks and one 12 meters bus. This work relates the technology and preliminary results of a 12 meters 4x2 CNG bus used by customer in a 6 months field test in Belo Horizonte. The vehicle, that uses a FPT 8 liter CNG Otto Cycle engine and 280 m3 compressed natural gas storage system has been tested by the customer in 6 months test demonstrate good results.

2013-36-0454 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Transmissões
Título do Paper: Basic study of shift system for manual transmission
Resumo: One of the most important aspects in a vehicle is the driving comfort, thus shift system for manual transmission also has the responsibility for theses aspects. The shift system is a special part for manual transmission where are responsible for the connection between the user (driver) and the car speed, traditionally gear shift is performed by disengaging the clutch, engaging neutral gear, shifting to a new gear, and engaging the clutch again, in a manual transmission the driver can move the gearshift lever transversally to select and longitudinally to engage the gear. This paper will present a research and the function of the shift system components. An overview about the transmission system especially the gear shift will be made, soon this work contributes to the development of new shift gear and also to allow comparison of the systems currently in use.

2013-36-0455 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Optimization methods applied to development of vehicle structures
Resumo: Optimization methods applied to problems of structural design, specifically in numerical problems in which are used the finite element method, working with a set of variables, allow to minimize (or maximize) a given objective function subject to certain design constraints. Solving engineering problems often requires individual assessment of a large number of possible combinations for the design parameters that could be tested as potential solutions.  Thus, it can be said that optimization methods provide directions to achieve solutions faster, significantly reducing product development times, without however eliminating the need for some iteration cycles in which it is comprised the phases of numerical simulation, results interpretation and feasibility analysis from a manufacturing viewpoint. Often, a new iteration cycle is done for the same optimization problem, starting from the final result of previous iteration cycle, until it is reached the so-called solution convergence. This work aims to illustrate some examples of application, by using the optimization software Altair Optistruct, in the solution of problems related to development of vehicle structures, and subsequently, the obtained results are discussed.

2013-36-0458 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Transmissões
Título do Paper: Development of a tool to the Speed Hub Structural Virtual Analysis applied to Vehicle Transmissions ordering the component optimization
Resumo: The main objective of this paper is to present a reliable model for the evaluation of structural sintered speed hub applied to vehicle transmissions. This evaluation is performed using the method of finite element analysis and it allows to optimize the speed hub geometry, adjust the mass distribution and/or evaluate the application of new materials through a comparison with reference solutions already adopted in production, used to refine the simulation. The model was designed considering the higher torque applied to the speed hub, due to the respective reduced ratios. The torque application was simulated by the tangential force applied on the speed hub, and it was equally distributed by the external spline of the component. This analysis provides the stress distribution results and equivalent plastic strain knowledge. This study has great relevance for the development of the speed hubs, because there is no information available in the literature about more refined structural virtual calculation methods for this component and it allows a better analysis of the product, focusing at cost reduction / product improvement through the application of new resistant  materials,  enabling optimization projects of that.

2013-36-0460 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Resumo: This paper proposes the study of the first bending mode of the wing`s UAV Vector-P using impact methodology. The data acquisition and signal processing was implemented using LabView. The analysis provides frequency response, but needs an algorithm which was made in MatLab. This algorithm, called Model Identification, also provide eigenvalues and eigenvectors. MEMS accelerometers were used for input measurement and an impact hammer for output. In this work, the accelerometers were calibrated based on ISO 16063-21 as reference. After this, one notch filter equation is provided for the bending mode frequency using MatLab. It was used the DIAMOND software that owns the capability of the modal identification, allowing directly explore the effects of test conditions on the identified modal parameters.

2013-36-0463 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: Coopetition and INOVAR AUTO: Strategies to create R&D infrastructure on Brazilian automotive industry
Resumo: Brazil has gained prominence on the world stage, while traditional markets are stagnating; projections indicate strong growth potential of the internal market in the coming decades. In particular, in the automotive industry, a strong economic chain with multiple effects on the economic and social tissue, it is estimated that Brazil will occupy the position of third largest global market for automotive vehicles still in 2016. For its extensive capillary, the auto industry affects major chains such as steel, electronics, computers, fuel and agribusiness, as well as a multitude of services. The Brazilian automotive industrial park is robust and has about 26 different vehicle manufacturers, with 53 manufacturing plants in operation and another 12 under construction, present in five regions of the country, distributed in 39 counties in 9 states. However, the Brazilian automotive industry still faces structural problems, such as high taxes, low productivity chain of auto parts, exchange rate issues and logistical bottlenecks, exacerbated by cyclical global issues, with surplus production of traditional economies, such as Germany and the United States, aimed at emerging strongly pressing the agenda for importing industrial goods. As a way to boost the domestic industry, the Brazilian government announced in 2012 the creation of the INNOVAR AUTO, which aims to encourage the consolidation of the automotive chain national, ensure investment in R & D, increase spending on engineering and increase efficiency vehicle energy, imposing the Brazilian automotive industry the need for greater investment to compete. From this context, the question arises of how to create technological infrastructure and be competitive against a background of strong international pressure and the need to optimize resources. As a hypothesis to answer such questions, this paper proposes interfirm collaboration, through the concept of coopetition, i.e. cooperation between independent parties, who both compete among themselves and with others. This paper presents a proposal for shared technology infrastructure, with consequent reduction of spending on R & D, training of skilled manpower and increased productivity and competitiveness. It assesses also the potential benefits of coopetition in Brazilian automotive sector.

2013-36-0465 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Gestão e Desenvolvimento de Produtos
Título do Paper: THE Action research as a methodological approach in the review of product development
Resumo: The time to launch a product from its initial phase as an idea until the start of production and subsequent sale on the market (time-to-market) is a crucial indicator for measuring the competitiveness of enterprises. And, to achieve improvements in this indicator, several companies have been looking for the evolution of their product development processes (PDP) through periodic reviews and comparisons with theoretical models and practical reference. This work is on action research conducted in a consumer company (office supplies) for the diagnosis and review of your PDP with reference to two theoretical models structured (Stage-Gate model and APQP) and the use of management tools and techniques typical automotive sector.

2013-36-0467 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: Veículo comercial Leve com diferencial blocante
Resumo: In the light commercial vehicles and other wheeled vehicles, an open differential is a device that allows each driven wheel to rotate in different speeds during a curve or in limited grip conditions. On the other hand, when one of the wheels loses the grip the differential will direct all the torque available to the wheel that is spinning making the vehicle get stuck. In certain applications, such as electrical power line maintenance in rural areas requires a larger capacity drive vehicles due to low friction terrain. To comply with this application requirement was developed the locking differential speed sensitive that pulls both wheels at the same time offering full locking axle and increasing the traction capacity of the vehicle. The system automatically unlocks the wheel with higher speed when the speed is different between them as happened in a curve. For this project the locking system was applied to a light truck, which is an innovation in the light commercial vehicles Brazilian market. Among the advantages of this product is the low cost of implementation and maintenance, especially compared with 4x4 traction vehicles.

2013-36-0469 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ruídos e Vibrações (NVH)
Título do Paper: Heavy Vehicles Pass-by Noise Beamforming using Generalized Inverse Method and an Optimized Array
Resumo: Due to increasingly stringent laws regarding the level of noise emitted by motor vehicles, especially when it comes from trucks, many techniques are used to determine the main source of noise. Levels must meet the standard pass-by noise as provided by the standard ISOR362. This work applies a technique that aims to identify the main source of noise of heavy vehicles during the pass-by noise test, called Pass-by Noise Beamforming. The technique use the method known as Generalized Inverse and an array of microphones optimized for low frequencies. The paper presents the steps of validation of the system using loudspeakers and application in two trucks with distinct contributions (engine and tire noise).The results of the technique showed advantages compared to the conventional method (delay-and-sum algorithm), obtaining better separation of coherent sources with better dynamic range in a wide frequency range (50 Hz - 7 kHz).

2013-36-0471 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Suspensão
Título do Paper: Fatigue Bench Test for Internal Parts of Shock Absorbers in Commercial Vehicles
Resumo: Due to the growing necessity to reduce time for new products development, or even to evaluate the reliability of them, a rationalization tendency of the tests has been observed in the field through more and more representative bench tests in a shorter time and with smaller costs.    In the automotive industry, the amount of simulated parameters is always increasing, therefore it is necessary to collect a great number of sign measurements in suspension systems (accelerations, temperatures, strokes and deformations), using prototype vehicles.    In the present paper we will present the measurements made in a representative track, where it was possible to analyze the measured signs. In a second step they were compiled and compacted, and finally applied in a one-axial bench test. This procedure permits to get a correlation between field and laboratory results.   Development: For the development of shock absorbers in commercial vehicles, it is important to evaluate their lifetime, which means, the point when their characteristics affect functionality. It is important to remark that lifetime of a shock-absorber is not usually reached when a simple break occurs, but due to losing of a significant value of the damping forces caused by wear of the internal parts of the component.     Usual testing procedure: In general fatigue evaluation of internal components of shock absorbers is done by means of durability test using commercial vehicles under real conditions (load and representative tracks for the application), running during a period which permits evaluation of loosing dumping forces of the shock absorbers. This requires high costs and a long time for the test.    Bench test criteria were established in order to accelerate tests, they run under extreme conditions. This requires control of temperature, course and acceleration.   Advantage over usual testing procedure:  Cost and time reduction.

2013-36-0472 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Innovation on central wheel nut to racing prototype vehicle
Resumo: The main characteristics required when fastening racing cars wheel are the resistance to self-loosening plus high-speed to assembling and disassembling of the wheel. To attend these two contradictory characteristics, it is necessary to develop differentiated solutions in fixation. This work presents a new concept of fastening central wheel nuts at racing cars with improved fastening efficiency regard safety and assembly speed in comparison to the current fastening. The new wheel nut was designed and validated through analytical and FEM studies as well as practical tests.

2013-36-0473 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Vehicle restraint system optimization for frontal impact
Resumo: The Brazilian Automotive regulations that are aimed towards the safety of drivers, passengers and pedestrians have gone through recent changes to prevent and/or minimize injury and trauma from different types of accidents. Up until now, CONTRAN nº 14/98 resolution required vehicles to only have safety belts for an occupant restraint system, without the obligation of frontal airbags. Since the recent CONTRAN nº 311/09 resolution requires mandatory frontal airbags, the occupant restraint system must be tuned due to the interaction with different components that make up the system, like safety belts with pretensioners and seatbelt load limiting devices. In addition, the projected restraint system should meet the injury levels determined by CONTRAN 221/07 resolution during a frontal crash test, measured through the occupants biomechanical response, by Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), known as dummies. The present study was developed to optimize the restraint system of a current vehicle in production, while focusing on minimizing the vehicle complexity. The optimization tool helped to develop a robust restraint system for the frontal passenger. Several variables were considered, such as seat belt elongation, pretensioner, load limit, seat belt height adjustment, dummy H-point, torso/seat back angle, airbag deployment time and airbag vent hole diameter. The numerical computational model created was initially correlated with an experimental test, and then 72 simulations were performed to build the optimization matrix. The optimized parameters provided by the Design of Experiments (DOE) were simulated in the numerical computational model and also applied in an experimental test. Both results presented an excellent correlation and the goals of the optimization were achieved showing that this tool can help in future developments. This paper will review the methods used to study variables in restraint system with respect to their effect on occupant performance, as well as explain the final results from this optimization study.

2013-36-0479 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Resumo: The important development of the rolling contact theory besides the recent improvements of multibody dynamics are the foundation for computational analysis of metro and railway vehicles and permanent way. These methods allow the simulation of the dynamics effects due to trains passing along critical componentes of the permanente way, as track switches and turns with superelevation, in order to comprehend the wearing mechanism and life time of wheel and rail. Moreover, this kind of simulation makes possible to understand the causes that could provocate a derailment, improving safety. Another issue developed in this article is the importance of a high quality correlation between the computational method and the data collected from the acquisition system. Finally, the present work carried out a survey about the state of the art of this area of study and presented a point of start to future researches that could be developed to the Metro of Sao Paulo.

2013-36-0481 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Simulation of the air conditioning system on a dynamometer bench
Resumo: The use of air conditioning systems in passenger cars in Brazil has increased significantly is last years. The installation rate increased from 47% in 2006 to about 80% in 2012. Especially for compressors with variable displacement, the measurement of the impact of this equipment on the engine performance and on the fuel consumption represents a challenge to be overcome, because it depends on the environmental conditions that define the heat load to be removed from the passenger compartment. This article describes the work to prepare an engine dynamometer test bench to simulate the influence of the air conditioning system on the engine parameters. The combustion engine works with the compressor and all other air conditioning system components assembled. The simulation device can vary the heat load via the air mass flow rate, temperature and humidity close loop control at the air distributor inlet. A second device controls the condensation pressure via the air flow rate, that changes the heat transfer conditions in the condenser. These devices made it possible to elaborate tests to define how the environmental conditions impact on the performance loss and the fuel consumption increment related to the air conditioning in a steady state condition. As an example, the quantification of the condensation pressure influence on the fuel consumption in idle, partial and full load was performed. Also, the torque reduction on the engine shaft and its effect on the vehicle performance parameters could be estimated for different heat loads.  

2013-36-0488 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Electric Light Commercial Vehicles and Smart Grid concept, a Brazilian case
Resumo: In the coming years electric commercial vehicles market will grow in the world and in Brazil. Electric vehicle (EVs), beyond representing a way to reduce air pollution, could become providers of innovative additional services by an improved interaction between vehicles, communication systems and power grids in a smart grid architecture. Smart grid can enable EV-charging (grid-to-vehicle, or G2V), with load shifting from off-peak periods, flattening the daily load curve and allowing vehicles to grid operations (or V2G), with EVs being used as distributed generation and storage devices. Advanced metering and bi-directional battery chargers, like interface equipment between the grid and the vehicles, are essential components, enabling a two-way flow of information and power. However, there are a number of technical, practical and economic barriers that must be taken into account during product development process. Close and cooperative relationships between the R&D departments of Electricity Suppliers and the Cars, Trucks and Buses manufacturers will be the key for the success. Sete Lagoas City of Future project, involving CEMIG, IVECO Latin America, FIAT Automoveis S.A. and Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais - PUC MG is presented to show the smart grid concept state of the art in Brazil. Mains targets of this project are to develop and design a pilot plant  to enable EVs operations in V2G and G2V mode and a methodology to analyze the impacts due to EVs connection to the electric distribution grid.

2013-36-0490 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Motor Dual fuel – Diesel e Gás natural veicular, desenvolvimento do motor e sistema de pós tratamento de gases de escapamento.
Resumo: With the discovery of oil and natural gas in the pre-salt layer in the Santos and Campos basin, the supply of natural gas is expected to increase considerably, therefore the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) for buses is an important option for reducing the overall consumption of diesel fuel and a reduction in operating cost. A vehicle with an engine that can run on pure diesel or diesel and CNG has advantages over a vehicle that works exclusively with CNG, because when there is no availability of the CNG vehicle / engine can operates with diesel only. Another avantaje of this technology is made when reselling the vehicle. After his cycle use in major capital cities where CNG is available, facilitate the sales of these vehicles to smaller towns where there is no availability of CNG. Another great advantage of this system is its robustness and non-dependence of spark ignition coils and therefore combustion will begin with pilot injection of diesel. The use of CNG will provide a reduction of up to 20% in CO2 emissions (GHG). The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance and emissions of a combustion engine compression CONAMA PROCONVE P7 developed to work with both fuels simultaneously (dual fuel), diesel and CNG or 100% Diesel.

2013-36-0491 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Natural Gas Refuse Collection Medium Truck, Driving THE Change in Brazil
Resumo: Natural gas is considered today a real alternative to diesel for the use in commercial vehicles in Europe, China, India and United States. While in Brazil natural gas is often the energy source for industrial processes and passenger’s cars, opportunities to extend its utilization in light, medium commercial vehicles and buses could become realty in Brazil and Latin America. At the date, most of 12.000 IVECO CNG vehicles are running in different european countries and different customers’ applications mainly refuse collection, urban logistics and urban people transport. Trucks running with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) represent today an opportunity to improve quality of life for communities, reducing the pollutant and noise emissions and allow, for the fleets operators, a cost saving directly related to fuel. In the 2011 IVECO Latin America started a CNG program to introduce CNG technology into Brazilian market. This program is involving light and medium trucks and one bus (12 meters length). This work relates the development of 16 tons CNG medium truck 4x2 prototype dedicated to garbage collection application. The vehicle, which uses a FPT 6 liter CNG Otto Cycle engine, has been tested for 6 months in customer field test and demonstrates performances and productivity close to diesel vehicles allowing a cost saving and reduction in noise and gases emissions.

2013-36-0497 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: technology and trends on HMI for vehicle information
Resumo: The old days of standalone single gauges connected directly to sensors, to indicate vehicle status, are gone. The use of electronics, the vehicle networks and the advance of display technologies changed not only the way but also the amount fo information that can be presented to the driver. Now, with the ever increasing amount of information, HMI planning and implementing has turned into a major task for OE`s. A huge effort is spent on system concept, design detail and software implementation to create an interface that is easy to understand, nice looking and has a unique brand identity. This paper will briefly present HMI concepts and technologies, and then the trends on how the information will be displayed to the drivers in the future.

2013-36-0498 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Development and Application in Dumpers and Gas Springs of a Hydraulic Fluid with Biodegradable Properties and Strong Thermo Chemical Resistance Based on Innovative Molecular Structure.
Resumo:   A dumper and a gas spring being a thermo engine which vibrational energy absorption occurs over heat transformation, requires very specific properties of thermo chemical stability from the hydraulic fluid as well as shear strength by heat and pressure effect. It competes to the hydraulic fluid the task of this transformation vehicle. The absorption performance of a dumper depends on variation of physical-chemical properties under heat effect and the maintenance of this performance depends on conservation of those properties during time. The traditional hydraulic fluids for this application, despite its thermo-chemical stability, suffer a deterioration process of those properties under severe operating conditions and consequently reflect in the dumper component lifetime. This report presents the development results of new materials and additives for formulating a fluid with biodegradable properties, maintenance of properties during time as well as thermo chemical stability. The technology and molecular concept used in this project are innovative for this application bringing strong environmental and sustainability claims based on making processes.

2013-36-0499 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: A comparison OF New Car Assessment Program NCAP requirements and procedures around the world
Resumo: The New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), introduced 1979 by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is a vehicle safety rating system that organizes crash-tests and provides motoring consumers with independent assessment of the safety performance of new cars. Similar programs were then copied around the world initially for Europe (E-NCAP), Australia (A-NCAP), Japan (JNCAP), China (C-NCAP) and Korea (K-NCAP) and most recently reached Latin America (Latin-NCAP) and Asia (Asean-NCAP). Although the roots are similar, many NCAP programs have significant differences on the test procedures and rating schemes. This paper is a comparative analysis of the recent NCAP protocols versions aiming to highlight the most important technical differences.

2013-36-0501 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Resumo: The main objective of this paper is to present an analysis of efforts working in a car body with differents tires inflation pressure. The methodology is based on experiments performed on a passenger car. The tensions and accelerations were experimentally measured by strain gauges and accelerometers fixed in regions of the body of work loads from the front and rear suspensions. The forces measured at the wheels contributed in the analyzes. The fatigue analysis is used to access and compare the fatigue damage imposed on the body in different experiment settings.

2013-36-0507 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Assessment of loads caused by depressions on asphalt in the passenger car.
Resumo: Assessment of loads caused by waves on asphalt in the passenger car. Recent data show that Brazil has approximately 1.7 million kilometers of roads, but only 15% are paved, and most of the roads are paved over ten years without reforms. Generally brazilian roads are repaired in extreme cases like appearance of potholes, then, the recovery of asphalt is located. This corrective action causes waves on asphalt that influence the dynamics of vehicles that travel this road. This study compares the loads caused by waves on asphalt with loads caused by bumps and potholes, using the analysis pseudo damage.

2013-36-0510 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Study of Laser Welding and Heat Treatments Done in Different High Strength Steels: 4340, 300M, Maraging 300
Resumo:   The medium carbon steel and low alloy SAE 4340 and has undergone several changes in this development came the 300M steel from steel this ultra-high strength. With strength similar to steel 300M and higher ductility, the maraging steel can change conventional steels in various applications. This study aims to evaluate and compare the microstructure and mechanical strength of SAE 4340 steel, 300M and 300 Maraging undergoing the process of autogenous welding laser. The steel 300M is basically a modified SAE 4340 steel for the content of silicon (typically: 300M - 1.60% Si; 4340 to 0.27% Si) and the introduction of Vanadium (V), with levels of carbon (C) and molybdenum (Mo) slightly higher. Their higher silicon content increases the depth of tempering increases the solid solution hardening and diminishes the tendency to softening at elevated temperatures. The maraging steel are iron-nickel alloys that possess an excellent combination of strength and toughness. These steels have high cobalt and molybdenum in a martensitic structure that is too ductile condition in solubilized. Heating these steels about 480 °C, they harden by precipitation of intermetallic compounds to achieve high flow limits. In this work, all steels undergone welding process, being conducted with a laser fiber 2kW without filler metal and using argon gas for protection. Initial tests of welding were done to determine acceptable welding parameters for each material. After welding, the bodies of the test piece (cdps) steels were treated in various ways, searching for promoting properties, whereas the treatments of 4340 and 300M steels was: tempering after welding, then were divided into lots: as received, soldier, soldier and tempering.The maraging 300 were divided into four groups with different heat treatments. Prior to aging, the first group was homogenized and solubilized, the second group was only homogenized and the third group was only solubilized, the fourth and last group just aging. It was observed that the maraging 300 steel studied strength between 1300 MPa and 1800 MPa. The levels of resistance of the weld were very close to the base material, showing that the solder has excellent quality. The high cooling rate of the material in the laser welding process causes some modifications like severe hardening in the region of the weld bead in steel ultra-high strength, as the 4340 and 300M, that have strength between 600 MPa and 1000 MPa. This phenomenon is not seen in the maraging steel, since these steels do not undergo hardening by quenching while maintaining the hardness at the weld zone next to the base material. We observed the formation of dendritic structure and segregation in the region of the weld zone of all steels soldiers, however this phenomenon showed no major influence on the values ​​of yield strength of the alloys compared with the welding material without having slight decrease in tensile strength maraging steels, however remained the same results or better results in the steel SAE 4340 and 300M. Among all the conditions of heat treatment and materials studied, the cdps maraging 300 steel, solubilized and aged, were those that showed higher values ​​of yield strength and mechanical strength. With this study the maraging steels can replace brightly various conventional steels in different applications, offering high results in any condition.

2013-36-0511 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Resumo:   The technical evolution of turbofan engines has been accomplished by increasing the engine thermal and propulsive efficiencies. The first parameter is mainly a function of component efficiencies, cycle temperatures and pressures, while the former is basically related to the engine bypass ratio and the fan pressure ratio. However, several technological challenges are faced to increase those levels of efficiencies. In the thermal efficiency side, higher pressure ratios, for a given stage loading, are obtained by increasing the number of compressor stages, adding weight and size penalties to the engine, and increasing the compressor delivery temperature. Higher cycle temperatures, mainly those found in the burner exit and the stator outlet require higher cooling flows, for a given blade material technology level. Higher cooling flows lead to penalties in the engine efficiency, since the air used in the cooling process is bled from the compressor. In the propulsive efficiency side, higher bypass ratios can be achieved by larger fans or smaller, more thermal-capable cores. The last option is aimed to the concept of engine downsizing, targeting the design of smaller (hence lowering aircraft drag) and lighter engines. However, small cores present the technical challenge of maintaining high component efficiencies while the Reynolds number is decreased and the effects of tip clearances are increased. In order to investigate the effects of the previous discussion, this paper integrated aero engine simulation software with models of engine cooling and component efficiencies. This integrated analysis methodology was used to investigate the effect of component size and cooling flows on the performance (mainly SFC), weight and dimensions of high bypass ratio turbofan engines, sized to meet a constant thrust requirement.

2013-36-0516 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Transient Heat Transfer Model with Simplified Numeric Solution for Thin and Split Parts
Resumo: Dimensioning components regarding their behavior as part of a thermal system is a frequent issue in automotive projects. Sophisticated finite element softwares are necessary for the design of such parts due to the transient nature of the thermal event or due to the complexity of the geometry. The aim of this work is to develop a model for transient heat transfer with generation, conduction and convection mechanisms, which is able to be processed by a simple workstation eliminating the need of expensive licenses or external simulation. The proposed model is based on the finite difference method to linearize the derivatives with respect to time and space. The resulting linear system is solved to each time step and its dimension can be reduced significantly for thin bodies, where the temperature gradient is small along the thickness. The model is also capable of calculating the thermal behavior of non symmetric split bodies (e.g. fork shaped) with different boundary conditions for each segment.

2013-36-0522 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Preliminary design of fuel filling systems applying the extended Bernoulli Equation on numerical calculation tools
Resumo: Fuel filling systems are a very important part of the entire fuel system since they are responsible for making the interaction between the user and the fuel tank, ensuring that it is properly refueled. Guaranteeing that the system is able to refuel the tank while all the gases inside it are properly expelled, without provoking an over-pressure inside the system is very important. Designing both breathing and filling pipes of the system has a major influence on its behavior. This work intends to calculate the minimum cross section for each pipe that allows the proper function of the system on an early stage of the development process, by applying the extended Bernoulli Equation on preliminary configuration of a fuel filling system, using numerical calculation tools as SciLab and Open Foam. Accounting for head losses from geometries and material properties, for different flow rates and fluid properties, this method allows minimizing the overall cost of the filling system while ensuring its proper operation.

2013-36-0524 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: Evaluation of the interference of the fuel type in catalyst
Resumo: In the beginning of Phase III of PROCONVE in 1997, the automotive catalyst has became an indispensable component in the after treatment of toxic gases from the combustion of vehicles, converting them into gases not harmful to human health. Since its inception, there have been many technological upgrades in the washcoat composition deposited on the ceramic’s wall that compose the catalyst, but these still are degraded under some conditions they are subjected, its interfere directly on conversion efficiency. The main forms of catalytic deactivation are: heavy metal poisoning (Lead - Pb, Phosphorus - P and Sulfur - S), ceramic mechanical erosion and thermal deactivation. In addition to developments of catalyst, vehicles have also evaluated in Brazil. After the alcohol slump in the 1980s, sales of ethanol vehicles fueled have fallen sharply to nearly zero. In 2003 vehicles flex fuel were criated and the consumer could use in your vehicle ethanol or gasoline or any mixtures of them and in 2011, according Anuário da Indústria Automobilística Brasileira, flex fuel vehicles have represented 92.5% of light vehicles total sales in Brazil. As the catalysts must perform its function independent of the fuel in the vehicle, this paper aims to assess how the ethanol and gasoline burned components can interfere in their degradation.

2013-36-0530 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Resumo:     Real-time critical systems are those whose failures may cause loss of transactions/data, missions/batches, vehicles/properties, or even people/human life. Accordingly, some regulations prescribe their maximum acceptable probability of failures to range from about 10-4 to 10-10 failures per hour. Examples of such systems are the ones involving nuclear plants, aircrafts, satellites, automobiles, or traffic controls. They are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754a Standard. Those systems include, most of the time, real time critical softwares that must be specified, designed, implemented, validated, verified and accredited (VVA). To do that, models, specially the V-Model, are frequently adopted, together with methods and tools which perform software VVA to ensure compliance (of correctness, reliability, robustness, etc.) of software to several specific standards such as DO-178C (aviation) or IEC 26262 (automotive) among others. This paper presents an overview of models, methods and tools for verification, validation and accreditation of real time critical softwares. To do that, it: 1) discusses how models, specially the V-Model, are used to develop the software life cycle; 2) reviews several methods and tools for VVA of real time critical softwares available in the literature; and 3) compares such methods and tools according compliance of software to several specific standards. It is expected to show that: 1) an early analysis at system-level of the models, methods and tools to be used to along the software life cycle is advantageous; and 2) the overview presented here promote a better understanding of what role such models, methods and tools should play to provide better and safer systems considering social-technical objectives as a whole.

2013-36-0535 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Título do Paper: An Overview of an Assurance Process of Immunity of Embedded Electronic Systems to Single Event Upsets Caused by Ionizing Particles
Resumo: The aerospace and automotive electronic systems are getting more complex and/or highly integrated, as defined by ARP 4754A, making extensive use of microelectronics and digital memories which, in turn, operates in higher frequencies and lower voltages. In addition, the aircraft are flying in higher altitudes, and polar routes are getting more frequent. These factors raise the probability of occurrence of hazardous effects like the Single Event Upsets in their embedded electronic systems. These must be designed in a way to tolerate and assure the immunity to the Single Event Upsets, based upon criteria such as reliability, availability and criticality. This paper proposes an overview of an assurance process of immunity of embedded electronic systems to Single Event Upsets caused by ionizing particles by means of a review of literature and an analysis of standards as ECSS‐E‐ST‐10‐1, NASA Single Event Effects Criticality Analysis and IEC TS 62396-1. This overview intends to contribute to create a process compatible with the Systems Engineering to accommodate the effects of Single Event Upsets caused by the ionizing particles in the aerospace systems projects.

2013-36-0537 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: Dual phase steels for stamped parts
Resumo: In this work it was analyzed a dual phase steel concerning its mechanical properties, the microstructure and its performance comparing with micro alloyed steel. These steels have the potential to achieve cost and weight savings while improving performance. The trend for the use of AHSS (Advanced high strength steels) in automotive industry has grown in the last decades in an exponential way and has encouraged researches around the world to study processes that enhance the characteristics of actual steel, in order to optimize weight for fuel economy and structural stiffness in safety. This work analyzed the DP 800 steel (1.2 mm thickness) as a potential replacement for steel HSLA (micro alloyed steel) HX 260 PD (1.5 mm thickness) as a component of a vehicle body production. This replacement allowed 20% mass reduction of the vehicle. It was studied the following characteristics: processing, chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties. For microstructure analysis has been used optical. The chemical element analysis was made by an optical emission spectrometer instrument. Tensile tests were made in both materials. The obtained mechanical values were the input to the CAE software: simulation of stamping and virtual crash test. With the results of the tests and simulations were able to evaluate the feasibility of replacing steel micro alloyed steel for dual phase steel. Dual phase steel showed similar formability and service performance (structural integrity in the crash test simulation).

2013-36-0539 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Using software simulation to test a CAN network
Resumo: In a modern vehicle, hundreds of messages are transmitted each second from one ECU to another via data network, some of those containing vital information for the correct functioning of a specific task. The vehicle’s behavior may change depending on the value of the transmitted messages or, in some cases, the latency or total absence of a message due to a problem in the network or in the sender ECU may cause the vehicle to generate a fault code or even assume an emergency mode. Thus, it is necessary to simulate different values and transmission periods for the existing messages in a network in order to test if the vehicle is reacting properly to them. This paper will show how to simplify individual CAN message manipulation in an existing network, using tools available in the market.

2013-36-0541 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Resumo:   Current systems such as satellites, aircrafts, automobiles, turbines, power controls and traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754a Standard. Such systems operate in a real time distributed environment which frequently requires a common knowledge of time among different devices, levels and granularities. So, temporal correctness is mostly needed, besides logical correctness. It can be achieved by hardware clocks and devices, software clocks and algorithms, or both, to avoid or tolerate, within appropriate margins, the time faults or failures that may occur in aerospace and automotive systems. This paper presents an overview of clock synchronization algorithms and their uses in aerospace and automotive systems. It is based on a review of the literature, discussion and comparison of some clock synchronization algorithms with different policies. The comparison of clock synchronization algorithms is made considering the most common time faults and failures that may occur in aerospace and automotive systems. This intends to help the designer to choose clock synchronization algorithms suitable for time synchronization of aerospace and automotive systems.

2013-36-0542 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: advanced thermal management strategies
Resumo: The paper presents the results of applying an advanced thermal management approach to a light duty vehicle.  The relative benefit of various thermal components, layouts and control strategies is discussed.  Thermal performance along with associated fuel economy improvements are shown over various test cycles including the FTP, NEDC and US06.  Results are given for a GT-Suite simulation as well as on vehicle.  

2013-36-0543 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Título do Paper: Study of the effect of local changes in material properties due to metal forming on a fuel tank crash analysis
Resumo:  In the past few years the automotive industry has shown an increasing concern on safety issues and predicting the right behavior of vehicle structures under crash situations has been a great preoccupation. CAE has major role in crash validations, especially when predicting the rupture of fuel tanks, since avoiding any leaks has a great importance on the occupant’s safety. Crash simulation of fuel tanks is a standard when developing this kind of product. However, with the increasing demand on more accurate models, new necessities appear. Accounting for the changes that the fabrication process makes on material properties is beginning to be a reality, especially with metal forming that brings local thinning and residual stresses to the fuel tank. In an attempt to build a more accurate model and to study the effect of local changes of material properties on the output of a crash analysis, this paper combines stamping and crash simulations. This is done by mapping the output results of an incremental metal forming simulation on the FEA model that will be input for the crash analysis. The crash analysis is done by impacting a rigid wall with energy of 4000J into a fuel tank filled at its full capacity with SPH elements. Comparing the standard method used on a metallic fuel tank crash analysis with the improved method, this study shows that ignoring the fabrication process may lead to an undersized product, that will absorb less energy and that might show an unexpected rupture on the real product testing. This method is of great importance when developing fuel tanks since it will lead to a more accurate model and resulting on a more conservative product, which is very significant when developing safety applications.  

2013-36-0551 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Manufatura
Título do Paper: Technical and economic advantages of cold forged planetary-bevel gears developed with net shape teeth and splines.
Resumo: The search for more technical and economical competitive automotive products motivates even more the engineers to research for solutions that reduce manufacturing costs and lead-time. Bevel gears are applied extensively in the automotive industry since the invention of the transmission differential, however; few changes of the design have been done on these components in the last decades. Currently, the planetary-bevel gear blanks are hot forged with posterior cutting of the teeth and broaching of the spline, eventually, some planetary-bevel gear blanks have the teeth warm forged. The process to cold forge the teeth and the spline results as much technically benefits for the product application as manufacturing costs and lead-time reductions. This paper presents a planetary-bevel gears manufacturing concept for passenger and light commercial vehicles, where the cold forged teeth and spline present technical and economic benefits to the automotive differential transmission system.  

2013-36-0553 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Experimental Study of Spray Pattern, Tip Penetration and Velocity Profiles of a Gasoline Direct injection Injector Using High Speed Image Recording and Particle Image Velocimetry
Resumo: This study consisted in analysing the conic sprays produced by a Gasoline Direct Injection Injector with a single orifice. The techniques used to the acquisition data were Shadowgraph associated with High Speed Image Recording and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to acquire knowledge of the velocities involved. The High Speed Image Recording was used to evaluate the initial stage of the injections. Measurements of the tip penetrations and penetrations rates (velocities) were performed. The Particle Image Velocimetry was used to evaluate velocities in linear profiles with the starting-point situated at the orifice on the fully developed spray. The spray images acquired from PIV technique were also used to get information about the spray pattern using computational codes constructed to locate the spray contours. The spray contours were plotted in spatial coordinates and linear equations were also adjusted to them. Two different fluids were tested in the same injection pressure to comparison purposes: gasoline and ethanol. The results showed penetration rates almost constant in the initial stage of injections, velocities with decreasing behavior to  the distance from orifice in the linear profiles on the fully developed spray and maximum velocities approximately equal to the penetration rates.

2013-36-0555 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Resumo: AN OVERVIEW OF CBGA PACKAGING RELIABILITY OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENT SUBMITTED TO THERMAL CYCLING   ABSTRACT   The increasing complexity of packages of electronic components used in aerospace, automotive, etc., electronic systems requires the development of new reliability analysis and prediction methods. Particularly, the Ceramic Ball Grid Array (CBGA) packaging type of electronic components has many variables (design parameters) that influence the reliability of the component. This paper presents an overview of the reliability of CBGA packaging of electronic components submitted to thermal cycling. For this purpose, it discusses the application of methods such as Design of Experiments (DOE) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS). The PLS Regression is a statistical method to study the relationships between the response variables (observed) and the influential variables (latent). The PLS also has the advantage of reducing the undesired effect of multicolinearity presents in most regression models. The paper expects to demonstrate that such methods are suitable for such analysis and can be used for other complex packaging types of electronic components.

2013-36-0562 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Design and construction methodology of a multi fuel stratified Jet ignition Engine
Resumo: The goal of this work is to develop a design and construction methodology of a stratified charge jet ignition system for an Otto engine aiming fuel consumption and pollutant emission reduction. The jet ignition system is made of a combustion pre chamber equipped with a direct fuel injector, an air injector and a spark plug. The pre chamber is feed with air from the main chamber during the engine compression stroke through an interconnection nozzle. Fuel is directly injected in the pre chamber aiming the formation of a lightly rich mixture. Air is also injected to help the exhaust process of the combustion products of the previous cycle. The combustion process starts in the pre chamber and as the pressure rises, jet flames are produced through interconnection nozzles into the main chamber. The high thermal and kinetic energy of the jet flames reduces the combustion time, increases the combustion efficiency and allows the engine to efficiently burn lean air fuel mixture of several kinds of fuel in the main chamber, even those that are difficult to ignite through an electrical spark. Theoretical calculus where made to determine the main geometrical parameters of the pre chamber, such as volume, number and diameter of the interconnection nozzles. Since the system proposed is equipped with two independent injection system, one for the pre chamber and another for the main chamber, it is possible to burn an stoichiometric air fuel mixture in the pre chamber and a lean air fuel mixture of a different fuel in the main chamber promoting, therefore, the conception of a multi fuel stratified charge jet ignition engine.

2013-36-0566 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: The study of the sigma phase formation in the process of aging heat treatment of UNS S 32750 super duplex stainless steel
Resumo: The super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) is a thermodynamically metastable ternary system (Fe-Cr-Ni) that seeks its thermodynamic equilibrium state by temperature supply. The temperature influence on the super duplex stainless steel microstructure, generally favors the formation of sigma phase by changing the material properties, such as the hardness and corrosion resistance. This intermetallic phase is the most known and studied in the category of steels, in which the precipitation is inevitable during its solidification process, but can be minimized by controlling the chemical composition and cooling rate. This work was developed with the primary purpose to make a preliminary study on the influence of aging heat treatment on the microstructure of a super duplex stainless steel to identify acceptable condition machinability of this material. The methodology used was the performance of heat treatments in the range 600°C to 1270 ° C, at intervals of 30°C to 30°C, starting from a structure solubilized. The results showed temperatures for the initiation of the sigma phase´s precipitation starts is the range of aging heat treatment from 800 ° C to 970 ° C. This range is the most critical, being observed through SEM micrographs, a large concentration of sigma phase and therefore the greater the peak hardness.

2013-36-0567 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Resumo: The aim of this paper is to introduce a concept of digital dashboard tailored to the user`s profile, using the data available in the automotive CAN communication network. With application of data communication networks in automotive electronics systems, all information and important data are available in digital format, it makes easier the data acquisition and provides the development of new conception inside the vehicle. The conception of this project is to provide greater convenience and user interactivity with the instrument panel, for the development of a vehicle is made ​​with assumptions as to satisfy the a great number of customers, and one of the relevant most factors to consumers are design, it is considered that the dashboard is the second part of the vehicle observed by the client at a car dealer, the first part being the outward appearance, but it is impossible to satisfy all wishes.

2013-36-0569 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Key Aspects of Electronics Automotive Components Testing
Resumo: Electronics components are estimated to be between 9 to 15 % of a total vehicle cost, and this trend will remain strong for the next years. The amount of electronics content in a vehicle has grown steadily since 1970’s, and as a result, development challenges such as testing and validation are a key aspect of its overall development costs. Testing costs can amount easily to US$ 500,000.00 in a medium complex automotive part of a vehicle (e.g. instrument cluster) depending on a specific OEM customer demand, and this on top of limited regional laboratory capacity can also lead to increased testing time. The goal of this paper is to outline key aspects of electronics in vehicle components testing, including overall costs and timing, and propose a lean approach to optimize such costs & timing. The key aspect of such optimization includes not only resources, but also laboratories and upfront OEM customer planning.  

2013-36-0570 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: on-board vehicular diagnosis system in an electronic control unit
Resumo:   Since the conception of the first automobiles, it was noted the need of the inclusion of systems that would assist the human-machine interface, such as alerting about possible engine failures. Mainly due to new imposed legislations about pollutant emissions generated by vehicles, these systems became essential to make possible the vehicle diagnosis quickly and accurately. Currently, these systems manage vehicle information, with the goal of providing the driver to check the results of the field faults detected by the diagnostic system. This study aims to develop an on-board vehicle diagnostic system in an electronic control unit that manages a 1.8 GM engine operating with alcohol, mounted on a mock-up (operating without load), developed by FATEC Santo André and Polytechnic School of USP. The ECU has an architecture composed of the blocks of management, synchronization and communication and diagnosis, each containing an exclusive microcontroller. Fundamentally this work consists in the development of the software for the communication and diagnosis block, and routines to be included in the management and synchronization blocks. These routines must obtain parameters or detect faults, and provide this information to the communication and diagnosis block. Specifically, the sync block contains Freescale interface integrated circuits that apart from command fuel injection and ignition systems, allow the obtention of parameters and fault detection related to these systems. Besides the analysis of possible faults in engine management, this diagnostic system will provide communication with vehicle diagnostic equipment via international standard communication protocol OBD-2 (On-Board Diagnostics Second Generation) ISO15765, which uses the CAN protocol as the transmission mean. With this communication is possible to perform the viewing of parameters, such as speed, temperature, lambda and especially fault codes detected by the diagnostic routines. In recent times, the engine management became very complex, making more difficult the detection and the interpretation of the faults by the maintenance professionals. The implementation of a diagnostic system is necessary for the fast fault diagnostic, especially faults related to pollutants emissions, reducing time and maintenance costs.

2013-36-0571 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass: Influence of Molecular Structures on the Exhaust Gas Emissions of Compression Ignition Engines
Resumo: Modern biofuels offer a vast potential to decrease engine out pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases produced from individual mobility. In order to deeply investigate and improve the complete path from biofuel production to combustion, the cluster of excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University in 2007. Since then, a large variety of fuel candidates have been investigated. In particular, oxygenated fuels (alcohols, furans) have proven to be beneficial regarding the PM/NOx trade-off in DI diesel engines. Recently, new pathways have been discovered to synthesize octanol and di-n-butylether (DNBE). These molecules are identical in the number of included hydrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms, but differ in the molecular structure: for octanol, the oxygen atom is at the end of the molecule, whereas for DNBE it is located in the middle.In the proposed paper, the utilization of octanol and DNBE in a state-of-the-art single cylinder diesel research engine will be discussed. The major interest has been on engine emissions (NOx, PM, HC, CO, noise) compared to conventional diesel fuel. Due to the oxygen content of both fuels, the PM/NOx trade-off can be significantly improved in comparison to standard EN590 diesel. In contrast to that, due to the longer ignition delay of octanol, HC- and CO-emissions are increased compared to DNBE. Also, with DNBE the PM-emissions were of the same magnitude as for octanol, even though the share of diffusive combustion is significantly increased.To gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, both fuels have been characterized at engine relevant boundary conditions inside the continuously scavenged high-pressure chamber test bench at RWTH Aachen University. The applied measurement technique is a simultaneous application of high-speed shadowgraphy and OH* chemiluminescence. Therefore, this measurement technique provides information about the mixture formation, physiochemical ignition delay, lift-off length and flame propagation. In case of sooting combustion, the corresponding luminosity adds to the shadowgraphic signal. Therefore, the integration of intensities allows the qualitative determination of soot formation tendencies of the investigated fuel at the given boundary conditions.The results show that the soot radiation for both fuels is very similar, independent of the boundary conditions in the chamber. However, DNBE provides a significantly decreased ignition delay and lift-off in comparison to octanol. Due to the fact that the molecular carbon-oxygen bond is more stable than a carbon-carbon bond, it is believed that the central oxygen position of DNBE decreases the size of hydrocarbon fragments exiting the premixed reaction zone and therefore initial soot formation tendency.To provide deeper insight into the particular spray and mixture formation processes of the investigated fuels, numerical simulations of the spray vessel experiments are undertaken. The physical properties of DNBE and octanol are integrated into the data base of an in-house CFD code available at the Institute for Combustion Technology. Spray simulations show good agreement to experimental data concerning liquid and gaseous penetration length and spray cone angle. The numerical results allow for closer analysis of the fuel mixture fraction at the experimentally observed ignition location and thus help to explain the differences in the ignition and the similar sooting behavior.

2013-36-0573 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: The influence of alumina resulting from the aluminum oxidation on the obstruction of coolant galleries of a diesel engine
Resumo: This paper describes a case study on a Diesel cycle engine, off road application, in which was evidenced that the presence of alumina on the coolant, generated by the aluminum oxidation in an alkaline environment, has contributed for the failure of the engine due to obstructions on the coolant galleries, increasing the temperature of the coolant as consequence. To validate this diagnosis, some chemical analyses were done using an optical spectrometer. The results have indicated a high number of pH on the coolant and absence of agents that controls the pH factor on the liquid, which have directly contributed for the degradation of the aluminum present in some parts on the engine coolant gallery.

2013-36-0576 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Resumo: In recent years it’s noticed a considerable growth in vehicles sales, resulting a great gas emissions volume increase and consequently a higher environment impact. Currently Brazilian automotive scenario faces a moment which government and market requires energetic efficiency increase, on the other hand it’s challenges the OEM’s to develop lighter cars, providing thereby an “environmentally friendly” vehicle. Considering this scenario, natural fibers application in automotive parts has a great contribution, because in a large parts variety it application is possible. This application studies has contributed and earned great highlight in sustainability terms.   Natural fibers provides great environmental benefits because it’s renewable, biodegradable and require  low energy consumption in it manufacturing process, further it’s lighter than fiberglass and others conventional fibers. This paper will address the natural fibers importance using in the automotive parts production process, such as plastic and acoustic insulation parts, as the instrument panel, door panel, headliners etc. Some beneficial characteristic for it use is the total recycling parts possibility, noise reduction, mass reduction, which provides a lighter car, efficiently and with lower fuel consumption, besides encouraging sustainable social programs creation in cultivation this kind of vegetations. The gain for the final consumer and the benefits granted by the government with the INOVAR-AUTO justify using these fibers, since it helps OEM’s in achieving challenging metrics proposed by the program. Keywords: Natural Fibers; Sustainability; Inovar-Auto

2013-36-0580 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Resumo:   The obtaining of thin films of titanium, through physical deposition techniques, it is shown as a recurring research topic in the scientific community. The intrinsic mechanisms associated with quantum processes of these materials are justifications for their specific applications. The structural analysis of thin films it reveals of significant importance due to the fact of the presence of discontinuities, for example, that influence the electrical impedance presented by the coating. The present work refers to the comparative study of procedures, and the design of devices, which induce the formation of random discontinuities in thin films of titanium. Such discontinuities are generated by different techniques, in order to promote changes in surface properties, for example, the value of electrical resistivity of these coatings.

2013-36-0581 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Manufatura
Título do Paper: Continued study of the pinpoint injection gate with the aid of computer injection simulation
Resumo:   In injection molds, the most common type of injection gate is the pinpoint gate. As many authors in the field of injection mold design diverge on the recommended dimensions for the pinpoint gate, the idea behind this study is to guide future mold projects for the better gate dimensions for each shape of the part to be made. Following previous studies about the pinpoint injection gate, this new study was conducted to broaden the applicability of the results. The first study was based on a flat, rectangular piece. Now, for different sets of results and to be able to apply them for a different shape of injected part, a rectangular box was used for the simulation. As with the first study, the objective is to analyze the results and to recommend the best gate dimensioning for the new shape, based on the performance of each dimension simulated. At the end of the study, a reference chart will be presented with the gate dimensions that were the most efficient in the computer simulation for each type of part, to aid in the project of future injection molds. 

2013-36-0585 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Manufatura
Título do Paper: Texturing with Different Kinds of Lasers for Industry
Resumo: Tribological properties in two sliding surfaces can be improved by creation of micro cavities, or dimples, in one of the two surfaces. Laser can generate dimples with higher repeatability rate than machining process. However, higher precision and efficiency are not reached in the same time by any laser. Nanosecond laser allows high ablation rates but is noted the formation of the burr around the dimple and creating of bigger heat- affected zone (HAZ). Picoseconds and femtoseconds lasers also called of ultrashort lasers pulse create dimples almost without burrs and with smaller HAZ. Although ultrashort lasers pulses are better than short lasers pulses, the time to create thousands of dimples is longer. In the industry, quality and time are fundamentals parameters. Then, it is necessary to evaluate the better laser for your application. This paper shows the mechanism of each kind of laser with the matter to explain how the quality and the process time of the dimple is affected by kind of laser.

2013-36-0590 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Methodology for automotive crankshaft design using analytical and flexible models
Resumo: The crankshaft is one of the most important moving components of an internal combustion engine. It is responsible for transforming the oscillating piston movement into rotating movement by the connecting rods. During engine running, the crankshaft is submitted to axial, bending and torsional loads, which results in high stressed regions on the component. Due to the phased cylinder combustions, the crankshaft has high levels of torsion loads and the excessive torsional vibration is one of the main causes of failures in crankshafts and engine accessories, as pulleys, belts and gears. This paper presents an analytical method for previewing the crankshaft stresses by considering the component as a circular beam, applying the radial and the torsional loads on the crankpins and supporting at the main bearing positions. The loads are applied on the beam model and the stresses are calculated by integrating the static equilibrium equations for the hyperstatic models for bending and torsion load cases. For an existing crankshaft model calculations, the input data can be extracted from CAD models (mass properties) and from simple CAE or analytical analyses (stiffness parameters). The input combustion and inertial loads, radial forces and torque, are calculated by Newton-Euler method and the torsional vibration torques are determined in the frequency domain by using the Fourier transformation, convolution integral and the state equations. Moreover, a simple method for best torsional damper parameters estimation was implemented, in order to reduce the vibration amplitudes. Torsional dampers are used in order to reduce the crankshaft torsional vibration amplitudes. Two types of dampers were implemented in the methodology proposed: tuned rubber damper and unturned viscous damper. Basically, the torsional damper is an additional inertia introduced in the system at the front end of the crankshaft. The main difference between both types is the fact that in the viscous damper, there is no stiffness between the damper ring and the damper hub, but only damping provided by the viscous fluid, commonly a silicone fluid with high viscosity. In this case, no further natural frequency is added in the system. In the other hand, the tuned damper have the stiffness and the damping parameters provided by the rubber ring, which is placed between the damper hub and the damper inertia ring. An additional natural frequency appears in the system (lower than the first mode frequency of the original system) with lower vibration amplitude. In the proposed methodology, the calculations are performed for the entire engine cycle (two crankshaft revolutions) and for the critical engine operation conditions: maximum torque, maximum power and maximum speed. The critical crankangle is identified for each operation condition and the fatigue safety factor is estimated based on Goodman criteria. The analytical method was validated by CAE simulation with a flexible crankshaft body and with experimental modal analysis with an in-line six cylinder Diesel engine case study. The results are correlated which suggests that the proposed beam methodology is a useful tool for initial crankshaft design.

2013-36-0595 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Structural optimization of a diesel engine crankshaft
Resumo: The objective of this study was to perform a structural optimization of a 6 cylinder diesel engine - truck application - forged crankshaft, specifically in the web region of the webs with counterweights. The crankshaft is an engine component which suffers bending and torsion loads. The crankshaft must last the entire life of the engine and therefore, it has to have good results in fatigue life. For this study, a shape optimization was performed in a crankshaft throw in the web region of the web with counterweight using static analysis (torsion with fixed bearings) boundary condition. This region was optimized because previous results of the dynamic flexible analysis of the crankshaft under engine operation indicated a low fatigue safety factor value. The interpretation of the shape optimization results resulted in a slightly modified geometry of the crankshaft, with the mass of the crankshaft throw only 0.5% higher than the original model.    The fatigue safety factor evaluation was performed for both reference and optimized crankshafts as a comparison criterion. The same boundary condition used in the shape optimization was employed in the fatigue factor evaluation. The optimized crankshaft throw showed a 35% increase of the safety factor value for the back region of the web and a 28% increase in the front region of the web. Dynamic flexible analysis results also show a good result in terms of safety factor increase. Therefore, the optimization of the web region allowed the change of the crankshaft material from the 42CrMo4 to a SAE1548 material, which is a much worse material in terms of mechanical properties, including fatigue limits, without any prejudice in the safety factor results.

2013-36-0602 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Safety system for engine testing on dynamometer
Resumo: In the development of an engine management system is essential to use a dynamometer in order to simulate different situations of engine working arrangements, exposing to critical conditions which could damage it. Knowing these risk conditions, the dynamometer controlling and software configurations have protection alarms which check the engine parameters in order to stop the system when limits are exceeded. So it’s possible to ensure the prototype integrity. However, some systems do not have a quick answer to work in high-frequency events, such as detecting high pressure values ​​in the combustion chamber and cut the fuel injection supply, before one cycle of operation. If this event occurs, the prototype could be destroyed no longer than a few seconds. This paper aims to propose a low cost, intelligent safety device which can turn off the fuel injection valve when a pressure peak is identified, acting directly on the valve before the explosion occurs in the next cylinder. This device has a logic circuit and a switching relay that allow a quick answer, smaller than one engine cycle. Thus it is possible to ensure no combustion in the next chamber, preserving the engine.

2013-36-0603 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Título do Paper: Laminated Composite of Sisal and Curaua Fibers to Different Settings for Use in Bumper Cars
Resumo: The use of composite materials reinforced with natural fibers has been widely studied in recents researchs seen the availability of feedstock and mainly because the productions facility, low cost and because they are biodegradable. The applications of composite materials reinforced with natural fibers have certain constraints, the fact to be organic and because they have low mechanical strength depending on the arrangement and fibers distribution. This work intendes to present some experimental results of mechanical tensile properties of composite materials of different arrangements and distribution of natural fibers and compare them with the bumper commercially available on the marketplace. The tensile properties such as tensile strength and elongation are parameters of great interest as characteristic compared to materials for applications and in this case, the bumper of the car. For manufacturing the composite material will be used as matrix a resin of polyester type found in the commercial marketplace. The reinforcement to be used will be curauá, sisal and jute fibers. The arrangement and distribution of the fibers will be those that enable better tensile properties associated with large stretches. Samples of the bumper commercially found will be obtained and tested as a source of comparison of composite materials to be searched. Samples for microstructural characterization also will be obtained from all composites studied. At the end of the research, will be done a compare the results of different composites and the bumper materials.

2013-36-0605 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Experimental analysis of turbocharger maximum speed using different materials for the compressor impeller
Resumo: Modern diesel engines for vehicular applications such as buses and other commercial vehicles are increasingly using technological resources in order to meet the pollutant emissions regulations. Among these features, the turbocharger fulfills an essential function of providing a higher air flow to the engine intake, providing a cleaner and more efficient combustion. During the application process of a turbocharger, calculations are performed to estimate the life of the compressor impeller, which takes into account the maximum shaft speed and the number of cycles that cause fatigue damage. Among these parameters, the maximum speed affects directly in the fatigue life of the impeller. Due to the different material options for the compressor impeller, the mass properties of each type of rotor may result in differences in their inertias thus impacting the maximum speed and the fatigue life calculation. The objective of this study is to provide a comparison of inertias for two choices of materials and check the maximum speed behavior with the variation of altitude during experimental tests. The experimental data were gathered in a delivery truck with a GVW of 8 tons, equipped with 4-cylinder engine, while traveling on a route from Guarulhos (ca. 650m alt.) up to Campos de Jordao (ca. 1700m alt.) in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

2013-36-0606 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Response time evaluation of thermocouples type K used on exhaust systems of automobile engines
Resumo: The use of thermocouple and thermo resistance for monitoring vehicle engines is very common. We cannot talk about vehicular engine management system without mentioning those sensors, which are responsible for measure the temperature variation that occurs in the system, since an electronic circuit of a control unit to the engine cooling water. The quick thermocouple response is one reason to use those sensors during the development of the engine management system. Therefore, there are several variations of the thermocouple construction to meet the measurement specifications. One is the rod type, widely used in the exhaust system of the vehicle, allowing to measure high temperatures without damaging the sensor. The choice of rod length and diameter is critical in determining the sensor useful life, but is even more important to know the influence of this metallic cover on the thermocouple response time. The propose of this paper is to evaluate the response time of thermocouple type K with 3.0 mm and 1.5 mm diameter rod, especially when subjected to abrupt temperature changes.

2013-36-0607 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Low Cost Electronic Air Conditioning System for Improved Fuel Economy
Resumo:   The Brazilian automotive market is growing, vehicle sales ranked in the 4th. global position only behind China, United States and Japan; more than 40% of Brazilian production are entry level vehicles. The use of air conditioning systems in those basic vehicles are increasing due to being also considered as a safety device, besides its original thermal comfort function. Since 2008 a partnership between Inmetro, CONPET and Petrobras established the adoption of an “energy seal” ranking of vehicles in respect to their fuel consumption; the newly introduced tax regime: Inovar-Auto establishes less taxation to more efficient vehicles. This and other environmental concerns are demanding the reduction of CO2 emissions. Due to cost restrictions, the A/C systems installed in those vehicles, in most of the cases, are very simple and inefficient. In order to reduce fuel consumption electronic controlled A/C systems where developed but its cost is higher than the simple systems because their construction are more complex and they use a separated A/C control module. In this paper we describe the concept of a simplified electronic A/C system, with fewer changes to the compressor, and some parts delete, that is controlled by the existing Engine Control Module via a minimalist interface and control panel, obviating the need of a dedicated A/C control module.

2013-36-0609 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Common Rail Load Profile Validation Changes, Derived from the Effects of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application
Resumo: With the introduction of hybrid electric vehicles, the load profile used to evaluate common rail system components regarding lifetime, must be redefined. This redefinition is necessary as consequence of the diesel engine number of starts, which is increased due to shared working cycle between diesel engine and electric motor. This load profile is mandatory in order to validate the common rail system components regarding lifetime for all application, conventional vehicle or hybrid. This new requirement, engine start numbers, places the hybrid electric vehicle as worst case load cycle, when compared with already known commercial vehicles cycle. The main objective of this paper is present the representative differences between both load cycles, more focused on hybrid. It will also give focus on additional common rail system requirements when applied for hybrid electric vehicles, an overview regarding the instrumentation for the load profile measurement and the hybrid vehicle measurement acquisition particularities.

2013-36-0614 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Analysis of the influence of the parameters of the HVAC system on fuel consumption and performance of vehicles with low volumetric capacity engines and developing an evaluation methodology for compressors
Resumo: At 2011, Brazil raise to the fourth car market in the world, producing nearly 2.6 million units,   with 45% of this amount are vehicles with low volumetric capacity engine . The main characteristics of these low volumetric capacity cars are their low fuel consumption and cost, making them the most attractive to the costumers. Moreover, with less consumption such vehicles contribute to decrease CO2 and other pollutants emission into the atmosphere. However, nowadays Brazilian costumers profile are changing to acquire cars with many accessories as air conditioning system and power steering, even in low cost vehicles. The HVAC system represents a great influence in driving comfort due to the climatic conditions of the country. The compressor of the HVAC system is one of the main components, which is coupled directly to the engine and takes it’s power to achieve the thermal performance goal inside the cabin. In addition to the thermal comfort, customers demand dynamic performance and low consumption using or not the HVAC system. This paper intends to analyze the air conditioning systems parameters influence on the vehicle performance through the compressor power absorbed curves from engine, quality profile tests and  fuel consumption measurements, combined with thermal comfort evaluations. As result of this paper, it was developed a compressor evaluating methodology interacting  thermal comfort, dynamic performance and fuel consumption of the vehicle. It can be used to evaluate and select al the HVAC system components to fix on the new requirements of the market, increasing the costumers satisfaction.

2013-36-0617 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Manufatura
Título do Paper: Designing a Lightweight Drum Brake Component Using FEM and Metal Forming Competences
Resumo: The automotive industry seeks for lighter components in every new project. Due to strict regulations in CO2 emission and fuel consumption, design engineers are always dealing with huge challenges to manage weight reduction without structural damage for the application and manufacturing processes improvements. The drum brake system is commonly used in compact cars. This system uses two pins and two flat plates to fasten the brake shoe in the drum. A new geometry of anchor pins may contribute to achieve targets as weight reduction, enhance the structural performance and also bring benefits for the manufacturing processes. This work presents a new design of a lightweight drum brake anchor pin, which may contribute around 20 % mass reduction through structural, fatigue and metal forming process simulation.

2013-36-0621 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: balancing of Lightweight crankshaft and its performance under virtual engine operation
Resumo:     Nowadays, the new emission regulations and customer requirements such as low level of fuel consumption, mass reduction, NVH - noise, vibration and harshness are pushing the product development to the limit. Thus, engine balancing become a vital aspect during the engine development cycle.   The crankshaft balancing plays an important role in the engine vibration. As a consequence, the balancing criterion may be correctly applied in order to improve the engine performance.   This work shows an inline-four cylinder crankshaft static balanced and its performance under virtual engine operation. Not only is the static balancing discussed, but also some dynamics parameters.   Moreover, in order to have a lightweight crankshaft, a sensitivity study was performed to understand the influence of counterweights reduction.

2013-36-0622 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Corrosion on electric fuel pump housing at durability test in test bench
Resumo: For lifetime verification in automotive components it is necessary to simulate their operation in test benches that reproduce the conditions of vehicular application, according to the boundary conditions defined in the project. In durability tests of electric fuel pumps for Otto cycle engines, test benches are often used comprised of fuel tanks made ​​of stainless steel provided with a fuel temperature control system. They also have a hydraulic system that allows simulating the fuel circulation loop of the vehicle consisting of fuel filter and fuel pressure regulator. Moreover, they are also equipped with flow meters and fuel pressure for monitoring the test. It has been observed in test bench durabilities that fuel pumps of Flex Fuel type are likely to present high levels of corrosion on their outer housing, even higher than expected after this kind of test. However this behavior has not been found in automotive vehicles under real conditions of use and after a long period of running, suggesting that the problem lies in the operational conditions of the test bench itself. This paper aims to study the cause of this phenomenon, associated with the ground difference between the bench and the tank of the vehicle, describe it from a theoretical perspective and propose modifications to the settings that best simulate the test vehicle conditions, leading to more reliable results at the end of the test.

2013-36-0625 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: Fuel Pump Module noise optimization through design of experiments
Resumo: The automotive components NVH levels are increasingly restricted due the improvement search to reduce the overall noise. Generally, the noise is just detected in advance phases of the projects and consequently the reaction time is restricted. For the Fuel Pump Module, there is no validated simulation to prevent the noise behavior before samples manufacturing. The result of this scenario is a late assessment of noise in bench and / or vehicles. In certain Fuel Pump Module application, was detected an excessive noise level in high frequency range in bench test. Knowing that the time is one of the main restrictions for automotive projects and the noise failure mode is different comparing with other applications, it was required to develop an optimized noise improvement performance. This paper aims to describe a noise evaluation methodology based on Design of Experiments.

2013-36-0631 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Materiais
Resumo: Electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials (MARE) are employed in various scientific applications, industrial and military to control and minimize interference problems and electromagnetic compatibility of electronic equipment and systems. Recent studies show that thin films of metal present as MARE efficient and can be used in applications requiring absorbing materials with low thickness and density. One of thin films studied for this type of application is titanium dioxide (TiO2), mainly due to their different characteristics, presenting as a semiconductor with high electron mobility, excellent thermal stability and mechanical strength and chemical attacks properties as optical transparency and high refractive indices. In this study were investigated the properties of absorption of electromagnetic radiation of TiO2 thin films synthesized by the process of physical vapor deposition with a sputtering process. It appears from the results that the absorption provided by these coatings is dependent upon the thickness, of the order of nanometers, and the stoichiometry of the compound, in other words, the percentage of oxygen present in the film.

2013-36-0633 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Motores
Título do Paper: Optimization methods applied to automotive connecting rod mechanical design
Resumo: Nowadays the mechanical design of automotive connecting rods is essentially guided by analytic calculations followed by finite element analyses to assess the stresses, displacements, contact pressures, fatigue and buckling. The present work, apply an alternative methodology based on the method of topology optimization to design the connecting rod with the objective of reducing mass. Two connecting rod designs were developed using two different methodologies, in which the methodology considering the topology optimization generated a lighter connecting rod when compared with the conventional design obtained from the current design methodology. Keywords: connecting, rod, mechanical, design, topology, optimization

2013-36-0635 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Resumo: The case study presented in this article, refers to modeling and control of an electronic throttle valve used in internal combustion engines. With the transition of commercial vehicles with mechanical control systems with embedded electronics, the traditional method of a throttle valve actuation via mechanical traction is replaced by a control system servo assisted electronically. This allows modern control facilities, as for the previous system exclusively dependent on the sensitivity of the driver. Thus is optimized fuel consumption and torque control among other facilities. The throttle has particular characteristics that are necessary to control its operation, as forces of friction and force return spring, which makes its precise positioning control, a delicate task. In view of these difficulties the resulting model valve has nonlinear characteristics of great influence in his response. For a proper control of position is necessary to determine the transfer function of the system as well as its mathematical model. Used hardware with PIC16F877A microcontroller and a bridge of H Freescale MCP33926 drive as the system drive. This gives a practical model for the implementation of some signals as excitation input and position as the resulting output signal, in order to meet the parameters of the transfer function of the system. All signals are acquired with hardware and software from NI (National Instruments) and LabView DAQ 6009 respectively, and graphic responses compiled by MatLab. Thus, setting up the final model of the throttle. This model is validated with a comparison between the desired position of the valve system in real and theoretical values ​​obtained from computer simulation. Ends with the implementation of a controller to compensate for nonlinearities throttle and optimize its performance. Defined and validated the model with controller, this is applied to the test platform throttle.Defined and validated the model with controller, this is applied to the test platform throttle. Key-words: Identification Systems, Engine Management, Electronic Throttle Control.

2013-36-0636 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: Estimation of dynamic parameters of ground vehicles based on Genetic Algorithms
Resumo: In cars, optimizing their performance and improving their stability are of vital importance to manufacturers because of the highly competitive automotive market. These improvements could be achieved by developing analytical techniques for modeling the dynamic behavior of the car under certain conditions. They allow the vehicle to undergo various situations, which if were made with actual vehicles, would be expensive and require extreme or even impossible maneuvers. Certain dynamic parameters of the vehicle are required for them to model the real behavior of this system with an accurate precision. These parameters must be obtained from the real system by a data acquisition system or specialized tests. Some parameters, such as moments of inertia, center of gravity location and the rigidity and damping coefficients of the suspension system and tires cannot be measured directly by the sensors, and also change its properties during the time and with different settings in which the vehicle works. Given this scenario, it is evident the importance of developing a method for the estimation of dynamic parameters of the vehicle. In this paper, we develop an estimation method based on Genetic Algorithms (GA). The estimation algorithm will minimize a cost function defined as the difference between a particular mathematical model output and the reference obtained from a commercial dynamic simulator. This simulator, CarSim, is referenced by our actual behavior, in other words, the measurements obtained in this simulator will be considered as obtained from an actual system data acquisition mounted in the vehicle. The outputs of the model evolved with each generation, making the cost function approximate to zero, according to the estimation of the parameters of the vehicle made by the algorithm. The modeling of the dynamics of 15 degrees of freedom (DOF) of the vehicle has been developed in MATLAB and the estimated parameters were compared with the reference parameters of the simulator CarSim. The estimation method shown in this paper has advantages with respect to other classical estimation methods.  

2013-36-0639 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Resumo: The realization of modern systems subjected to automatic control, such as aircraft, automobiles, satellites, rocket launchers, cargo and military ships, and so forth; increasingly assume, within its very set of requirements, the task of providing better dependability, i.e.: safety, reliability, and availability altogether. Towards this fact, fault-tolerant control greatly contributes to meet such growing demand of dependability, by its ability of recognizing the occurrence of potentially hazardous/hazardous faults within the overall (closed-loop) system, and by taking remedial action whenever necessary/mandatory. The process of fault tolerance can be segregated into two fundamental steps: (1) that of fault diagnosis, comprising fault detection-isolation-identification, and, (2) control adjustment/reconfiguration. This paper focuses on the second step, of control adjustment/reconfiguration. Firstly, the problem of fault tolerant control is put, and the importance of proper fault detection-isolation-identification is briefly explained. Secondly, a systematic, but non-exhaustive, overview of methods available is performed, to set ground for potential uses in aerospace and/or automotive applications, and, to clarify the limitations the studied approaches might present. Thirdly, it is then expected to show: 1) an early assessment of available concepts & methods for control reconfiguration as (partial) means for fault tolerance, and 2) the review presented here shall alow a set of conclusions, so future work, either practical implementation or future research, can be properly addressed.a set of conclusions is presented, so future work, either practical implementation or future research, can be properly addressed.

2013-36-0640 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Ensaios
Título do Paper: A study on the influence of geometry and material of the interface element used in a shock machine for generation of mechanical acceleration pulses for accelerometer calibration
Resumo: The reliability of measurement results depends on several factors such as well-established methods, trained technicians and adequate instrumentation. Besides the correct choice of instruments for a specific measurement, they must be calibrated to ensure traceability to the quantities of the International System of Units (SI). The Vibration Laboratory of Inmetro (Lavib) is responsible for the traceability to acceleration unit by the calibration of vibration transducers, accelerometers in particular, according to the requirements of the international standards. A mechanical shock machine, which uses air-bearings and pneumatic excitation, has been built at Lavib to accelerometer primary calibration specifically under mechanical shock. The apparatus is capable to generate acceleration pulses based on the movement of two rigid cylinders, named hammer and anvil, in according to the international standard ISO 16063-13. The hammer is pushed by the pneumatic cylinder to strike against the anvil to which the accelerometer is fixed on. The shock generates the acceleration of the anvil and the accelerometer whose output signal is recorded. An interferometric system is responsible for measuring the motion and giving the reference acceleration pulse for the accelerometer sensitivity calculation. An interface element is mounted on the end of the hammer to provide an appropriate shock pattern. The geometry and material of this element interfere directly on the pulse shape. A study about this influence and the generated pulse types is presented in this work, by applying two materials and interface element shapes. Nylon and polyurethane were utilized on flat cylindrical pads and on ones with a semispherical form face.

2013-36-0641 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Eletro-Eletrônica e Eletrônica Embracarda
Título do Paper: Evolution of a Development Set to Control Internal Combustion Engines
Resumo: This study aimed to develop an electronic management unit of an internal combustion engine in order to control, initially at idling speed, a 2.0 4-cylinder Volkswagen engine operated with gasoline, fitted in a Polo vehicle. The motivation for this paper stems initially from the strong growth in vehicle production in Brazil over the last decade, surpassing the 3 million vehicles / year. In this scenario body engineering has increased significantly, but when compared with other countries producing vehicles, we conclude that our engineering is below the desired level considering the number of produced vehicles. This situation is more adverse if we make this analysis focused only on the area of ​​automotive electronics. In this context the Polytechnic School of USP and FATEC Santo André invested efforts in developing an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an internal combustion engine, aiming to contribute to the training of human resources in this area and create a platform for developing new technologic solutions. The development of this electronic management unit that was initially tested in a GM 1.8 engine, without charge, set in a steel structure, getting pretty good initial results, where it was possible to control the motor systems: cold and warm start, warming, idling, acceleration (without load) and deceleration. However, to be an evolution of this platform and make it more reliable it was necessary a migration for a vehicle where they could test it under real conditions of the engine operation. The process of evolution of this platform is composed of three steps: building an interface between the engine control unit (ECU) and sensing components (eg engine speed sensor) and actuators (eg injector valves), adapting the hardware and software already developed and tested in the mockup and the development of new hardware with additional control strategies. Therefore the aim of this work is to describe the entire evolutionary process of a platform developed for controlling internal combustion engines, showing and explaining the operation of hardware and software strategies that were developed to reach this goal. The intersection of the wires of the ECU was performed using one printed circuit board enabling signals to be displayed and / or replaced. The adaptation of the hardware and software was needed so that when applied to the motor of the Polo, the platform had a behavior similar to the results obtained in the mockup, so that some control parameters and some tables that depended on the mechanic timing of the engine changed. To contribute to the development of this platform, a new hardware was developed with a decentralized control architecture composed of four blocks (each a microcontroller), respectively: management, responsible for monitoring sensors and generating control parameters, timing, responsible for receiving parameters sent by the management and generate command signals of the injection system and engine ignition synchronized with the phonic wheel signal, throttle control, responsible for fully control its angular position, and communication / diagnosis, responsible for communicating with the external environment through the CAN network to facilitate the diagnosis, however this last block is part of another project and is not the focus of this work.

2013-36-0643 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Suspensão
Título do Paper: Application of Finite Element Method in the Study of Variables that Influence the Stiffness of the Anti-Roll Bar and the Body Roll
Resumo:     In the development of new vehicles the auto industry search the constant incorporation of tools that assist in achieving better performance and handling characteristics. These characteristics of the vehicle must meet the requirements for safety, increasingly required by regulatory agencies. But that is not all that is assessed by the consumer, which every day becomes more demanding in seeking products they can align design, price and comfort. The stabilizer bar is one of the components present in different suspension systems. The stabilizer bars allow to minimize the inclination of the vehicle during cornering, or any kind of maneuver that generates lateral effort, gaining adhesion, but not eliminating the possibility of slippage. The stabilizer bar resists twisting inclination by acting as a torsion bar. The slope, and even overturning vehicle generally occurs in curves with large lateral forces, which can be more dangerous if the rolling rigidity is low. Currently there are anti-rollover electronic systems, which have a great capacity to control with quick answers. These systems provide more safety to the vehicles, but with a price still high. The stabilizer bar, in turn, provides increased stiffness of the suspension roll without a controller as good as the electronic systems, but with costs much lower. The main objective of this work is to study the main variables that influence the spring constant of a torsion bar, which consequently influences the charge transfer between the wheels of the axle, while on a curve, and body roll. The study was based on the application of the stabilizer bar in an off-road vehicle, analysing the influence the position of the bearings where the bar is fixed, the length and position of attachment to the suspension arm. It was varied the internal and external diameter of the bar while maintaining the area section, and consider other geometries that offer a satisfatory ratio between rigidity and weight. To determine the roll angle of the body by the action of centrifugal force, it was considered the condition of equilibrium between the moments of force acting on the suspended mass and unsprung and moments of reaction of the springs and stabilizers used in the suspensions.

2013-36-0644 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Veículos
Título do Paper: Evaluation of the driver comfort in a vehicle model with 7 degrees of freedom
Resumo:   This paper involves the application of an analytical model of a vehicle with 9 degrees of freedom, verifying the influence of suspension, the tire/wheel and sprung mass on the dynamic behavior of the vehicle as a whole. For this will be necessary to vary constants values of spring constant and tire stiffness, the damping coefficient and mass of the wheel and sprung mass. To find an optimal value that minimizes the discomfort of the driver it will be applied an optimization algorithm.     Keywords: Vehicle Model, 9 degrees of freedom, dynamic behavior, Algorithm optimization

2013-36-0646 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Título do Paper: Study of the submarine injection gate with the aid of computer injection simulation
Resumo: Injection is one of the most used methods on plastic molding. The development of the mold is a very important procedure and requires time before the product is injected. An injection mold has a main runner, a secondary runner and the injection gate. The submarine gate is widely used, for allowing the automatic parting of the injected product from the runner system at the time the mold is opened. By literature reviewing, it can be noticed that the authors do not have accordance relative to the diameter dimensions of the secondary runner and the injection gate. This research’s objective is to analyze and compile the best indicated values, with the aid of CAE tool, to submarine gates, for them to be used as reference for future studies

2013-36-0648 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Emissões
Título do Paper: Impact of Rotation on the Minimum CO2 Emissions by Automotive Vehicles Flex
Resumo: The sector of mobility, transport in general, today consumes approximately 30% of all the energy available in Brazil and has considerable importance on most other countries. The emission of pollutants from vehicle represents one of the most important causes of deterioration in air quality that has intensified due to urban sprawl, coupled with the rapid increase in the number of motor vehicles, making it necessary to adopt tools that assist in management control of its effects on the environment and population. Several institutes have been engaged in ongoing studies on global climate change, producing several scenarios for emissions of greenhouse gases inducers. The scenarios are based on estimates of population growth, economic growth, mix of energy sources and emission controls that could be implemented. Among the greenhouse gases stands out carbon dioxide, CO2, in large part from the burning of fossil fuels used in primary means of urban transport, automotive vehicles. This study aims to show the degree of pollution by greenhouse gases, CO2, generated by the operation, on condition of minimum of Flex vehicles, measuring the direct relationship of the variation of rotation in minimum, with increased fuel consumption and thereby increasing the concentration of CO2 produced by the motor.

2013-36-0650 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Aeroespacial
Título do Paper: Refinements of the Kalman Estimates for the Position and Velocity of a Vehicle Obtained with GPS Using Inertial Navigation System`s Measurements: A Comparative Analysis
Resumo: Currently, the use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems-GNSS has been widely disseminated for the most different applications, from the aeronautical navigation to the car traffic, being the Global Positioning System-GPS the most used system for such objectives. New applications have presented challenges in terms of the main requirements associated to such systems, namely: precision, reliability, availability, continuity and integrity. Some proposed solutions, such as satellite or ground-based augmentation systems, depend of signals provided by the GPS satellite constellation. It constitutes a limitation for using such systems for position and velocity estimations. On other hand, Inertial Navigation Systems-INS, being independent of external signals, have a big potential to be applied on these circumstances; furthermore, they present characteristics that may be considered complementary to the GNSS. In this work we study refinements of the Kalman estimates for the position and velocity of a vehicle obtained with GPS using Inertial Navigation System`s measurements. For that, we: 1- perform simulation of a vehicle movement using position and velocity estimates obtained from a GNSS constellation; 2- perform the simulation of a vehicle movement using accelerometer data being updated with measurements obtained from a GNSS constellation by a Kalman Filter, with uncertainties from the accelerometers and GNSS data modeled as stochastic Gaussian processes; and 3- compare the results of the simulation, discussing the possible advantages and disadvantages of the application of GNSS-INS integration techniques. We expect to show: 1- the difficulties to tuning the Kalman Filter to obtain a behavior of convergence; 2- the limitations of using GPS data without integration for Navigation; and 3- the use of accelerometer data integrated to GPS contributes for the improvement of position and velocity estimates for onboard navigation systems.

2013-36-0651 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Segurança e Ergonomia
Resumo: The paper describes the development of an Embedded Software System capable of taking control of a vehicle, in order to avoid car accidents with static objects. The Fuzzy Control Logic will be used by the students to achieve the objectives. The results will be measured by implementing the system on a prototype, the Robotino platform, using scenario simulation. The development of an anti-collision system has major relevance and contribution to society. According to Brazil`s Health Ministry, there were 94534 hospital internment on the country in 2008. 37801 people were killed on car accidents, and 22% happened with drivers and passengers of automobiles. Once embedded on an automobile, the system can help to avoid car accidents, by acting on the car to help drivers regarding possible collisions with static objects. This paper brings an alternative approach for existing technologies like ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), still underused on cars. The paper can inspire academic projects or the Aitomotive Industry. Future papers might propose alternative approaches, or extend the scope.

2013-36-0652 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Título do Paper: Influence of Change Rotation Compressor Air Conditioning About the Fuel Consumption Engines in Flex
Resumo: The engineering advances in scientific studies, dominates and constantly optimizes the cycle of production and consumption of fuels, ranging from the extraction of oil cultivation of sugar cane, the production plants and their processes means the transport and distributing up to the cost structures and flex-fuel engines that equip today large part of vehicular fleet in big cities, mainly in the Brazilian. The mobility sector today consumes approximately 30% of all the energy available in Brazil and has great importance in most other countries. The need for components that contribute to a reduction in fuel consumption by sector mobility is imminent, especially considering a fleet of 22 million vehicles and the continental dimensions of Brazil. This is the path we must tread at the moment and we have to go through it at a rapid pace, so to keep its technological edge that has been achieved by producing vehicles increasingly economic. This paper investigates the impact on fuel consumption, when it varies compressor speed vehicular air conditioning without losing the thermal comfort of the passengers in the cabin, rated on a motor vehicle in Flex Fuel chassis dynamometer in a climatic chamber.

2013-36-0654 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Combustíveis e Lubrificantes
Resumo: The advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology incorporated in surface science have contributed greatly to the sustainable energy systems, as well as more efficient use of current fossil fuel sources, and in the short term, will have a direct impact on conversion and utilization of new energy systems . This study is a comparative chemical, polymer and ceramic additives into the lubricant oil and the importance of the phenomena occurring at the interface of tribosystems. The goal is to identify the conditions for reduction of friction by determining the wear mechanisms for each additive when under boundary lubrication regime, as well as the effects of plastic deformation and interactions at the contact surface. Recent research in micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) have drawn attention to the behavior of nanofluids, in which the nanoparticles are embedded in the surface roughness, minimizing contact and contributing to the reduction of friction and wear rate. We verified the stability of the suspensions in the presence or absence of a surfactant, both were compared to traditional additive zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) for tribological testing in four ball apparatus, and also was investigated the formation of tribofilms originating from the additives. The results showed variations in values ​​of friction and lubricants temperature in the tribological system, the wear ratio and load capacity for each sample was determined by the contact area of ​​AISI 52100 steel balls. The tests results with ceramic additive Al2O3 without surfactant showed lower friction values ​​and lube temperature, while the wear rate and load capacity, the best results were identified in the lubricant with ZnO particles modified by surfactant. The satisfactory performance of lubricants with ceramics additives indicates to be related to the size and toughness of ceramics particles as well as the adequate use of surfactant.

2013-36-0659 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Projetos
Resumo: Since 1999, SAE BRAZIL promotes annually in São José dos Campos the competition SAE BRAZIL AERODESIGN. The competition aims to promote aeronautical knowledge and encourage the spirit of teamwork. It is necessary to develop an aircraft with optimized and highly efficient structural and carrying the heaviest load possible, in addition to meeting all the requirements proposed by the regulation. The stringers have as main goals, resist bending and twisting forces caused by the forces of lift and drag. Therefore, it becomes necessary to design and build stringers more efficient, improving techniques and previous projects team "Trem ki Voa" AeroDesign of the Federal University of São João Del Rei (UFSJ). This work aimed to compare stringers type coffin wood stringer with carbon bidirectional cylindrical-conical. In designs were used Ansys ® software for simulations by element finite methods and Matlab ® for determination of loads by the method of Sherenk. Through this comparison, it is possible to prove that the stringer type is cylindrical-conical more efficient.

2013-36-0667 || Ano de publicação: 2013

Categoria: Chassis e Cabine
Título do Paper: Innovative Hill Start Assistance Device
Resumo: The requirements for a new vehicle to become a sales success go beyond the emission and safety compliances, low fuel consumption and attractive design. The market is constantly more demanding for innovative features that either solve a well-known problem or offer solution for matters that make the user’s life simpler. All conditions above must be achieved in the most economic way, since the price of the car defines its competitiveness. The hill start in manual or automated manual transmission vehicles is faced by most users as inconvenient situation. In the time interval between brake pedal releasing and gas pedal pressing, the car might roll backwards, causing an unsafe or at least uncomfortable situation. The device currently presented offers a simple solution that assists the driver in such situation, keeping the vehicle stopped while the driver releases the brake pedal and requests enough engine torque to safely start in hill condition. The simplicity of the device allows its assembly in manual, automated manual or even automatic transmission cars, with or without anti-lock brake system and it also ensures its use from the lowest to the top range of vehicles. The operation principle is based on a directional valve assembled in the brake line which is only activated when all the logic conditions are redundantly checked on a hill start situation. An accelerometer is used to identify the exact hill inclination in which is the vehicle and calculate the required engine torque for a safe start.